Skip to main content

Full text of "A history of Rockingham county, Virginia"

See other formats

G-ift of 

Lydia Priclic>,rcL liar tin 
irmstead Head Pricha.rd, Jr. 

I3etty Jacqueline 

Pri chard Ea.sper 
in jiienory of their ^^rents 

AriJistead Llead Prich^ird 

Betty PcODson Priclmrd 

West Virginia University Libraries 

3 0802 100302094 9 

^-'. .. 


Wes^ Virginia University Library 

This book is due on the date indi 
cated below. 





FEB 2 196$ 


■ r- ■ 

JUl 12 1*7^ _, ^ ^, 

JAN 2 ^ I96f S'^^-'^^T 

SEP 2 3 1969 
mn 2 5 Tt») 





n memo 






Professor of History, State Normal School, Harrisonburg, Va. ; Member 
Virginia Historical Society, American Historical Association, 
Pennsylvania-German Society, Etc.; Author of "Politi- 
cal Opinions of Thomas Jefferson," "The Ger- 
man Element of the Shenandoah Valley 
of Virginia," Etc. 




Copyright, 1912, 

Published and Sold by 


Dayton, Va. 



PART L— Chronological. 


L Geography of Rockingham County. 

IL Geological Features. 

in. First White Settlers: 1727-1738. 

IV. Rockingham as Part of Augusta: 1738-1777. 

V. The New County and the New Nation: 1777-1820. 

VI. A Growing Community: 1820-1860. 

VII. Rockingham in the Civil War: 1861-1865. 

VIII. The Days of Reconstruction: 1865-1876. 

IX. From 1876 to 1912. 

X. Rockingham To-Day. 

PART IL -Topical. 

XL Towns and Villages of Rockingham. 

XII. Roads and Railroads. 

XIII. Race Elements and Population. 

XIV. Churches and Religious Life. 

XV. Education and Schools. 

XVI. Charitable Institutions. 

XVII. Writers and Printers: Books and Periodicals. 

XVIII. Singers of Rockingham. 

XIX. Rockingham Statesmen and Jurists. 

XX. Farms and Farmers. 

XXI. Domestic Arts and Manufacturing^Enterprises. 

XXII. Banks and Banking. 

XXIII. Health Resorts. 

XXIV. Natural Curiosities. 

XXV. Hunting in the Western Mountains. 

XXVI. Boating on the Shenandoah River. 

try A y^ I ^^ * €D 

XXVII. Court Days of Long Ago. 

XXVIII. Some Interesting Incidents: 

Spotswood's Expedition of 1716 and the Uni- 
versity Pageant of 1909. 
The Coming of the Lincolns. 
Daniel Boone on Linville Creek. 
Valentine Sevier's Sale Bill. 
The Influenza of 1806-7. 
A Case of Body-Snatching. 
A Visit to Philadelphia in 1847. 
Death of Ashby: 1862. 
Stonewall Jackson at Port Republic. 
Killing of John Kline: 1864. 
Death of Meigs: 1864. 
The Thurman Movement. 
Sidney Lanier at Rockingham Springs. 
A Fence Corner Council. 



Sheriffs of Rockingham. 

County Judges and Circuit Judges. 

County Clerks rnd Circuit Clerks. 

Commonwealth's Attorneys. 

Superintendents of Schools. 

County Surveyors. 

Members of House of Delegates. 

Members of State Senate. 

Marriages in Rockingham, 1778-1720. 

Landowners in Rockingham in 1789. 

Muster Rolls of Rockingham Soldiers. 

Business and Professional Directory of Rocking- 
ham County: 1912. 

Bibliography: A list of books, magazines, and 
newspapers containing information con- 
cerning Rockingham County and Rock- 
ingham People. 



Frontispiece, The Peak 

District Map 16 

Geological Map 24 

General John Sevier ..-..- 32 

Site of First Court House 48 

Bear Lithia Spring 48 

Suter Wheat Field 48 

Steam Plow 48 

Court House of 1833 64 

Court House of 1874, two views . - - - 64 

Court House of 1896 64 

Chesapeake-Western Bridge 80 

Bridgewater Bridge ------ 80 

Confluence of the Rivers, Port Republic . - - 80 

Lethe 96 

Lincoln Homestead 96 

Miller Farm Scene 96 

Mt. CHnton 96 

State Normal School 112 

Senator John F. Lewis - 128 

Etching, 10th Va. Regt. Camp Equipment - - 138 

Battle-Flag 10th Va. Reg. 144 

Flag of Chrisman's Boy Company . - - - 144 

Flag Saved at Appomattox . . . - . 144 

Port Republic Battlefield 144 

Hon. John T. Harris 160 

Fort Lynne - 176 

Conrad's Store 176 

Funk Printing House 176 

Madison Hall .---.--- 176 

Smithland - - 176 

Old Stone Fort ------- 176 


Bowman's Mill - 176 

Bogota - - : 176 

Waterman House 192 

Chinkapin Tree 192 

Town Hall, Bridgewater ----- 192 

Farm Lands on Cook's Creek _ - - - 192 

Historical Map - - 198 

Bridgewater College - - 204 

Elkton Hotel - - - 208 

Singer's Glen -------- 208 

First Postoffice ------ - 208 

Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters - - - - 208 

View of Harrisonburg ------ 224 

Site of Salyards School (McGaheysville) - - 224 

Singers Glen High School 224 

Orphans' Home - - 224 

Old Elk Run Church - - - - . - 224 

Blosser Hatchery 224 

Henry Tutwiler - 240 

Bishop James Madison 256 

Big Spring 272 

Ashby's Monument 272 

Olden Days on Court Square ----- 272 

Asbury's Chapel 272 

Old St. Peter's Church - 272 

District Sunday School Map 280 

Bridgewater Graded and High School - - - 288 

Waterman School - - 288 

Harrisonburg High School 288 

McGaheysville Graded and High School - - - 288 

Shenandoah Collegiate Institute _ - _ _ 296 

Joseph Salyards ------- 304 

U. S. Court House and Postoffice _ - _ - 312 

Rockingham Memorial Hospital _ _ _ _ 312 

Rockingham County Almshouse - - - - 312 

Old Folks' Home 312 

Dr. Gessner Harrison 320 

Etching, Oldest Known Number Rockingham Register 336 

Title-Page Genuine Church Music - - - - 342 

Judge Daniel Smith 352 

Hon. Chas. T. O'Ferrall 358 

Judge John Paul 360 

Senator I. S. Pennybacker 368 

Hand-Woven Coverlets 384 

Rawley Springs 394 

Massanetta Springs 394 

Washington's Profile .--.-. 400 

Giant's Grave 400 

Cedar Cliff Falls - 400 

Formation in Massanutta Cave . . - - 400 

Diamond Lake, New Market Endless Caverns - 400 

Sidney Lanier Cottage - 416 

Keezletown School Building 416 

A Rockingham Orchard 416 

First Piano Brought Into Rockingham . - . 416 

Pageant, Knights of Golden Horseshoe - . - 426 

Mt. Vernon Furnace 432 

Where Meigs Fell 432 

The Falls, Bridgewater 432 

Brock's Gap - - 432 

Lincoln Graveyard ...--. 432 

Silver Lake, Dayton - 432 

Sidney Lanier 434 

particular interests and activities that have given the county 
its distinctive character and influence; (3) to find and pre- 
serve some treasures lost, or nearly lost, in the lapse of time 
and the obscuring din of busy days. 

Inasmuch as Rockingham is a great county, mine has 
been a great task. How well it has been performed, the 
intelligent reader must judge. No one more than the author 
will realize the lacks and deficiencies in the result, but he 
hopes and beheves that all will at least credit him with a 
sincere purpose and an earnest effort. No opinion, however 
adverse, and no criticism, however sharp, can take from him 
the joy that he has found in the work. To him it has been 
indeed a labor of love. The splendid achievements and re- 
sources of the county have been appreciated as never before, 
and things in her history have been found— often by seeming 
chance or rare good fortune— that were before undreamed of. 

At the laying of the corner stone for the new Court 
House in 1896, Judge John Paul delivered an address that 
contains much valuable information concerning the courts and 
civil officials of Rockingham. This address has been found 
very helpful by the author of this book. In 1885 Mr. George 
F. Compton, now of Charlottesville, Va., published an ex- 
tended and interesting series of historical articles on the county 
in the Rockingham Register; in 1900 Mr. John H. Floyd of Day- 
ton wrote a series of ten historical papers concerning Rock- 
ingham, and published them in the Harrisonburg Free Press; 
in addition, many historical pieces, in books, magazines, and 
newspapers have appeared from time to time. To all these, 
so many as he has seen, the author makes due and grateful, 
acknowledgement; all that he has found published, in any 
available form, he has fisted, and in many cases described, in 
the appended Bibliography; at the same time he begs leave 
to state that the bulk of the matter presented in this volume 
has been collected and prepared by himself, with the gen- 
erous aid of many friends, from sources that may in a large 
measure be termed original. It would of course be impossible 
to enumerate all the sources from which materials have been 
obtained; but some of the more important ones are herewith 


First in natural order and importance are the official 
records to be found in the land office at Richmond and in the 
county clerks' offices of Orange, Augusta, and Rockingham 
County. The records of marriages, of land sales, and of 
court proceedings are rich in facts and interest and signifi- 
cance. Of almost equal importance with these original 
records, are the many printed volumes of Hening's Statutes 
and the Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia. Old 
almanacs and files of old newspapers have been found to 
contain circumstantial accounts of important events that 
could scarcely be obtained from any other source. Old files of 
the Rockingham Register have proved of special value in this 
respect. Containing as they do particular and contemporary 
accounts of practically every notable happening in the county 
within the past ninety years, the successive issues of the 
Register are a very treasure-house to the student and anti- 
quarian. A complete and well-preserved file of the Register, 
from the first issue in 1822 to the present, would be sought 
after eagerly by any of the great libraries of the country, 
and would command almost any price. Although the writer 
has not seen any complete file of this paper, he has been 
exceedingly fortunate in securing what is perhaps the best 
file in existence. Through the generous kindness of Mr. R. 
B. Smythe, manager of the News-Register Company, Har- 
risonburg, Va., he now has in his possession Register files 
covering many years. These have been found most helpful 
in the preparation of this book. Miss Hortense Devier, 
whose father, Giles Devier, was for many years editor of the 
said paper, has made a generous loan of extended files. In 
addition to these files, many fugitive copies of the Register, 
some dating back almost to the first issue, have been put 
into the author's hands by his friends, as either a gift or a 
loan. Special acknowledgement is made to Hon. Geo. E. 
Sipe for access to files of the Old Commonwealth. For all 
these favors he is duly grateful. 

He has also had put at his disposal files of other pe- 
riodicals, old ledgers and day books, and even personal manu- 
scripts and diaries. A manuscript account of Harrisonburg, 


its people, and the activities centering in it as the county- 
seat, written in 1892 by a lady who was born in the town in 
1812, and giving realistic descriptions of days and doings 
nearly a century ago, should be specially mentioned. The 
records of the Methodist church, dating back in their begin- 
ning more than a hundred years, have been a source of much 
information having a general as well as a particular interest. 
Photographers have contributed pictures, authors have given 
their books, publishers have opened their presses in hearty 
and generous co-operation. The librarians at Richmond and 
at the State University, as well as at other places where the 
author has gone gathering facts, have been obliging and 
helpful; hundreds of persons all over the county, and in 
many other parts of our great country, have' responded 
cheerfully to personal letters requesting particular informa- 
tion. It is indeed an embarrassment of riches that has 
confronted the author; the task has been one of selection 
rather than of collection, though he has sought far and long 
for some things herein presented. He feels, therefore, that 
he may be justly criticised, not so much for what he has 
given in this book as for what he has been obliged to leave 
out. It has been deemed wiser, on the whole, to keep the 
volume within reasonable size and cost than to include so 
much as to make it cumbersome in bulk or expensive in price. 
We have tried to make a book for the average reader, for 
every citizen, as well as for the scholar and antiquarian. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made to special contributors 
and others who have given aid in supplying materials or sug- 
gesting lines of choice, and the names of many of these will 
be found in the proper connections throughout the volume. 

Special mention is yet due in this place, and is gratefully 
made, of the uniform courtesy extended to the author by 
Col. D. H. Lee Martz, clerk of the circuit court in Rocking- 
ham, and by his assistants, Mr. C. H. Brunk and Mr. J. 
Frank Blackburn. 


1716— September— Spotswood visits the Valley— East Rock- 
1727— Adam Miller settles on the Shenandoah River. 
1738— November— Act of Assembly passed creating Frederick 

and Augusta Counties. 
1745— September 23— John Sevier born in Rockingham. 
1749— August 27— James Madison, first Protestant Episcopal 

bishop of Virginia, born at Port Republic. 
1751— Thomas Lewis and Gabriel Jones buy land in East 

1753— May 11— Valentine and Joannah Sevier sell land to 

Andrew Byrd, on or near Smith's Creek. 
1758— April 28— Massacre at Fort Seybert. 
1763— April 18— Valentine Sevier sells his personal property 

to Andrew Byrd. 
1769— Lutheran and Reformed congregations at Peaked Moun- 
tain agree to build a union church. 
1773— August 15— Valentine and Joanna Sevier sell land in 

Long Meadow to Michael and David Holsinger. 
1775— October— John Alderson installed as pastor of the Lin- 

. ville Creek Baptist church. 
1777— October— Act of Assembly passed creating Rocking- 
ham County. 
1778— April 27, 28— First court held for Rockingham County. 
1779— August 5— Thomas Harrison sells lot for county 

1780— May— Act of Assembly passed establishing Harrison- 
1780— First Presbyterian preaching in Harrisonburg, accord- 
ing to tradition. 
1782— Abraham Lincoln goes from Rockingham County to 


1784 — First court house for Rockingham completed. 

1787 — December — Act of Assembly passed creating Pendleton 

1789— October 29— Rockingham Union Lodge, No. 27, A. F. 

& A. M., chartered. 
1791 — December — Act of Assembly passed establishing Kee- 

1794 — Bishop Asbury organizes Methodist school in Harrison- 
1801 — McGaheysville named for Tobias Randolph McGahey. 
1802 — January 14 — Port Republic established by Act of As- 
1804 — January 5— New Haven established by Act of As- 
1805— Robert Gray locates at Harrisonburg. 
1807 — November 16 — Henry Tutwiler, first M. A. of Univer- 
sity of Virginia, born in Harrisonburg. 
1807 — December — Dr. Peachey Harrison writes of Rocking- 
ham for Philadelphia Medical Museum. 
1809 — George Rockingham Gilmer of Georgia visits Rocking- 
1809 — Bishop Newcomer (U. B. ) confers with Bishop Asbury 

(M. E. ) at Harrisonburg. 
1811 — February 20— Dr. Asher Waterman sells 35,000 acres 

of West Rockingham land for $13, 125. 
1813 — Daniel Bryan publishes the "Mountain Muse." 
1816 — Rockingham Methodists prepare memorial against 

1818 — Brown's "Circular" pubhshed. 
1818— Harrison's Cave discovered. 
1820 (?)— Garber's Church built. 
1822— Trissel's Church built. 

1S22— Rockingham Register founded by Lawrence Wartmann. 
1824 — January 26 — Timothy Funk born at Mountain Valley. 
1825— Mt. Crawford established by Act of Assembly. 
1826 — February 18 — Act of Assembly passed chartering Rock- 
ingham Academy. 



1828— Lin ville Creek Church (of the Brethren) built. 

1831— March— Act of Assembly passed creating Page County. 

1832— Dunker Annual Meeting held in Rockingham County. 

1832— First edition of Joseph Funk's "Genuine Church 

1833— January 7— Great Anti-Nullification meeting held in 

1833— January Court — Old courthouse sold. 

1833 — March — Dayton established by Act of Assembly. 

1834— Valley Turnpike Company authorized to construct toll 
road from Winchester to Harrisonburg. 

1835 — February — Bridgewater established by Act of Assem- 

1839-40— Extraordinary snows in Rockingham County. 

1840— December 19— Joseph Salyards advertises the resump- 
tion of school at McGaheysville. 

1844— Sons of Temperance organize at Harrisonburg. 

1844— Liberty Springs Company buys land. 

1847— Joseph Funk and Sons open printing office at Mountain 

1847— October 5 — Cyclone near Friedens Church. 

1848— Mt. Vernon Furnace in Brown's Gap built. 

1850— Rockingham Parish reorganized and put in charge of 
Rev. James B. Goodwyn. 

1850— Death of Judge Daniel Smith. 

1858— Jed Hotchkiss publishes description of Northwest 

1861— Dunker Annual meeting held in Rockingham. 

1861— October— Girls' school at Harrisonburg turned into a 
Confederate hospital. 

1862— May 8— Col. S. B. Gibbons killed at McDowell. 

1862 — June 6 — Gen. Turner Ashby killed near Harrisonburg. 

1862— June 8- Battle of Cross Keys. 

1862— June 9— Battle of Port Republic. 

1862— December 24 — Joseph Funk dies at Singer's Glen. 

1864— May 5— Col. E. T. H. Warren and Maj. I. G. Coffman 
killed in the Wilderness. 



1864 — June 15 — John Kline killed in Rockingham. 

1866 — John W. Taylor begins teaching at Lacey Springs. 

1866 — School for colored children organized in Harrisonburg 
by Misses Martha Smith and Phoeby Libby, of 
Augusta, Maine. 

1868 — February — Lutheran Church in Harrisonburg rededi- 

1868 — July 13 — Old Waterman home near Harrisonburg burns. 

1868 — Thurman movement in Rockingham culminates, 

1869 — Rockingham Home Mutual Fire Insurance Company 

1869 — First railroad opened to Harrisonburg. 

1869 — New stage line opened from Harrisonburg to Shenan- 
doah Iron Works. 

1870 — January — Musical Million established at Singer's Glen. 

1870 — January — Navigation opened on Shenandoah River in 
Brock's Gap. 

1870— October — Destructive Floods. 

1870 — December 25 — Destructive fire in Harrisonburg, south 
side of Public Square. 

1871— Harrisonburg graded school organized under new public 
school system — J. S. Loose, principal. 

1871 — U. S. District Court located at Harrisonburg. 

1872 — January 6 — West Rockingham Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company organized. 

1872 — April — Redivision of Rockingham County into 5 town- 

1872 — John Cover builds tannery near Conrad's Store. 

1873 — September 29 — Valley Normal School at Bridgewater 

1874 — March — First train over Valley Railroad from Harrison- 
burg to Staunton. 

1874 — November — Grading on Narrow Gauge completed from 
Harrisonburg to Bridgewater. 

1874 — Third Court House erected. 

1875 — Shenandoah Collegiate Institute at Dayton founded. 



1876 — May — Catholic church in Harrisonburg consecrated. 

1876— Monument to soldiers erected in Woodbine Cemetery by 
Ladies' Memorial Association. 

1877 — November — Destructive floods. 

1878 — Ruebush-Kieffer printing house moved to Dayton. 

1879 — June— Dunker Annual Meeting at Broadway. 

1879 — August-September — Sidney Lanier at Rockingham 

1879 — New Market Endless Caverns discovered. 

1880 — Bridgewater College started at Spring Creek. 

1880 — March — Broadway established by Act of Assembly. 

1881 — April 18 — First through trains from Hagerstown to 
Waynesboro on Norfolk & Western Railway. 

1881 — September — A. C. Kimler begins teaching at McGah- 

1881— A. S. Kieffer publishes "Hours of Fancy." 

1885 — Lake's Atlas of Rockingham County published. 

1885— G. F. Compton begins history of Rockingham in the 

1887 — Shenandoah Normal College located at Harrisonburg. 

1889 — Dunker Annual Meeting at Harrisonburg. 

1892 — February — Shendun established by Act of Assembly. 

1892— March 1— Old Folks' Home at Timberville opened. 

1892 — Harrisonburg synagogue dedicated. 

1892 — Emma Lyon Bryan publishes "A Romance of the 

1893 — Massanutta Cave, near Keezletown, discovered. 

1894 — February— Timberville established by Act of Assembly. 

1895 — July 31 — Chesapeake & Western Railway completed to 

1895 — September 13 — C. & W. Railway completed to Bridge- 

1897 — Fourth Court House erected. 

1897 — Cross Keys Home Mutual Fire Insurance Company or- 

1898 — New water system for Harrisonburg put in operation. 

1898 — Harrisonburg Daily News established. 



1899 — April 18 — Valley Telephone Company absorbed by the 
Rockingham Mutual System. 

1899 — May 20 — President McKinley in Harrisonburg-. 

1899 — July 1— Rockingham County Medical Association or- 

1903— Nettie Gray Daingerfield publishes "That Dear Old 

1905 — Harrisonburg Daily Times established, 

1906 — April — Fravel Sash and Door Company moved to Har- 

1906— J. C. Paxton builds lime kiln at Linville. 

1907— J. W. Wayland publishes the "German Element of the 
Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. ' ' 

1911 — Harrisonburg and Rockingham County adopted com- 
pulsory education law. 

1908— March— Elkton incorporated, 

1909— June — Great Dunker Annual Meeting at Harrisonburg. 

1909 — September — State Normal School at Harrisonburg 

1911 — Waterman School opened. 

1911 — Rockingham Memorial Hospital built, 

1911 — L, J, Heatwole publishes his perpetual calendar. 

1911 — Rockingham Daily Record established, 

1912 — Legislature changes the name of Shendun to Grottoes. 

1912— State Sunday-School convention held in Harrisonburg. 

1912— E. U. Hoenshel publishes the "Crimson Trail." 


Rockingham County, Virginia, extends from the Blue 
Ridge on the southeast entirely across the great valley to the 
first Alleghany ranges on the northwest, and has an area of 870 
square miles. Only two counties in the State, Augusta and 
Pittsylvania, are larger. Excepting a great notch, cut out of 
the east corner in 1831 in the formation of Page County, 
Rockingham is nearly a square, and lies on the map as if its 
corners were approaching the cardinal points of the compass 
in a right-hand turn. The corner farthest north extends 
nearly up to the 39th parallel of latitude, the south corner be- 
ing almost as near to the [38th. As to longitude, the 79th 
meridian cuts it almost in half. 

A line drawn due east from the north corner of Rock- 
ingham, and measured in that course 107 miles, would end in 
sight of the Washington Monument, on the south side to- 
wards Alexandria. One drawn southeastward from the south 
corner, and measured 87 miles, would end at a point near 
enough to Manchester and Richmond to be in sound of the 
chiming bells in those cities beside the James. 

The northeastern half of the great valley of Virginia, com- 
prising now the ten counties of Augusta, Rockingham, Page, 
Shenandoah, Warren, Frederick, Clark, Jefferson, Berkeley, 
and Morgan (the last three being in West Virginia), may 
properly be termed the Shenandoah Valley, since it is drained 
into the Potomac by the Shenandoah River through its sev- 
eral branches. Prior to the year 1738 the entire Shenandoah 
Valley, with much more territory west and southwest, was a 
part of Orange County. In 1738 it was cut off from Orange, 
and divided into two counties, Frederick and Augusta. In 
1777 a large part of Augusta was cut off and erected into 


the county of Rockingham. These successive steps are 
shown in detail by the following copies of the respective Acts 
of Assembly authorizing them: 

An act (passed November 1738), for erecting two neiv Counties and 
Parishes; and granting certain encouragements to the Inhabitants thereof. 

I. Whereas, great numbers of people have settled themselves of 
late, upon the rivers of Sherrando, Cohongoruton, and Opeckon, and the 
branches thereof, on the north-west side of the Blue Ridge of mountains, 
whereby the strength of this colony, and it's security upon the frontiers, 
and his majesty's revenue of quit-rents, are like to be much increased 
and augmented; For giving encouragement to such as shall think fit to 
settle there, 

II. Be it enacted, by the Lieutenant Governor, Council, Burgesses, 
of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the 
authority of the same. That all that territory and tract of land, 
at present deemed to be part of the County of Orange, lying 
on the north west side of the top of the said mountains, extend- 
ing from thence northerly, westerly, and southerly, beyond the 
said mountains, to the utmost limits of Virginia, be separated 
from the rest of the said county, and erected into two distinct counties and 
parishes; to be divided by a line to be run from the head spring of Hedg- 
man river i to the head spring of the river Potowmack: And that all that 
part of the said territory, lying to the northeast of the said line, beyond 
the top of the said Blue Ridge, shall be one distinct county, and parish; to 
be called by the name of the county of Frederick, and parish of Frederick : 
And that the rest of the said territory, lying on the other side of the said 
line, beyond the top of the said Blue Ridge, shall be one other distinct 
county, and parish; to be called by the name of the county of Augusta, 
and parish of Augusta. 3 

An Act (passed October 1777) for forming several netv counties, and 
rejorming the boundaries of two others. 

Whereas it is represented to this present session of assembly, by the 
inhabitants of Augusta and Botetourt counties, that they labour under 
many inconveniences by reason of the great extent of the said counties and 
parishes: Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That from and 
after the first day of March next the said county and parish of Augusta 
shall be divided by a line beginning at the north side of the North Moun- 
tain, opposite to the upper end of Sweedland Hill, and running a direct 
course so as to strike the mouth of Seneca creek, on the north fork of the 

1- Hedgman River must be what is now called Conway River, 
forming part of the line between the counties of Madison and Greene. 
2. Hening's Statutes, Vol. 5, pp. 78, 79. 




From Actual Survey. for D. J. LAKE U CO, 


Scaie about 4 miles to an inch. 

I II V A- W A I. J, 



south branch of Potowmack river, and the same course to be continued 
to the Alleghany mountain, thence along the said mountain to the line of 
Hampshire county; and all that part of the said county and parish of 
Augusta which lies to the northward of the said line shall be added to 
and made part of the said county and p<irish of Hampshire. And that the 
residue of the county and parish of Augusta be divided by a line to begin 
at the South Mountain (Blue Ridge), and running thence by Benjamin 
Yardley's plantation so as to strike the north river below James Byrd's 
house, thence up the said river to the mouth of Naked creek, thence 
leaving the river a direct course so as to cross the said river at the mouth 
of Cunningham's branch, in the upper end of Silas Hart's land, to the 
foot of the North Mountain, thence fifty-five degrees west to the Alle- 
ghany Mountain, and with the same to the line of Hampshire; and all 
that part which lies north eastward of the said line shall be one distinct 
parish (county and parish), called and known by the name of Rocking- 
ham. 3 

Other parts of the same Act establish the counties of 
Green Brier and Rockbridge; fix the fourth Monday of e very- 
month as court day for Rockingham, the first session to be 
held at the house of Daniel Smith; establish the town of Lex- 
ington; change the name of Dunmore County to Shanando, etc. 

As at first constituted in 1777, Rockingham County em- 
braced the greater part of what is now Pendleton County, 
W. Va., and about a third part of what is now Page County, 
Va. Pendleton County was established in 1787: this trans- 
ferred the northwest boundary of Rockingham some 25 miles 
southeastward— that is, from the Alleghany Mountain to its 
present position on the Shenandoah Mountain. Page County 
was established in 1831: this cut out from the east corner of 
Rockingham the big notch already mentioned. 

The present boundaries of Rockingham may be indicated 
as follows: Beginning at the south corner, at a point on top 
of the Blue Ridge above Black Rock Springs, draw a line, 
straight throughout the greater part of its course, N. about 
55 degrees W., some 32 miles to the top of Shenandoah Moun- 
tain; this gives the southwest boundary, separating from 
Augusta County; turn north about 30 degrees east, and fol- 

3. Hening's Statutes, volume 9, pp. 420-424. 


low the top ridge of the Shenandoah Mountain some 30 miles, 
to a point opposite Peru, in Hardy County, W. Va. ; this gives 
the northwest boundary, separating from Pendleton and 
Hardy; turn south about 50 degrees east, and measure a 
straight course some 26 miles to the top of Massanutten 
Mountain, above New Market; this gives the northeast bound- 
ary, separating from Hardy and Shenandoah. This is part of 
the original line between Frederick and Augusta, and is fre- 
quently called the Fairfax Line, since it marks the southwest 
limit of the famous Northern Neck, as claimed by Thomas 
Lord Fairfax. Turn now southwest and follow the crest of 
the Massanutten Mountain some 9 miles, then turn south- 
east and go about 12 miles to the top of the Blue Ridge, be- 
tween Elkton and Shenandoah City; this gives the boundary 
about the notch, separating from Page County; finally, turn 
southwestward and follow the crest of the Blue Ridge about 
20 miles to the beginning, above Black Rock; this gives the 
southeast boundary, separating from Greene and Albemarle. 
The boundary line of Rockingham around the notch is 
given more specifically in the Act of 1831, creating Page 
County, as follows: 

Beginning at a point in the line of the counties of Rockingham and 
Orange, on the top of the Blue Ridge, opposite to the head waters of 
Naked creek, in the county of Rockingham; thence, a straight line to the 
head waters of said creek; thence, with the meanderings of said creek, to 
its junction with the South river; thence, down the bed of said river, to 
the upper end of Michael Shuler's island; thence, a straight line to the 
mouth of Shuler's run; thence, with the main branch of said run, to its 
source; thence, a straight line, to the top of the Massanutten mountain; 
thence, with the top of said mountain, . . . 

The boundary line between Rockingham and Augusta 
was described in an address delivered October 15, 1896, by 
Judge John Paul, as follows: 

Beginning at the South Mountain (Blue Ridge), thence by a direct 
line past Benjamin Yardley's plantation (now Mohler's) so as to strike 
North River below James Byrd's house (James Beard is the way it is now 
spelled). The point is at Diehl's ford, about one mile and a half above 
the junction of Middle and North rivers. Thence up North River to the 



mouth of Naked Creek; thence by a direct line so as to cross North River 
at the mouth of Cunningham's branch (now Thorn Run). This point is 
at Mr. Sanger's house. Thence, same course, to the foot of North Moun- 

It will be observed from the foregoing statements that 
two streams by the name of Naked Creek appear in the geog- 
raphy of Rockingham. One of these heads in Augusta 
County, and forms a small part of the boundary line between 
the two counties, near Mt. Crawford; the other heads in 
Page County, and forms several miles of the boundary be- 
tween that county and Rockingham, in the vicinity of Shen- 
andoah City. Wholly within the county are two streams 
with the name of Dry River. Both head around the bases 
of Tomahawk Mountain, near the Pendleton line. One flows 
northeast and becomes part of the North Fork of the Shen- 
andoah River at Fulk's Run; the other flows southeast and 
unites with North River at Bridgewater. 

The most conspicuous, and perhaps the most wonderful, 
feature in the physical geography of Rockingham is the south- 
west promontory of the Massanutten, known as Peaked 
Mountain, or the Peak. Rising gradually to a great height, 
it juts out into the wide valley, then sinks down into the 
plain as completely and almost as abruptly as the rock of 
Gibraltar into the sea. From the east side it presents an ap- 
pearance that strongly reminds one of Gibraltar. 

The view from the Peak is one of the finest in the world. 
Behind one is the great hollow in the Peak itself, know as 
the Kettle; and beyond it are the triple ridges of the range, 
flanked on the west by the towering bulk of Laird's Knob. 
To the east is the billowy outline of the Blue Ridge; far to the 
west are the first ranges of the Alleghanies; halfway between 
the Peak and Harrisonburg is the long, wooded range of hills 
known as Chestnut Ridge; and farther back, thrown around 
the Peak in a great semicircle, are the seven huge, wooded 
cones that rise out of the plain to a height varying from 300 
to 500 feet: Green Hill, beyond Linville; Round Hill, near 
Singer's Glen; Mole Hill, at Dale Enterprise; Round Hill, at 



Bridgewater; Wise's Hill, above Mt Crawford; Shaver's Hill, 
near Friedens; and Long's Hill, toward Port Republic. 

Beyond Green Hill, the North Fork of the Shenandoah 
River comes out of the Alleghanies, through Brock's Gap; 
is joined by Linville Creek at Broadv/ay; flows on past Tim- 
berville; and, after receiving the waters of Long Glade Run, 
Smith's Creek, and other Rockingham streams, continues its 
meandering course down the Valley, west of the Massanutten 

Beyond Round Hill at Bridgewater, North River comes 
out of the Alleghanies, through Briery Branch Gap and other 
gaps; is joined on its way by Dry River, Cook's Creek, Naked 
Creek, and many other streams; combines with Middle River 
near Mt. Meridian, on the line between Rockingham and 
Augusta; then receives the v/atersof South River at Port Re- 
public. Here it surrenders its name, the big stream from 
Port Republic on being called the South Fork of the Shenan- 
doah River. This, having swept down between the Blue 
Ridge and the Massanutten Peak, and having been aug- 
mented by Cub Run, Madison Run, Elk Run, and other Rock- 
ingham streams, continues down the Valley, east of the Mas- 
sanutten Mountain, uniting with the North Fork of the Shen- 
andoah River fifty miles below, at the northeast end of the 
Massanutten range. 

Rockingham County is divided into five magisterial dis- 
tricts, namely, Ashby, Central, Linville, Plains, and Stone- 
wall. The first is named for the great cavalry leader who 
fell, in 1862, just outside of Harrisonburg; the second is 
named from its position; the third bears the name of the 
creek that drains its fertile vales; the fourth has adopted the 
distinguishing term that has long been applied to the broad, 
level bottoms that skirt the North Fork of the Shenandoah 
between Timberville and New Market; and the fifth, with 
much appropriateness, is named for the hero of First Man- 
assas, of Second Manassas, and of Port Republic. It was in 
Stonewall District, of Rockingham County, that Stonewall 
Jackson began and ended his brilliant Valley Campaign. 



Of these five districts, Plains is the largest. Its western 
half is the famous Brock's Gap country. In 1858, Jed Hotch- 
kiss, a few years later renowned as Stonewall Jackson's chief 
topographical engineer, wrote of this country as follows: 

"The region of Brock's Gap, inside, is large enough for a 
county by itself. I was not prepared to find as large a stream 
of water there as we did find, nor so much romantic scenery. 
All 'Germany' is inside, and it is some ways from the Gap." 

The sturdy German race prevails all over Rockingham, 
particularly so, it seems, in the Brock's Gap country; hence 
the expression just quoted. In years past the region was 
frequently styled "Little Germany"; and one of the streams 
that drain it is called German River. 

There has been a good deal of interesting speculation as 
to how Brock's Gap got its name. One tradition is to the 
effect that "General Brock," while on his way to relieve 
Fort Seybert, camped in the Gap, and thus gave it his name. 
If there was a General Brock in the Gap at the time referred 
to, it evidently was not the "Hero of Upper Canada." Fort 
Seybert was destroyed in 1758, and the general just desig- 
nated was not born till 1769. It is most likely that the name 
was received from some resident of the Gap. In 1748, as the 
Augusta County records show, Daniel Holman and Peter 
Gartner became guardians for Julia, George, and Elsie Brock, 
orphans of Rudolph Brock, deceased. This shows that there 
were Brocks in this part of the Valley at a very early date. 
In 1752, as shown by the same records, Christian Funkhousa 
and Henry Brock sold to Jacob Bare 400 acres of land ' 'on ye 
south fork of the North River of Shanando above the gap in 
ye mountain." The property was warranted specially 
against John P. Brock and his heirs. The witnesses were 
Peter Scholl, Samuel Newman, and John Bare. This seems 
to shov/ conclusively that the Brock name was familiar in 
the Gap as early as 1752, or earlier. 

With this brief outline of the geography of Rockingham 
County, let us proceed to the following chapters, in which, 
under the various heads, will be found many other facts that 
might properly be included here. 





Assistant Geologist, Virginia State Geological Survey. 

On the basis of both geological and physiographic features 
the state of Virginia is divided into three great provinces: 
the Coastal Plain on the east, the Piedmont Plateau in the 
central part, and the Appalachian Mountain province on the 
w^est. Rockingham County lies entirely within the latter 

The Appalachian Mountain province is further divided 
into three sub-provinces, each of which shows more or less 
marked differences in the topographic types represented, the 
Old Appalachians, or Blue Ridge, on the east; the Great Val- 
ley, in the centre; and the New Appalachians, or Alleghany 
Ridges, on the west. Each of the three subdivisions is well 
represented within the borders of the county. 

The topography of the county, in keeping with that of 
the Appalachian Mountain province in general, is varied and 
picturesque; and with the exception of the main part of the 
Blue Ridge may be defined as the parallel ridge and valley 
type; the ridges being generally parallel with each other and 
extending in a northeast and southwest direction, in keeping 
with the strike of the underlying rock-structure. 

The Blue Ridge, which forms the eastern boundary of 
the county, is distinct topographically from the rest of the 
area in that it presents an uneven and knobby crest, and 
shows an absence of the parallel ridge type in its main part, 
which is so well developed both in the valley and the ridges 
to the west. The foothills, or lower ridges, which flank the 
Blue Ridge on its western slope, being made up of rocks sim- 
ilar both in origin and structure to those of the west, partake 


more nearly of their topographic characters and really belong 
to the New Appalachian type. The highest point in the Blue 
Ridge in Rockingham County is High Knob, which attains an 
elevation of over 3600 feet above sea level. 

The Shenandoah Valley province, which makes up the 
greater part of Rockingham County, when viewed from an 
elevation appears as a broad, undulating plain, traversed by 
a series of low ridges which barely appear above it. In these 
ridges the cherty beds of limestone, which are more resistant 
than the surrounding rocks, have given rise to a series of 
round, conical hills which dot the landscape at intervals of a 
few miles, and have an elevation of from two hundred to 
three hundred feet above the plain. Good examples of these 
are Round Hill near Bridgewater and Mole Hill near Dayton. 
The Shenandoah plain slopes gently toward the southwest 
as a rule and attains an elevation of about 1500 feet at Har- 
risonburg. The most conspicuous feature of the Valley 
province within the county is the Massanutten Mountain, 
which divides the northern part into two unequal divisions. 
This peculiar mountain, while only within a few miles of the 
Blue Ridge and parallel with it, shows no geological kinship 
with it, for it is in reality an outlier of the New Appalachian 
ridges about eighteen miles to the west. The mountain ends 
abruptly in a fine peak which is locally known as Peaked 
Mountain, 2900 feet above the sea. Laird's Knob, a few 
miles northward, attains an elevation of more than 3400 feet. 
The topography of the Massanutten Mountain is identical 
with that of the Alleghany ridges. 

The Alleghany ridges and valleys embrace the western 
third of the county. These ridges show a more or less even 
Crestline, and are arranged with a decided parallelism. The 
most elevated part of the county is within this province. 
High Knob in the Shenandoah Mountain has an elevation 
slightly more than 4200 feet. Practically all types of ridges 
found in an eroded region of folded sedimentary rocks occur 
here: the monoclinal, anticlinal, and synclinal. These ridges 
are frequently cut by gaps through which streams are now 



flowing or have flowed in a former period. The valleys be- 
tween the ridges are narrow. 

The drainage of Rockingham county belongs entirely to the 
Shenandoah system. The two master streams are the North 
Fork, which flows west of the Massanutten Mountain, and 
the main part of the Shenandoah, which flows through the 
Page valley east of the same mountain. These streams and 
their tributaries have cut the Shenandoah plain into a deep 
intaglio, and they now flow in channels from 100 to 300 feet 
below it. The streams of the county have for the most part 
adjusted themselves to the underlying structural conditions, 
and consequently they tend to flow in a northeasterly direction. 
The chief exception to this is the North River, which flows 
eastward near the southern border of the county. This 
stream, instead of flowing parallel with the strike of the rock 
formations, takes a course at right angles to the strike and 
maintains it till its influx with the main Shenandoah near the 
foot of the Blue Ridge. This is explained by the fact that its 
course antedates the folding of the rock strata which has oc- 
curred in the Appalachian province. The county is exceed- 
ingly well watered, and springs of large size are frequent. 

The rocks of the county fall under the two great lithologic 
types, igneous and sedimentary. Both types occur in all 
three of the sub-provinces. It is understood that igneous 
rocks are those which have solidified from a molten condition, 
while the sedimentaries are those which are composed of 
material derived from the waste of land and redeposited in 
the form of mud, sand, gravel, chemical precipitants, etc. , 
chiefly in lakes and seas. 

The only dominantly igneous area in the county is the 
main part of the Blue Ridge. The formations of the rest of the 
county are sedimentary, with very minor exceptions. Cer- 
tainly less than one per cent, of the rocks of the county which 
outcrop at the surface are of igneous origin, and all these 
with the few noted exceptions are entirely in the Blue Ridge. 

The igneous rocks of the Blue Ridge in Rockingham 
County are of the basaltic type, which represent material 





Mississippi an --'?^§"f*^^ 


»aKC<t1bne, an J 
t'rlin beds ft 

and Si-scU 


Geological Map of Rockingham County 


thrown out on the surface by the extrusive action of ancient 
volcanoes. The material in its original form was dark or al- 
most black in color, but subsequent alterations and metamor- 
phic changes have usually converted it into rock varying in 
color from a dark bluish-green to a light green, dependent on 
the secondary mineralogical constituents. Where these min- 
erals are secondary amphibole and chlorite the rock is bluish 
green in color; and where epidote is the dominant altera- 
tion product the color is light green. There are all grada- 
tions between these different colors depending on the propor- 
tions of these minerals. Originally the essential minerals 
which made up the basalt was plagioclase feldspar, magne- 
tite, and pyroxene, but subsequent alterations have almost en- 
tirely broken down the original mineral components giving 
rise chiefly to the three above mentioned, so that at 
present the rock may properly be termed an epidosite where 
the dominant mineral is epidote, an amphibolite where the 
dominant mineral is amphibole, and a chlorite-schist where the 
dominant mineral is chlorite. For all practical purposes the 
tv/o latter types may rightly be thrown together and termed 
amphibolite-chlorite schists. The general name for this ba- 
saltic formation wherever it occurs in the Blue Ridge and the 
Piedmont plateau is Catoctin Schist, so called because it 
usually presents a slaty or schistose structure, induced by the 
folding of the earth's crust and the development of the sec- 
ondary minerals contingent upon such conditions. The rock 
frequently shows material picked up by the liquid lava streams 
as they flowed over the ancient land surface covered with the 
material of older flows; and gas bubbles, or amugdules, are 
common in the upper surfaces. These cavities have since 
been filled by percolating waters carrying mineral matter in 
solution, the resulting minerals being usually epidote, calcite, 
and quartz. It is within the Catoctin Schist that the copper 
deposits of the Blue Ridge occur. The rock has been as- 
signed to the Algonkian Period and is therefore one of the 
oldest formations occurring in the state, and certainly the 
oldest in the county. 



^»reb Cbanh 



Late investigations have revealed 
that igneous rocks also occur in the 
county within the Valley province, 
in limited quantity, in the form of 
dikes. These rocks outcrop in the 
vicinity of Cross Keys and at intervals 
entirely across the county; the most 
westerly outcrop reported being in the 
vicinity of Brock's Gap. A character- 
istic exposure of these rocks is found 
near Harrisonburg, where the road 
leading from Harrisonburg to Keezle- 
town crosses the Chesapeake - Wes- 
tern Railway tracks. The rock is 
of dark color and medium to fine 
grained. It weathers to rounded boul- 
ders, which are broken only with great 
difficulty. It is a typical diabase and 
is composed of the minerals magnetite, 
augite, olivine, and plagioclase feld- 
spar as essential ingredients. The rock 
is comparatively fresh, and is prob- 
ably the youngest of the rock forma- 
tions in the county, having been forced 
while in a molten condition into the 
fissures of the limestone and shale 
formations of the mountains. While 
the exact age of the rock cannot be de- 
termined, on lithological grounds it 
may be assigned to the Triassic. ^ The 
rock, owing to its high lime and iron 
content, makes road material of the 
first quality, since it has the necessary 
ingredients to bind and is far superior 
to limestone in lasting qualities. 

The sedimentary rocks of the county 
present every phase of sedimentary 

1- Thos. L. Watson and Justus H. Cline, 
"Dikes of the ShenandoahValley, " in prepa- 


possibilities, and rocks of every age occur from the beginning' 
of the Cambrian to the Lower Coal period. Starting with 
the oldest rocks of this type in the county we find sandstones, 
which are frequently conglomeritic, and shales of Cambrian 
age making up the foothills or lower ridges which flank the Blue 
Ridge on its western slope. This formation rests on the Catoc- 
tin Schist as a base and the material of which they are com- 
posed was probably derived from it and from other igneous and 
sedimentary formations to the east of the Blue Ridge. The 
thickness of the Cambrian sandstone and shale formation may 
be estimated at from 2000 to 3000 feet. The lower part of the 
formation is dominantly sandstone, and the upper part shaley. 
The age of the formation has been determined by the remains 
of animal life which are preserved extensively in one of the 
sandstone beds in the form of worm borings by the species 
scolithus linearis, characteristic of the Cambrian. 

The Cambrian shales grade into Shenandoah limestone, 
which succeeds them without break in the sedimentary record, 
the lower part of the limestone formation also being Cam- 

The thickness of the Shenandoah limestone is from 1500 
to 2500 feet. The upper part is definitely known to be Or- 
dovician in age, from the fossils it contains, but there is no 
definite line of division marked between the known Ordo- 
vician and the known Cambrian. Five distinct divisions of 
this hmestone in central western Virginia have been de- 
scribed by Prof. H. D. Campbell. These are, in ascending 
order, (1) Sherwood Limestone of Lower Cambrian age, (2) 
Buena Vista shales of Lower or Middle Cambrian age, (3) 
Natural Bridge limestone of Middle and Upper Cambrian and 
Lower Ordovician, (4) Murat limestone, and (5) Liberty Hall 
limestone of Middle Ordovician age. The Murat and Liberty 
are probably absent in Rockingham County, and their places 
occupied by the above and dolomitic limestones of Stones 
River age and the pure and argillaceous strata designated as 
the Chambersburg formation. Fossils found near Harrison- 
burg have identified both these formations at that place. 



The Shenandoah Hmestone varies in color from a grey to 
dove color and blue. It contains frequent cherty beds, the 
weathering of which gives rise to the ridges and gravelly hills 
common in the county. Shaley beds also occur within the 
hmestone of varying thickness. The most prominent of these 
are the Buena Vista shales of Cambrian age, which are easily 
recognized by their reddish color. In composition the rock 
varies from an almost pure limestone to dolomite, in which 
the lime is replaced largely by magnesia. The rock also 
shows widely varying percentages of clayey material and 
siHca. The Chambersburg and Stones River formations and 
the associated Trenton shales afford splendid material for the 
manufacture of Portland cement. 

In the upper part of the Shenandoah limestone shaley 
beds appear, which increase in frequency and thickness till 
the formation entirely gives way to the Martinsburg shale. 
This shale formation occupies a prominent synclinal trough 
extending entirely across the county. This syncline is known 
as the Massanutten syncline, since its position is partly oc- 
cupied by the mountain of the same name. The syncline is 
very persistent, and extends far beyond the limits of the 
mountain both to the northeast and southwest. There are 
also other minor areas of the shale formation which may be 
seen on the accompanying map. The thickness of the forma- 
tion is about 2000 feet. The fine blue slate lands of the county 
are underlain by the lower beds of this formation. The 
weathering of the shale gives rise to the characteristic rounded 
hills with oval crests, often very similar in form to the drum- 
lins of glacial origin in the northern part of the United 
States. The contact between the shale and limestone can 
readily be detected by the abrupt change in the topography. 

The Martinsburg shale is succeeded by the Massanutten 
sandstone, so called from its occurrence in the mountain by 
that name. It is to the resistant character of this rock that 
the Massanutten mountain owes its existence. The thickness 
of the sandstone is about 500 feet. It varies from a reddish 
sandy shale to a coarse conglomerate and light grey massive 


bedded quartzite. A typical exposure of this quartzite is 
found at the nose of Peaked Mountain. The formation also 
occurs in the Alleghany ridges. Its age is Silurian. 

The rocks of the Alleghany ridges are as follows, given 
in order of age: (1) the Martinsburg shale and (2) Massa- 
nutten sandstone, which have been described above; (3) 
Rockwood formation of Silurian age, composed of reddish 
micaceous sandstones, which grade upward into reddish and 
brown shales capped with a bed of greyish to yellowish 
quartzite. The thickness of the formation is about 200 feet. 
(4) Lewistown limestone of Silurian age, containing numerous 
fossil corals and braciopods and remains of sponges and micro- 
scopic organisms. Its thickness is about 100 feet. (5) Mon- 
terey sandstone of Silurian and Devonian age, in part cal- 
careous. The thickness is about 300 feet. (6) The dark 
colored Romney shales of Devonian age, which were deposited 
on the eroded surface of the Monterey sandstone. This non- 
conformity represents the only break in the sedimentary cycle 
within the bounds of Rockingham County. The thickness of 
the formation approaches 1000 feet. (7) Jennings formation, 
also of Devonian age, which is made up of olive to buff col- 
ored shales interstratified with massive fine-grained sand- 
stones. Its thickness is about 3000 feet. It is succeeded by 
the (8) Hampshire formation, made up of thinly bedded grey 
and reddish sandstone and thick bedded sandstone, all inter- 
bedded with thin layers of shale. The formation is as thick 
as 1400 feet, and it is of Devonian age. (9) The Pocono 
sandstone of Mississippian age, v/hich is the youngest of the 
sedimentaries in the county. It is composed of light grey 
sandstones of a rather coarse texture, which are interbedded 
with thin layers of semi-anthracite coal. It is about 700 feet 
in thickness. 

The structure of the rocks of Rockingham County can best 
be understood by reference to the accompanying structure 
section. It will be remembered that the sedimentary rocks 
of the county were originally laid down by water in the order 
in which they now occur, but in a horizontal position. The 



beds are rarely found in this position, but have been folded 
into anticlines and synclines and frequently broken by great 
overthrust faults and also by simple gravity faults. 

Since the folding and faulting of the region, erosion has 
been active, so that now the mountain ridges frequently oc- 
cupy the position of the synclines, as in the case of the Mas- 
sanutten mountain; and the river valleys in the same way oc- 
cupy the position of the anticlines. The Valley province is 
not a structural valley, but it is entirely the product of erosion. 
The material which once occupied its position, being less re- 
sistant to the forces of degradation, was disintegrated by 
chemical and mechanical forces and carried by the streams to 
the sea. The streams which have been responsible for this 
work have suffered likewise many changes, and now in a 
small measure only resemble their early ancestors. The 
drainage of the county at the beginning of the long cycle of 
erosion which developed its present land forms seems to have 
been controlled by two master streams. One of these streams 
occupied a position similar to North River, in the latitude of 
Bridgewater, and the other a position similar to the North 
Fork, in the latitude of Brock's Gap; the North River flowing 
across the Valley and Blue Ridge, possibly through Brown's 
Gap, and the North Fork across the Valley and the Massan- 
utten Mountain at New Market and the Blue Ridge opposite 
Luray. Since the limestones of the Valley were more easily 
eroded than the harder rocks of the Blue Ridge, and since the 
Potomac came to be the master stream because of its size, 
tributaries of the Potomac flowing northward over the soft 
rocks of the valley were finally able to intercept these streams, 
first the North Fork at Luray and later the North River at 
Port Republic. Subsequently to these captures the Valley has 
been lowered many hundred feet below its level at the time 
the captures took place. 

The limestones of the Valley province are responsible for 
the numerous beautiful limestone caverns and bold springs 
which are so common, as well as for the remarkable fertility 
of the soils of the county, v/hich has made her one of the 



most desirable agricultural districts in the entire country. 
The hand of Providence working through long ages has pre- 
pared a habitation for men, which in the beauty of topography 
and" landscape, fertility of soil, excellence of water, delight- 
fulness of climate, luxuriance of vegetation, and all natural 
environment that makes for human happiness, can hardly be 
excelled in the entire world. 


By Miss Ruth Conn. 

Where the peak of old Massanutten 

Doth bare his broad dome to the skies, 

And clad with the strength of Creation 
Unmindful of ages doth rise, 

He guards day and night our green valley; 

For Nature who made it so fair, 
Grew alarmed for her beautiful treasure, 

And placed him as sentinel there. 

When the gray morning mists of the Valley, 
That are wont to encircle his crest, 

Have long faded into the sunlight. 
And wandering winds are at rest. 

When from off of his summit has faded 
The glow of the evening bars, 

He brings from the worlds shining o'er him 
Sweet dreams to our ' 'Child of the Stars. ' ' 

This sacred trust of Creation 

He kept since the world began. 

Till he smiled on the red man's wigwam 
And the hut of the first white man. 

And oft in the struggles that followed, 
He echoed the martial tramp. 

And sheltered the fires where our fathers 
Lay waiting with Stonewall in camp. 

He has stood with us in every struggle. 

Though burdened methinks v/ith our pain; 

He has pointed to courage and patience. 
And helped us new visions to gain. 

Oh, fairer than Italy's mountains. 

Or Switzerland's snow-crowned towers. 

He is to the sons of the Valley— 

This rugged old mountain of ours ! 

Dear old Peak, thou art guarding thy treasure: 
May men to their trust prove as true ! 

Not one of Virginia's blue mountains 
Is so dear to our hearts as are you. 

McGaheysville, Rockingham County, 
Virginia, May, 1912. 

(Paeres S4W. :Ull) 



From the best information at hand, it appears that the 
settlement of Rockingham and adjacent sections of the Valley 
of Virginia began in or about the year 1727. As in all similar 
cases, exploration preceded permanent settlement. First, 
therefore, let us take a preliminary survey of the earliest 
known explorations. 

In 1669, the same year that La Salle came down to the 
falls of the Ohio, John Lederer, a German of education, said 
to have been once a Franciscan monk, came up from James- 
town and entered the Valley at or near Waynesboro; in 1670 
he crossed the Valley at or near Front Royal and Strasburg. 
Once above, once below the present boundaries of Rocking- 
ham, this German thus seemed to be marking out the district 
in which his fellow-countrymen should in the years to come 
build their homes and till their fruitful fields. Lederer's 
journal, giving an account of his explorations, with accom- 
panying map, was printed in an English translation at London 
in 1672, and again at Rochester, N. Y., in 1902. 

In 1705 the Governor, Council, and Burgesses of Virginia 
offered a monopoly of trade to any person or persons who 
should thereafter ' 'at his or their own charge, make discovery 
of any town or nation of Indians, situate or inhabiting to the 
westward of, or between the Appalatian mountains. "^ This 
was an act obviously intended to encourage pioneering west of 
the Blue Ridge. What response it elicited we do not know, but 
it may well be imagined that not many years passed before 

1. Hening's Statutes, Vol. Ill, page 468. 


some adventurous trader fared westward upon the heels of 
the hope it engendered. 

In 1716 Governor Spotswood made his famous expedition 
into the Valley, coming across the Blue Ridge, as we judge, 
at Swift Run Gap, and finding a land of "seek-no-farther" in 
the broad river plains about or above Elkton. We generally 
look upon Spotswood as doing for the Virginians, in respect 
to the Valley, what Caesar did for the Romans, in respect to 
Britain: as discovering it for them: and even as it was a cen- 
tury before the Romans followed Caesar westward, so it was 
at least a decade before the Virginians began to follow Spots- 
wood. In the meantime Germans occasionally came in from 
the northeast. More of Spotswood and his knights at another 

In 1722 Michael Wohlfarth, a German sectarian, is re- 
ported to have passed down through the Valley of Virginia 
going from Pennsylvania to North Carolina ;2 Dr. J. A. Wad- 
dell, after investigating various sources of information, is 
satisfied that in or about the year 1726 John Sailing and John 
Mackey explored the Valley, both settling therein later ;3 and 
it is likely that other white men, Germans, Scotch-Irish, and 
English, at other times before as well as after, walked in this 
great highway of nature from north to south. 

We are now coming to the time of permanent settlement, 
which v/e are able to fix some five years earlier than 1732, 
the date so long accepted as marking the beginnings in the 
Valley. In 1732 Jost Hite, with a number of other Germans, 
settled in the section now marked by Winchester; and in the 
same year John Lewis, with a number of other Scotch-Irish, 
located at or near the place where Staunton now stands; but 
it appears that as early as 1727 Adam Miller, a German, per- 
haps with a few others of his own nationality, was staking 
out claims on the south fork of the Shenandoah River, on or 
near the line that now divides Rockingham County from Page. 

2- Sachse's German Sectarians, Vol. II, page 332. 

3. Waddell's Annals of Augusta, edition 1902, page 24. 



On March 13, 1741-2, Adam Miller received from Gov- 
ernor William Gooch a certificate of naturalization, which re- 
cites that the said Miller had been a resident on the Shenan- 
doah for the past fifteen years. This fixes the date of his 
first settlement in 1726-7." In 1733, eight men, Adam Miller 
being one, addressed Governor Gooch in a petition, pray- 
ing him to confirm their title to 5000 acres of land in Mas- 
sanutting, purchased about four years past for more than 400 
pounds from Jacob Stover, reciting that they had moved upon 
the said land from Pennsylvania immediately after the pur- 
chase, and that they had located thereon at the time of the 
petition nine plantations and 51 people.'^ This would fix the 
date of settlement of the Massanutting colony in 1729 or 1730. 

On June 17, 1730, Jacob Stover, a native of Switzerland, 
was granted leave by the colonial council to take up 10,000 
acres of land on the south fork of the Shenandoah, for the 
settlement of himself and divers Germans and Swiss whom 
he proposed to bring thither within the next two years, the 
said land to be laid off in such tracts as he should judge 
fitting. '^ Stover selected his grant in two tracts, of 5000 acres 
each, one along the river between the present Luray and 
Eikton, the other along the same river, higher up, between 

4. The certificate is in the possession of Adam Miller's great-great- 
granddaughter, Miss Elizabeth B. Miller, of Eikton, Va. It was printed 
in the William and Mary College Quarterly, October, 1900, and in Way- 
land's "German Element," pages 37, 38, in 1907. 

5. The full text of this petition may be found in Palmer's Calendar 
of State Papers, Vol. I, pp. 219, 220, and in Wayland's "German Ele- 
ment," pp. 35, 36. It bears no date, but the date has been conclusively 
determined, by various circumstances, to be 1733. 

6. From records of the proceedings of the Council. These records, 
particularly such as refer to the settlement of the Valley of Virginia, 
were published in 1905-6 in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, Richmond, with valuable supplementary notes by Mr. Chas. E. 
Kemper, of Washington, D. C. 

Jacob Stover was an interesting character— enterprising to a 
fault, it would seem. It is charged that some of his representations in 



Elkton and Port Republic. '^ The conditions upon which 
Stover received his grant were that he should actually locate 
a family of settlers upon each thousand acres within two 
years. These were the conditions usually imposed upon those 
receiving large grants of land at that time. Upon satisfactory 
proof that these conditions had been discharged, a permanent 
title was given. 

The names of the eight petitioners of 1733, who had 
bought land in Massanutten of Jacob Stover in 1729 or 1730, 
were as follows: 

Adam Miller^ Philip Long Hans Rood^^ 

Abram Strickler Paul Lopg Michael Kaufman 

Mathias Selzer^ Michael Rhinehart 

The family names of all these men, with perhaps one or 
two exceptions, are to-day familiar and widely distributed, 
not only in the counties of Rockingham, Page, and Shenan- 
doah, but also in many quarters beyond the limits of Virginia. 

It is quite probable that Adam Miller at first pre-empted 
his claim on the Shenandoah by squatter right, later meet- 
ing properly the requirements of advancing governmental 
authority. It is possible, moreover, that the enterprising 
Stover sold him and his friends the Massanutten tract before 
the said Stover himself had a grant for it, since, as we have 
seen, the latter did not receive his grant until June 17, 1730. 
The alarm of the eight petitioners of 1733 arose from fear 

securing grants of land were worthy of Machiavelli. See Kercheval's 
History of the Valley of Virginia, reprint of 1902, page 46. 

7. Mr. Chas. E. Kemper fixes the location of Stover's lower tract of 
5000 acres, likely the same purchashed by Adam Miller and others in 1729. 
between Bear Lithia Spring, two miles below Elkton, in Rockingham 
County, and Newport, a village 12 miles further down the river, in Page 
County. See Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, January, 
1906, pp. 295-297. It should be stated, however, that the little vale and 
the village that still retain the name of Massanutten are a few miles far- 
ther northeast, beyond Newport. 

8. Adam Miller, who appears to have been the first settler of Rock- 
ingham and adjacent sections of the Valley, was born probably at Schrei- 



that William Beverly had an earlier or better claim than 
Stover. They had learned that Beverly w^as bringing suit 
against Stover for the land in question. 

On May 5, 1732, William Beverly, son of Robert Beverly 
the historian of Virginia, had received a grant of 15,000 
acres on the Shenandoah River, including "a place called the 
Massanutting Town," provided the same did not interfere 
with any previous grants made in that section. Obviously 

sheim, Germany, the native place of Alexander Mack, about the year 
1700. He came early in life to Lancaster County, Pa., with his wife and 
an unmarried sister. Later, going to Williamsburg, Va. , he heard of the 
beautiful valley between the mountains from some Spotswood knights, 
and followed their path westward, crossing the Blue Ridge at Swift Run 
Gap. Having seen and desired the goodly land in the river plain below, 
he brought his family thither. He secured first the "uppermost of the 
Massanutten lots," near the present Page County line, but probably in 
Rockingham; in 1741 he purchased 820 acres, including the great lithia 
spring near Elkton, and was living thereon in 1764 when he sold 280 acres 
thereof to his son-in-law, Jacob Bear. Here Adam Miller lived till he 
died about 1780, and here the Bear family still resides, the spring being 
known as Bear Lithia Spring. He was a soldier in the French and Indian 
War, as shown by the military schedule for 1758 in Hening's Statutes. 
In religion he was a Lutheran, and was probably buried at St. Peter's 
Church, four miles north of Elkton. Among his descendants are the Mil- 
lers, Bears, Kempers, Yanceys, Gibbons, Hopkins, Mauzys, Harnsberg- 
ers, and other prominent families of East Rockingham. A descendant, 
Hon. Chas. E. Kemper of Washington City, deserves special mention for 
his valuable publications regarding the pioneer. 

9. Mathias Selzer of "Missinotty" is referred to by Gottschalk, a Mo- 
ravian missionary, in his journal of 1748 as "the son-in-law of Jacob Bey- 
erly, of Lancaster"; as rich, generous, and respected in the whole region, 
but as bitter against the Moravians. He was evidently a Lutheran. In 1751 
he was one of the justices of Augusta County (Summers' History of 
Southwestern Virginia, p. 821), a fact which shows that he lived south- 
west of the Fairfax line. 

10- Hans Rood (John Rhodes) was doubtless the Mennonite preacher 
visited at Massanutten by Gottschalk in 1748, and, with his family, mas- 
sacred by Indians in 1766. See Virginia Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, July, 1904, page 69, and Kercheval's History of the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, reprint of 1902, pp. 101, 102. It is likely that Abram Strickler and 
Michael Kaufman were also Mennonites. 



there was an interference of this grant with the one made to 
Stover in 1730. On December 12, 1733, Beverly entered a 
caveat against Stover, but the latter was sustained in his 
title, and given deeds for his two tracts of 5000 acres each 
on the 15th of December, 1733." The fears of the eight 
petitioners, who held their title from Stover, were thus evi- 
dently set at rest. 

Recalling now the fact that Stover's upper tract of 5000 
acres, Jas well as the lower one, was granted upon the condi- 
tion that at least one family should be located on each 1000 
acres within tv/o years, and observing that he got full title 
for both tracts in December, 1733, we may safely conclude 
that no less than five families were settled by that date along 
the river between the points now marked by Elkton and Port 
Republic. Beginning, therefore, at or near the Fairfax line, 
which marked the northeast boundary of Rockingham till 1831, 
and following up the south fork of the Shenandoah River 
past the places now known as Shenandoah City, Elkton, and 
Island Ford to Lynnwood and Port Republic, we may say that 
at least fifteen families, all probably German or Swiss, were 
settled in that district by December, 1733. Counting five 
persons to a family, there were likely no less than 75 individ- 
uals; and among these we know the names of nine: Adam 
Miller, Abram Strickler, Mathias Selzer, Philip Long, Paul 
Long, Michael Rhinehart, Hans Rood, Michael Kaufman, and 
Jacob Stover— all doubtless heads of families. 

On April 23, 1734, the colonial council received a petition 
from a number of the inhabitants living on the northwest 
side of "the Blue Ridge of Mountains," that is to say in the 
Valley, praying that some persons in their section be appointed 
magistrates to determine differences and punish offenders. 
These petitioners lived so far away from Fredericksburg, the 
county-seat of Spotsylvania, and consequently so far from 

11- See records of the colonial council; also extracts therefrom printed 
in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1905, and 
January, 1906. 



the regular administration of justice, that the reasonableness 
of their request was obvious. Accordingly, Joost Hyte, 
Morgan Morgan, John Smith, Benjamin Bourden, and George 
Hobson were appointed justices within the limits aforesaid— 
that is, in the Valley. Hite and one or more of the others 
lived in the lower Valley, but it is likely that one or two of 
the five either lived in the upper Valley, or were frequently 
prospecting in that section. Burden later had large holdings 
of land in what is now Rockbridge County and adjacent sec- 

Moreover, in August, 1734, just a few months after the 
aforesaid petition was presented, the county of Orange was 
formed. This was an act likely intended to be a still more 
satisfactory response to the request and desire of the Valley 
settlers for the efficient administration of law and justice. It 
shows the growth of political organization westward, and also 
indicates that the settlement of the Valley had reached a 
somewhat general stage by 1734. The rapid development 
from 1734 to 1738 is implied in the fact that in 1738 an Act 
was passed providing for the organization of the Valley and 
the country westward therefrom into the counties of Freder- 
ick and Augusta. 

Let us now give attention to a number of items that show 
the progress of settlement from 1734 to 1738 in more detail. 

On October 28, 1734, John Tayloe, Thomas Lee, and 
William Beverly obtained a grant of 60,000 acres of land on 
the Shenandoah River, beginning on Stover's upper tract. 
This grant accordingly must have extended southwest from 
the vicinity of Port Republic, up the river past Grottoes, and 
a considerable distance into the present limits of Augusta 
County. It was bestowed upon the usual conditions, that one 
family be located upon each thousand acres within two 
years. ^2 

From Deed Book No. 1, Orange County, the following 
items have been selected: 

12- See Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, April, 1906, 
pp. 360-362. 



September 17, 1735, Jacob Stover sold 550 acres of land 
to Christian Clemon, the said land being on a small run, on 
the south side of the Shenandoah River, adjoining the 
"upper corner of Stover's lower 5000-acre tract. " Two of 
the three witnesses to this conveyance were Thomas Hill 
and W. Russell; the name of the third witness appears to be G. 

November 11, 1735, Jacob Stover sold two tracts of land 
to George Boone, the said tracts containing 500 and 1000 acres 
respectively, and being situated "near the end of North 
Mountain, '3 so called, on a small branch of Sherando 
River": part of 5000 acres laid out for Stover by the Virginia 
Council, June 17, 1730." Mordecai Simon and S. Hughes 
were witnesses. Boone is put down as having come from 
Oley, Pa. 

December 16, 1735, Jacob Stover sold 1100 acres, in three 
tracts, on Gerundo River, ^^ to Ludwick Stone. On the same 
date he sold three tracts, aggregating 500 acres, on the same 
river, to Mathias Selser. 

At least three more men bought land of Stover on this 
date : (1) John Prupecker, two tracts, of 300 acres and 200 
acres, respectively; both on Gerundo River, the larger adjoin- 
ing the land of Selser; witnesses, John Bramham, Gideon Marr, 

13. The Massanutten at this time was commonly referred to as the 
North Mountain, and the Blue Ridge as the South Mountain. 

14- Boone's Run is probably the small branch referred to, likely bear- 
ing its name from George Boone. It flows southeastward outof Runkle's 
Gap, in the Massanutten, directly toward Elkton, then turns northeast- 
ward and enters the river two miles below Elkton. One can hardly de- 
termine whether Stover sold this land from his upper or lower tract. One 
would at once say. From the lower, were it not likely that he had sold 
the lower tract entire to Adam Miller and his friends in 1729 or 1730. 

15. "Gerundo" is merely another form of Shenandoah. This name has 
been found in no less than twenty different spellings. See Wayland's 
"German Element, " page 3. No attempt is made herein to reduce the 
spelling of proper names, of either places or persons, to uniformity. The 
diverse forms in which they appear are part of the material of history, 
and have a value. 



William Ferrell; (2) Abraham Strickler, 1000 acres, at "Mes- 
enutten on Gerundo"; (3) Henry Sowter, 300 acres, on the 
south side of Gerundo, near the mouth of Mesenutten Creek. 

Some of these tracts, sold by Stover, in December, 1735, 
were possibly never within the limits of Rockingham County, 
but all were evidently near the Fairfax line, on one side or 
the other. 

We may place the following land sales, made in 1736, in 
the same locality. The complete records may be found in 
Orange County Deed Book No. 1. 

February 24, 1736, Ludwig Stein sold 517 acres, in three 
tracts, on Gerundo River, to Michael Cryter of Pennsyl- 
vania; witnesses, Gideon Marr, John Newport. On the same 
date Ludowick Stein sold 217 acres, on Gerundo River (part 
of land formerly granted to Jacob Stover) , to Michael Coff- 

September 21, 1736, Jacob Stover sold 400 acres, on the 
west side of Sherundo River, to Peter Bowman; witnesses, 
G. Lightfoot, Thomas Nichols. 

September 26, 1736, Henry Sowter sold about 300 acres, 
on Gerundo River, to Ludwig Stine. 

In Orange County Deed Books 1 and 2 are to be found 
records of the following land sales on the South Shenandoah 
in 1737 : 

February 24, three tracts; Ludwig Stein to Martin Coff- 
man of Pennsylvania; 300 acres on the south side of the river; 
217 on the north side; and 100 acres on the north side, at Elk 

October 22, 400 acres ; Peter Bowman to Christian Red- 
licksberger. This was probably the same tract that Bowman 
had purchased of Jacob Stover in September of the preceding 

Several transactions of special interest appear in the 
year 1738. On March 21 Jacob Stover sold to Christopher 
Franciski 3000 acres, with the mansion house, adjoining Peter 
Bowman on the river: part of 5000 acres patented to the 
said Stover, December 15, 1733. The same day Jacob Stover 



and his wife Margaret gave a bond to Franciski for £700. At 
another time v^^ithin the year they gave him another bond for 
£1000. To securethe payment of these bonds, Stover and his 
wife mortgaged 5000 acres on both sides of the Shenandoah 

River, i*^ 

How Stover could keep on selling his 5000-acre tracts, and 
still have them seven or eight years after the first sale, is a 
mystery. Possibly he took back some land on default of pay- 
ment; or he may have obtained more than two 5000-acre 


March 23, 1738, Ludwig Stein sold two tracts of land ag- 
gregating 1005 acres, on the Shenandoah River, to Philip 
Long; witnesses, John Newport and Christian Kleman.^'^ 

December 13, 1738, Jacob Stover obtained a grant of 800 
acres. This land was on the Shenandoah River, below Port 
Republic, and was at least in part on the south side of the 
river, opposite the * 'Great Island. " This island, containing 
about 60 acres, was purchased of the Franciscos on August 
31, 1751, by Thomas Lewis. Two days earlier, August 28, 
1751, Lewis had bought of the Franciscos a tract of 470 acres, 
on the south side of the river, part of the 800-acre tract granted 
to Stover in 1738. IS 

Christopher Franciscus— "the old Stop f el Franciscus," 
as he was termed in 1749 by one of the Moravian missionaries 
who passed through the Valley— ^^ had large holdings of land 
in what is now East Rockingham. He appears to have located 
in Lancaster County, Pa., in 1709.20- j^ jg not certain that 
he ever located permanently in Virginia himself, but he evi- 
dently was in the Valley frequently, and his sons, Christopher 
and Ludwig, were permanent residents. ^^ 

16. See Orange County Deed Book No. 2, pp. 229-234. 

17. Idem, page 260. 

IS. Augusta County Deed Book No. 4, pp. 58-65. 

19. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1903. 

20. Rupp's Thirty Thousand Names, page 436. 

21. For more particulars concerning Franciscus and his sons, see Way- 
land's "German Element," pp. 54-56. 



It is evident, from the foregoing particulars, that a con- 
siderable number of settlers had located within the present 
boundaries of Rockingham within the decade following the 
first known settlement in 1727. The earliest settlements 
were in the eastern side of the county, though it is quite 
likely that the tide of immigration that was creeping up the 
north fork of the Shenandoah had also reached and passed 
the Fairfax line, west of the Massanutten, by 1734 or 1735. 
As early as April 30, 1732, William Beverly wrote that the 
"northern men" were fond of buying land on the upper Shen- 
andoah, because they could get it there six or seven pounds 
cheaper a hundred acres than in Pennsylvania, and because 
they did not care to go as far as Williamsburg. 2- It should be 
remembered also that John Lewis located at or near Staun- 
ton in 1732, and that a number of his fellow-countrymen came 
into the upper Valley with him, or soon after he came. These 
facts are recalled here in addition to what is definitely known 
concerning the first settlers and settlements, to show that a 
large number of persons, Germans, Scotch-Irish, and others, 
had located in and about the present limits of Rockingham 
by the year 1738. The majority of these settlers had come 
up the Valley from Maryland and Pennsylvania, but a few 
had come across the Blue Ridge from East Virginia. 

The first grants of land were sought and secured along 
the main watercourses, though it is said that in many cases 
the settlers in a little while sought dwelling places on the 
higher lands toward the hills and mountains, because of the 
malaria that infested the bottom-lands. It is not likely, how- 
ever, that such conditions caused any one to relinquish per- 
manently his fertile holdings along the rivers; and with the 
development of civilization— the clearing of lowland thickets, 
the draining of swamps and marshes, the erection of better 
dwellings— the malaria gradually disappeared. 

22. Waddell's Annals of Augusta, 1902 edition, page 21. 



When the first white settlers located in what is now 
Rockingham County, the whole district west of the Blue 
Ridge was a part of the county of Spotsylvania. It was thus 
until 1734, when Orange was formed so as to include within 
its limits the country west of the Ridge. The Valley thus 
continued a part of Orange till 1738, when, by an Act of the 
colonial government, that part of Orange west of the said 
mountain was divided into the two new counties of Freder- 
ick and Augusta. The text of this Act has already been 
given in Chapter I. The district later organized as Rocking- 
ham County fell within the limits of Augusta, according to 
the division of the Valley made in 1738. The complete organ- 
ization of Frederick and Augusta was delayed for several 
years, the first courts being held for the former in 1743, and 
for the latter in 1745. In 1739 the inhabitants of the lower 
Valley, impatient at the delay, petitioned Governor Gooch, 
requesting that the said county of "Frederica" might im- 
mediately ' 'take place. ' ' About fifty men signed the petition, 
but none apparently from the upper part of the Valley. ^ We 
have already seen, however, in Chapter III, that in Augusta, 
particularly in that part later to become Rockingham, settle- 
ment was going rapidly on. From various sources we are 
enabled to get occasional glimpses through the heavy curtain 
of years, and recognize some of the figures moving upon that 
far-off, pioneer stage. 

1- For a list of the names signed to this petition, see Wayland's "Ger- 
man Element," pp. 57, 58. 


A few years years ago, Mr. Charles E. Kemper, a native 
of Rockingham, and Rev. William J. Hinke, a native of Ger- 
many, discovered in the archives of the old Moravian church 
at Bethlehem, Pa. , a series of diaries that had been kept by 
Moravian missionaries who traveled through the Valley and 
adjacent parts of Virginia during the years from 1743 to 1753. 
Mr. Hinke translated these diaries from the German, Mr, 
Kemper edited them by supplying historical and geographical 
notes, and then the annotated translations were published 
in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. In these 
matter-of-fact records, made by zealous heralds of the cross 
more than a century and a half ago, we find many things of 
interest relating to persons and conditions in what is now 
the county of Rockingham. 

On July 21, 1747, the Moravian brethren, Leonard Schnell 
and Vitus Handrup, were in the vicinity of Linville and 
Broadway, and staid over night with an Irishman who must 
have lived somewhere below Timberville. They had come 
across the m.ountains from what is now Pendleton County, 
West Virginia, and were traveling on down the Valley toward 
Winchester. The next spring Brother Gottschalk, who ap- 
pears to have followed thus far the general course taken by 
Schnell and Handrup, likely fell in with the same son of Erin. 
He writes: 

At night [about April 1, 1748] I lodged in a very disorderly, wicked 
and godless house of an Irishman, who kept an inn. The Saviour helped 
me through. 

Who this Irish innkeeper was cannot now be determined; 
but he lived near the site of Timberville. 

Under date of April 2 Brother Gottschalk writes: 

I continued the journey on foot to the Germans. I crossed the Chan- 
ador,2 which was pretty deep, cold, and had a rapid current. If the 
Lord had not supported me in the water by his angels, the rapid stream 
would have carried me off, for I was hardly twenty feet above a fall. 

Having gone down the Valley to Cedar Creek, Gottschalk 

2. The north fork of the Shenandoah. 



turned southeastward, crossed the Massanutten Mountain 
through the picturesque Powell's Fort, and came up the south 
fork of the Shenandoah to the Massanutten settlements. 
One night he lodged with John Rhodes, the Mennonite 
preacher, who was doubtless one of the pioneer settlers. 
The next day he went to the home of Matthias Selzer, of 
whom he speaks as follows: 

He is a rude and hostile man towards the Brethren. I was compelled 
to stay with this man all afternoon, because I wanted to make inquiries 
about the people in that district and because I was surrounded by water 
and terribly high mountains on all sides. He treated me very rudely, 
called me a Zinzendorfian, threatened me with imprisonment, and re- 
ferred to the travels and sermons of the Brethren in a very sarcastic 
manner. He said if I should get to the upper Germans they would soon 
take me by the neck, for he did not know what business I had among 
those people. In the first place we had been forbidden to travel around 
through the country, and then again they had such an excellent minister, 
that if the people were not converted by his sermons, they would cer- 
tainly not be converted by my teaching. But soon afterwards he related 
of the excellent Lutheran minister that he got so drunk in his house that 
on his way home he lost his saddle, coat, and everything else from the 
back of his horse. I was silent to all this, but prayed for the poor man 
that the Lord might open his eyes. 

Having staid over night with Mr. Seizor, Brother Gott- 
schalk set out eastward to cross the Blue Ridge. His host, 
with no mean courtesy, speeded the parting guest, the latter 
being witness: 

I started early. Matthias Selzer saddled two horses and took me not 
only across the South Bx'anch of the Chanador, but even five miles far- 
ther so that I could not go astray. 3 

Having crossed the Blue Ridge, Gottschalk descended 
into the beautiful valley of the Robinson River, now in Madi- 
son County, and became the guest of Rev. George Samuel 
Klug, pastor of Hebron Lutheran Church from 1739 to 1764. 
Mr. Klug was at this time extending his ministerial labors to 
the German communities in Rockingham and adjacent sec- 
tions of the Valley, and was doubtless the ' 'excellent Lutheran 

3. See Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, July, 1904. 



minister" of whom Matthias Selzer had spoken. After a day 
and a night in association with him, Brother Gottschalk gave 
him a fair report."* 

In July, 1748, Brethren Spangenberg and Reutz were in 
the vicinity of Brock's Gap and Timberville. On the 26th of 
the month they were at the home of Adam Roeder, for whom 
it is probable that Rader's Church, just v/est of Timberville, 
was named. The Brethren made note of the fact that Adam 
Rader's mother was at that time eighty-six years old, and 
that she was Hving in Lehigh County, Pa., a member of the 
Macungie [now Emmaus] congregation. Crossing the Valley 
toward the east, the missionaries came to the Massanutten 
settlements, where they reported Germans of "all kinds of 
denominations — Mennonites, Lutherans, Separatists, and In- 
spirationists. "5 

Early in December, 1749, Brethren Schnell and Brand- 
mueller were on a missionary tour in Virginia. They came 
down from the vicinity of Staunton, into what is now East 
Rockingham, and made record of their goings and doings in 
the following interesting narrative: 

On December 2nd we continued our journey the whole day, because 
we wished to be with the Germans on Sunday. Once we lost our way. 
But our desire to preach to-morrow strengthened us in our journey. In 
the evening we attempted to hire a man to go with us part of the way, 
but none was willing. We continued for a time down the Tschanator, and 
arrived rather late at the house of the sons of the old Stopfel Franciscus, 
who kept us over night. 

On Sunday, December 3rd, the young Franciscus went very early 
with us to show us the way to Matthias Schaub's,6 who, immediately on 
my offer to preach for them, sent messengers through the neighborhood 
to announce my sermon. In a short time a considerable number of people 
assembled, to whom I preached. After the sermon I baptized the child 
of a Hollander. We staid over night with Matthias Schaub. His wife 
told us that we were always welcome in their house. We should always 

4. For an extended account of Mr. Klug's life and labors, see Huddle's 
History of Hebron Lutheran Church, pp. 31-38. See also Virginia Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, January and July, 1904. 

5. Virginia Magazine, January, 1904, pp. 238-240. 



come to them whenever we came into that district. 

Towards evening a man from another district, Adam Mueller,^ passed. 
1 told him that I would Hke to come to his house and preach there. He 
asked me if I were sent by God. I answered, yes. He said, if I were 
sent by God I would be welcome, but he said, there are at present so 
many kinds of people, that often one does not know where they come 
from. I requested him to notify his neighbors that I would preach on the 
5th, which he did. 

On December 4th we left Schaub's house, commending the whole 
family to God. We traveled through the rain across the South Shenan- 
doah to Adam Mueller, who received us with much love. We staid 
over night with him. 

On December 5th I preached at Adam Mueller's house on John 7: 
''Whosoever thirsteth let him come to the water and drink." A number 
of thirsty souls were present. Especially Adam Mueller took in every 
word, and after the sermon declared himself well pleased. In the after- 
noon we traveled a short distance, staying over night with a Swiss. 8 
The conversation was very dry, and the word of Christ's sufferings found 
no hearing. 

On December 6th we came to Mesanoton. We staid with Philip 
Lung, 9 who had his own religion. I intended to preach, but he would not 
let us have his house, assuring us that none would come, since Rev. Mr. 
Klug had warned the people to be on their guard against us. We had 
soon an opportunity of seeing how bitter the people are towards us. 
Hence we concluded to leave, which we did, wishing God's blessing upon 

<5. Schaub (Shoup) died a month or two after Schnell's visit. On 
February 26th, 1750, Jacob Nicholas and Valentine Pence qualified as ex- 
ecutors of his will. See Augusta County Will Book No. 1, pp. 312, 313. 
He evidently lived on the west side of the river, somewhere between 
Port Republic and Elkton. 

7. Adam Miller, the first settler. 

8. Mr. Chas. E. Kemper thinks that this "Swiss" was likely Jacob 
Baer, Sr., a native of Zurich, and at this time a resident of East Rocking- 

9. Philip Long was one of the first Massanutten settlers. The Long 
family is still numerous and prominent in upper Page County. A mem- 
ber of this family was the wife of Gen. Sterling Price, of Missouri. 
Philip Long was born in Germany in 1678, and died in Page or Rocking- 
ham County, Va., May 4, 1755. 



3 « 


the district. An unmarried man, H. Reder, took us through the river. 
He told us that eight weeks before he had visited Bethlehem, lo 

On their tour through Virginia in the fall and winter 
of 1749, to which reference has just been made, Breth- 
ren Schnell and Brandmueller made out a table of dis- 
tances over which they travelled, beginning at Bethlehem, 
Pa., crossing Maryland into what is now West Virginia, fol- 
lowing up the South Branch of the Potomac through what 
are now the counties of Hardy and Pendleton, and going be- 
yond, even to the valleys of the James and New River, then 
returning to Pennsylvania through the Shenandoah Valley. 
Beginning about Staunton, the following distances show the 
route taken through Rockingham and Shenandoah: 

[From N. Bell] To Franciscus at the Soud Schanathor, 30 
To Matthias Schaub, 4 

To Adam Mueller and back again across the river, 8 

To Philip Lung and Mesanothen, 16 

To Captain John Funk, 20^^ 

In the autumn of 1753 a colony of the Moravian Brethren 
migrated from Pennsylvania to North Carolina. Their way 
led up through the Valley. In their record they mention the 
Narrow Passage and Stony Creek (in Shenandoah County), 
and speak of camping alongside the "Shanidore Creek," at a 
place that must now be located between Hawkinstown and 
Red Banks. Five miles further on they crossed the "Shani- 
dore," and camped close to the bank to observe Sunday (Oc- 
tober 21, 1753). They were now in the famous Meem's Bot- 
toms, between Mt. Jackson and New Market. Brethren 
Loesch and Kalberland were bled, because they were not well, 
and all gave themselves a treat by drinking tea. The next 
day, coming on up the Valley, they found, in the vicinity of 
New Market or Tenth Legion, a tavern-keeper named Severe. 
This was evidently Valentine Severe, father of General John 
Sevier, and a relative of Francis Xavier. The next part 

10. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1903, pp. 

11. Idem, July, 1904, page 82. 



of the narrative gives so many realistic touches relating to 
the Rockingham of that day, that it is quoted herewith ver- 

We inquired about the way, but could not get good information. 
After traveling three and a half miles, we found two passable roads. Bro. 
Gottlob and Nathanael preceded us on the left hand road. They met a 
woman, who informed them about the way. Then they came back to us 
again and we took the road to the right. We traveled ten miles without 
finding water. It was late already and we were compelled to travel five 
miles during the dark night. We had to climb two mountains, which 
compelled us to push the wagon along or we could not have proceeded, 
for our horses were completely fagged out. Two of the brethren had to 
go ahead to show us the road, and thus we arrived late at Thom. Harris's 
plantation. Here we bought feed for our horses and pitched our tent a 
short distance from the house. The people were very friendly. They 
lodge strangers very willingly. 

The "two mountains" above mentioned were probably 
spurs of Chestnut Ridge; and "Thom Harris" was probably 
no other than Thomas Harrison, founder of Harrisonburg. It 
is Hkely that Harrison had already (1753) erected his stone 
mansion house, now occupied by Gen. John E. Roller as a 
law office, and, according to the present lay-out of the town, 
situated on Bruce Street, just west of Main; and that the 
wayfaring brethren pitched their tent beside the big spring 
that was for so many years a familiar rendezvous at the west 
side of Court Square. Harrisonburg still has the habit of 
being hospitable to strangers. 

We follow the brethren a few miles further, as they go 
on toward ' 'Augusti Court House, a little town of some 
twenty houses, surrounded by mountains on all sides." 

On October 23 we started at daybreak [from Thomas Harrison's]. 
We had bought a small barrel of milk to use for dinner, but it broke and 
we lost all. Two miles farther we bought some meat, and then traveled 
six miles farther to North River, where we ate our dinner. This creek is 
half as large as the Lecha [Lehigh], but it is impassable at high water, 
nor is a canoe in the neighborhood. 13 

The brethren had thus come in their journey to the 

12. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1904, pp.. 



vicinity of Mt. Crawford. They tell of their dinner there of 
meat and dumplings, and of their experiences farther on, at 
Middle River, at Robert Bohk's, and at "Augusti Court 
House"; but having followed them to the borders of Rock- 
ingham, we bid them farewell. 

Samuel Kercheval, the old historian of the Valley, says: 

From the best evidence the author has been able to collect, . . . 
the settlement of our Valley progressed without interruption from the 
native Indians for a period of about twenty-three years. In the year 
1754, the Indians suddenly disappeared, and crossed the Alleghany Moun- 
tains. The year preceding, emissaries from the west of the Alleghany 
Mountains came among the Valley Indians and invited them to move off. 
This occurrence excited suspicion among the white people that a storm 
was brewing in the west, which it was essential to prepare to meet. 13 

Kercheval dates the beginning of Valley settlement in 
1732. Counting thence twenty-three years would give 1755, 
the year of Braddock's defeat. The war with the French 
and Indians began in 1754, and continued till 1763. During 
this time Indian raids into the Valley from the west were 
frequent, particularly in the two or three years following the 
defeat of Braddock. Occasionally the bands of red men were 
led by French officers. It was in April of 1758 that the mas- 
sacres at Upper Tract and Fort Seybert took place, in which 
more than forty persons were killed, some twenty-odd others 
being carried into captivity. The Indians at Fort Seybert 
were led by the famous chief Killbuck. From 1777 to 1787 
both Upper Tract and Fort Seybert were within the bounda- 
ries of Rockingham County, the site of the latter being west 
of Brock's Gap, only a few miles beyond the present Rock- 
ingham line.'* 

13. Kercehval's History of the Valley of Virginia, reprint of 1902, 
page 49. 

14. For detailed accounts of the massacres at Upper Tract and Fort 
Seybert, see Kercheval, pp. 89-91, and Morton's History of Pendleton 
County, West Virginia, pp. 42-50. 



Daniel Smith (Lt.)'^ Ury Umble 

Mathias Tice (Dice?) Peter Vaneman 

Christian Tuley Jacob Wiece 

Gunrod Umble Joseph Wiece 

Martin Umble Filey Yacome 

Among the persons named in the schedule as having fur- 
nished supplies to the the troops, the following were all 
probably from Rockingham: 

James Bruister James Fowler 

Wooley Coonrod Felix Gilbert^^ 

George Coplinger Ruben Harrison 

James Cowan Alexander Hering 

Charles Diver Leonard Hire 

Hugh Diver Nicholas Huffman 

Roger Dyer Archibald Huston 

William Dyer Gabriel Jones^ 

Michael Erhart Joseph Love 

Evan Evans Henry Peninger 

Nathaniel Evans Matthew Rolestone 

Rhoda Evans William Rolestone 

Lodowick Folk Ephraim Voss^^ 

18- Daniel Smith, a younger brother of Abraham, was a captain of 
militia in 1776, and in 1778 was one of the first justices of Rockingham, 
being presiding justice at the time of his death in 1781. He lived at 
Smithland, two miles below Harrisonburg, and the first sessions of the 
county court were held at his house. His wife was Jane Harrison. He 
had been a justice in Augusta County, and had held the office of sheriff 
in that county. When the troops returned from Yorktown, in the fall of 
1781, he was colonel of militia, and was thrown from his horse and fatally 
injured in the grand review held in Rockingham to celebrate the victory. 
See Waddell's Annals of Augusta, pp. 150-152. 

19. Felix Gilbert was a well known citizen of Rockingham, wealthy, 
and prominent in many connections. 

20. Gabriel Jones, "The Lawyer," lived on the river, a mile or two be- 
low Port Republic, the place now being known as Bogota. 

21. Voss may have lived in Southwest Virginia, since Fort Voss (Vause) 
is said to have been at the head of Roanoke River, in the present county 
of Montgomery, about ten miles from Christiansburg. 



By the favor of Mr. John T. Harris the author has been 
enabled to go over an old day book used from 1774 to 1777, 
etc., by Felix Gilbert, who lived and kept a store at or near 
the place since known as Peale's Cross Roads, five miles or so 
southeast of Harrisonburg. A number of items, copied from 
this old book, are given below. They have personal, social, 
and economic interest, as well as some pohtical significance. 

Reed, for the Bostonians 

Of Patrick Frazier - - - 1 bus. wheat 

Jos. Dicktom - - . 2 do. 

George Boswell - - - 5^ do. (5 bus. Retd.) 

James Walker - - - 1 do. Return'd 

George Clark - - - 1 do. 

James Beard - - - 1 do. 

Robt. Scott & son - - - 2 do. 

It is evident from the above that contributions were being 
made in this part of Virginia, as well as elsewhere, for the re- 
lief of the patriots of Boston, whose harbor had been closed by 
Act of Parliament in 1774, as a penalty for the ' 'Boston Tea 

Monday, Deer. 5th, 1774 
John Alford (weaver) Dr. 

To 1 pr. Shoe Buckles - - - - - 1 [s.] 3 [d.] 

To 1 qt. whisky - - 1 

To 1 pr. Compasses ------ 9 

To 3 doz. Buttons ----- - 20 

[Same Date.] 
Robt. Elliot Pr. Order Dr. 

To pd. Schoolmaster ----- 60 

James Wayt Pr. Order Dr. 

To pd. Schoolmaster - - _ . . 6 

Dennis MeSwyny (Schoolmaster) Cr. 

[By above two items and] 
Wm. Ham ----.... 44 

Esther Taylor - - - ----- 10 

Wednesday, Deer. 7th, 1774. 
Little Jack - - ..... Dr. 

To 1 pt Tin - - - - - - - 9 [d.] 

i pt. whisky ------- 



It is possible that Little Jack was an Indian. Whiskey 
was a common commodity in the Valley in Revolutionary days, 
as doth abundantly appear not only from Felix Gilbert's old 
ledger, but also from the records of the court, a number of 
which records may be found in the next chapter. 

Deer. 13, 1774 
Col. Thos. Slaugh'r Dr. 

To a handsaw ------- 5 g 

To Drawg Knife ------- 2 9 

a hammer -------- 2 — 

1 augr -------- 13 

1 pr shears - 1 — 

200 nails ------,. 2 10 

2 Gimlets -------- — 6 

1 Tin Cup -------- — 6 

li yds. flannl ------- 3 i 

Friday, Deer. 23d, 1774. 
Capt. Danl. Love Dr. 

To 1 Gal. Rum ------ 50 

4 lbs. Sugar ------- 34 

To 4 pr. Garters ------ 30 

Colo. John Frogg Dr. 

To 1 knife & fork 2 3 

To 1 saek salt ------- 1 1 

Saturday, Deer. 24th, 1774 
Little Jaek Dr. 

To 6 pipes ------ 

Tuesday, Deer. 27, 1774 
Jacob Grubb per self & Frow 

To lib. Lead ------- 6 

To 1 stamp'd Handhf ----- 36 

To 27^ lbs. Iron at 4 d. - - - - - 9 2 

To 6 lbs. Eng. Steel ------ 6 

To h lb. Blister'd do. ----- - 4i 

To 2 setts knit'g needles ----- g 

Tuesday, J any. 10th, 1775 
Jacob Lincoln 

To 24J lbs. Blistered steel - . - - 18 4J 

To Uh lbs. Eng. do. - - - - - 14 6 

To 1 hank silk ------ 10 



Saturday, J any. 14th, 1775 
Jack (bigg) Dr. 

To i pt whisky 4 [d.] 

Were "Big Jack" and "Little Jack" both Indians? It 
would so appear from the nature of their purchases. Indians 
were frequently seen in this part of the Valley at a much 
later period. 

Saturday, Feby. 11th, '75 

Gawin Hamilton Dr. 

To 5000 E. nails 17 6 

To 3 Chizels 3 

To 1 Rasp ------- 13 

To 1 pr. saddle strops ----- 10 

Friday, Feb. 17th, '75 

Capt. Rowland Thomas Dr. 

To 85 lbs. tallow at 6d - - - - 17 6 

To 237 lbs. Flower at 12-lc - - - - 1 9 7i 

Monday, Feby. 20th, 1775. 

Mr. Thos. Lewis pr Capt. Smiths Cesar 
To makg Ring& Staple 
& pin for Ox Yoke -..-.- 39 

Thursday, March 2d, 1775. 

Mr. Gabl. Jones — per Jimm — Dr. 

To 6 Venison Hams at 1-9 - - - - 10 6 

Thursday, 9th March, 1775. 

Doctr. Thos. Walker22 pr Mr. Gilmer 
To 2 yds Osnabrugs 2 2 

Mr. Peachy Gilmer Dr. 

To 23 yd. wt. linin 3 3 3 

To 2 Oz. wt. thread ----- 30 

To 2 felt Hats - 4 

To 2 qr. paper 36 

22. This was probably the distinguished Dr. Thos. Walker, of Albe- 
marle County, Va. 



Friday, March 17th, 1775. 

Isaac Zane,23 pr W. Crow Cr. 

By 20—0—12 Iron 20 2 2 

Tuesday, May 30th, 1775. 

Mr. John Madison24 Senr. pr self 

To 18i yds. Velveret 1 14 

Saturday, July 1st, 1775, 

Danl. Love Dr. 

To 2 Sickles 2 3 

Thursday, July 6th, '75 
Jacob Purky Cr. 

By 1 day Reaping 2 6 

By 1 day do. yr. negro ----- 26 

[No date: Probably 1777:] 

one Davis a preacher has a Hyde of Leather— John wilson owes 3 
Dollars — an old Quaker on Stephen jays place — Saml. watts owes some- 

Feby. 16th — 1778 Boler Lee has rented ye plantation I had of Thos. 
Dooley on ye South mountain [Blue Ridge], he is to have it for one year 
& to make up ye Fences & pay 400 lbs. of good merchantable Tobo. or 12 
Barrils of Corn, if he Dos not keep it more than one year he is to let ye 
person that sukceeds him put in a fall Crop. 

List of Tithables for 1775. 

Felix Gilbert was probably authorized by the Augusta 
County court to take the list of tithables in his distirct. At 
any rate, the following list, dated 1775, is found written in 
his book. Most of the names herein given are still familiar 
in Rockingham: 

John Coutes 1 Heny. Hunger 1 

Robt. Heth 2 Jno. Tack 1 

Jno. Deneston 2 Henry Tack 1 

33. Gen. Isaac Zane had iron works on Cedar Creek, the present 
boundary between the counties of Shenandoah and Frederick. He was 
perhaps a brother of Elizabeth Zane. 

24. John Madison was the first clerk of Augusta County, and was the 
father of Bishop Madison. He lived at Port Republic. 



Jacob Tack 

Adam Siller 


Chas. Foy 


Peter Siller 


John Foy 

Heny. Siller 


John Mungor 

Jacob Arkinbright 


John Miller 

John Rush 


Paul Lingle 

Henry Deck 


John Lingle 

John Deck 


ID^anl. Price 

Jacob Deck 


John Futch 

Lewis Rinehart 


Fredk. Haynes 

Geo. Hoofman 


Heny. Null 

Michl. Hoofman 


Heny. Tamwood 

Fredk. Armontrout 


Jno. Null 

Mathias Shooler 


Jacob Lingle, Jur. 

Ullry Hushman 


Mathi's Kersh 

Ullry Hushman, Jr. 


Michl. Siller 

Peter Nasmus 


Avonas Bowyer 

Geo. Conrod 


John Bowyer 

Conrod Petorfish 


Jno. Futch, Jur. 

Jacob Moyer 


Saml. Magot 

Peter Brunomer 


James Madday 

Anthony Brunomer 

John Hardman 

Danl. Sink 

John Hadrick 

Heny. Cook 

Stephen Hansberger 

Heny. Armentrout 

Adam Hansberger 

Heny. Price 

Geo. Fridley 

Boler Lee 

Jacob Hammer 

Michl. Dofflemire 

Wm. Summersetts 

Windal Leverts [?] 

Geo. Blose 

Adam Blose 

Conrad Taylor 

Conrod Young 

Martin DofFilmire 

Wm. Smith, Jr. 

Christian Teter 

Mijah Smith 

Heny. Miller 

Brustor Smith 

Boston Noster 

Wm. Smith 

Thos. Barnet 

Jacob Nicholas 

Matthew Petmus 

Richd. Welsh 

Wm. Haney 

John Lawn 

— 5&— 


Thos. Doolin 1 

Wm. Lee 1 

Zephaniah Lee 1 

Zachariah Lee 1 

Martin Crawford 1 

Robert Lynes 1 

James Raynes [?] 1 

Thos. Berry 1 

Jas. Raines Jur. 1 

Jas. Berry 1 

John Siller 1 

Christian Miller 1 

Philip Lingle 1 

Jno. Armontrout 1 

Augustian Price 3 

Geo. Mallow 3 

Wm. Pence 1 

Jacob Grace 1 

Geo. Pence [?] 

John Pence 1 

Chas. Rush 1 

John Rush 1 

Anthoney Aler 2 

William Oler 1 

Henry Oler 1 

John Oler 1 

John Fults 3 

Cutlip Arie 1 

Robert Hook, Sr. 2 

Evan Evins 1 

John Hooper 1 

Jonathan Evans 1 

Saml. Twichet 1 

John White, Sr. 5 

John White, Jr. 1 

The evidence is already abundant in the foregoing par- 
ticulars to show that the settlement of Rockingham was go- 

Robert Hill 


Willm. Lee, Jr. 


David Koch 


Rubin Roch 


Willm. Boswell 


John Frizor 


Ephraim Wilson 


Wm. Coile 


Thos. Huet 


William Campbell 


Jno. Jackson 


James Bruster 


Felix Gilbert 


John Craig 


William Hook 

James Hook 

Robt. Hook Irish 

James Archer 

George Shaver 

James Scott 

Nat Scott 

Robt. Scott, Jr. 

Jacob Scott 

"Mii^v^ninc? ivr 


IN ICnUlcilS iVi 

Michl. Trout 

Margt. Purkey 


Jacob Purkey 


John Pence, Jur. 

Henry Pence 

Adm. Pence 

John Purkey 

Henry Purkey 

Jacob Pence 

Elijah Hook 



ing on steadily and rapidly during the whole period now under 
consideration, that is, the years from 1738 to 1777. The 
records concerning inn-keepers, military organizations, and 
well established communities, as well as those concerning 
numerous individuals widely distributed, indicate conclusively 
that even as early as the first courts in Augusta (1745) that 
part of the county now included in Rockingham was dotted 
over with clearings and homesteads. Additional evidence, if 
it were needed, might be found in the records of the old 
churches, some of which can easily trace their organization 
back mto the early 18th century. St. Peter's, below Elkton, 
Peaked Mountain Church, at or near McGaheysville, Rader's 
Church, near Timberville, Friedens, near Cross Keys, St. 
Michael's, above Bridgewater, and Spader's Church, near 
Pleasant Valley, not to mention others, are all old churches, 
and in a few of them are well-preserved chronicles of very 
early days. The most complete and best preserved records 
are perhaps those found in the Peaked Mountain Church. 
Parts of these records were translated and published in 1905, 
by W. J. Hinke and C. E. Kemper, in the William and Mary 
College Quarterly. A complete translation should be given 
to the pubhc in convenient form, since dozens of families, 
not only in Rockingham County, but also in many other 
parts of the United States, would find therein matter of 
great interest. 

A few of the Peaked Mountain records of births and bap- 
tisms go back to 1750 and before, but the regular organiza- 
tion of the congregation must, perhaps, be placed a few years 
later. The following extract is given from the above-men- 
tioned translation by Mr. Hinke, as containing certain facts 
of historical interest relating to the period under considera- 
tion, together with a number of family names that have been 
familiar in Rockingham for more than a century and a half. 

Agreement Between the Reformed and Lutheran Congregations 
Worshipping in the Peaked Mountain Church: Rockingham Co., 
Va., Oct. 31, 1769. 

In the name of the Triune God and with the consent of the whole 



congregation, we have commenced to build a new house of God, and it is 
by the help of God, so far finished that the world may see it. 

We have established it as a union church, in the use of which the 
Lutherans and their descendants as well as the Reformed and their de- 
scendants, shall have equal share. But since it is necessary to keep in re- 
pair the church and school house and support the minister and school- 
master, therefore, we have drawn up this writing that each member sign 
his name to the same and thereby certify that he will support the min- 
ister and school-master and help to keep in repair the church and the 
school-house as far as lies in his ability. 

Should, however, one or another withdraw himself from such Chris- 
tian work, (which we would not suppose a Christian would do), we have 
unitedly concluded that such a one shall not be looked upon as a member 
of our congregation, but he shall pay for the baptism of a child 2s. 6d., 
which shall go into the treasury of the church, for the confirmation of the 
child 5s., which shall be paid to the minister as his fee; and further, 
should such a one come to the table of the Lord and partake of the Holy 
Communion, he shall pay 5s., which shall go into the treasury of the 
church; and finally, if such a one desires burial in our graveyard, he shall 
pay 5s. , which shall also be paid into the treasury of the church. 

In confirmation of which we have drawn up this document, and signed 
it with our several signatures. 

Done in Augusta County, at the Peaked Mountain and the Stony 
Creek churches, on October 31st, Anno Domini, 1769. 

The present elders: 

George Mallo, Sr. Nicholas Mildeberger 


John X Hetrick Frederick Ermentraut 


Philip Ermentraut Jacob Bercke 

Henry Ermentraut his 

Daniel Kropf J^^o^ 1. E. Ergebrecht 

Peter Mueller, Sr. ^^^^ g^^^^^ 


Adam Hetrich Jacob Ergebrecht 

T^^^^ John Mildeberger 

Jacob Traut t u tt 

. ^- Ti • 1- John Hausman 

Augustme Preisch ^ ,^ ,, 

George Schillinger George Mallo, Jr. 

Anthony Oehler Jacob Lmgle 

John Mann P^ter Niclas 

Alwinus Boyer Jacob Kropf 

Charles Risch Jacob Niclas 

Henry Kohler George Zimmerman 

William Long Christian Geiger 



Augustine Preisch, Jr. Peter Euler 

Conrad Preisch William Mchel 

Jacob Kissling Jacob Risch 

Jacob Bens J«hn Ermentraut 

.J TT Corad Loevenstein 

Adam Herman ^ , _, , . 

John Schaefer 

Michael Mallo Christopher Ermentraut 

/-.I. • ^ t- *^v TT Martin Schneider 

Christopher X Hau x . t. 

mark John Bens 

In closing this chapter it will be of interest to record the 
fact that the part of Augusta County now known as Rock- 
ingham furnished at least one company of soldiers in Dun- 
more's War, and that this company took part in the famous 
battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774. This company 
was commanded by Captain, later, Colonel William Nalle, who 
Hved in East Rockingham, and was, in 1778, made one of 
the first justices of Rockingham County.-^ It is also a fact of 
special interest that it was a Rockingham man, Valentine 
Sevier, who, with James Robertson, later known as the father 
of Middle Tennessee, first discovered the presence of the In- 
dians early on that fateful morning at Point Pleasant. Seyier 
was a younger brother of General John Sevier, and was born 
in Rockingham in 1747. In 1773 he went to the southwest, 
and was thus a member of Captain Evan Shelby's company in 
1774. He and Robertson went out before day at Point Pleas- 
ant to hunt turkeys, and thus discovered the Indian army. 
He was a captain in the Revolution, and took part in the battle 
of King's Mountain. After other military services, in which 
he rose to the rank of militia colonel, he removed to Clarks- 
ville, Tenn., where he died in 1800. 

Among the other captains who took part at Point Pleasant, 
as given by Thwaites and Kellogg, were Benj. Harrison, John 
Skidmore, Joseph Haynes, and Daniel Smith. 

Benjamin Harrison (1741-1819) was a son of Daniel Har- 

25. For a list of the men in Captain Nalle's company, see the muster 
roll in the Appendix. This muster roll is copied from Thwaites and Kel- 
logg's Documentary History of Dunmore's War, page 405. 



rison of Rockingham; father of Peachy Harrison, grandfather 
of Gessner Harrison. He was a colonel in Mcintosh's cam- 
paign (1777), and led troops in 1781 to aid Lafayette against 
Cornwallis. John Skidmore, who was wounded at Point 
Pleasant, was a soldier in the French and Indian War and 
one of the first justices of Rockingham County. Daniel Smith, 
though living at this time in Southwest Virginia, was prob- 
ably a son of Colonel Daniel Smith of Rockingham. Joseph 
Haynes was a resident of Rockingham or of some section ad- 
jacent. In Felix Gilbert's day book before me, covering sev- 
eral years from December 5, 1774, the names of Capt. Jos. 
Haynes, Capt, John Skidmore, and Capt. Benjamin Harrison, 
as well as the name of Capt. William Nalle, frequently appear. 
Evidently they were all frequent customers at Gilbert's store, 
which, as shown above, was not far from Harrisonburg. It 
is reasonable to suppose, therefore, that a number of the men 
in the companies commanded by Harrison, Skidmore, and 
Haynes were also from Rockingham, though the rolls of these 
companies seem not to be preserved. ^^^ 

26- For additional particulars regarding Harrison and Smith, the reader 
is referred to Waddell's Annals of Augusta, Boogher's Gleanings of Vir- 
ginia History, and Thwaites and Kellogg's Documentary History of Dun- 
more ' s War. In the last may also be found a sketch of Valentine Sevier, Jr. 

IJoikingliam County Court House, Erected l><'.i;> 
Photo by Dean i Tasfe K.-'j 

[Page 168J 

Views of Third County Court House, is; l-lSSMi Rear 

Photo by Mon-ison 

Second County Court House. 1»^83-1K74 
Photo loaned by Mrs. C. S. Burkholder 



In October, 1777, the Act providing for the creation of 
the County of Rockingham from Augusta was passed by the 
Virginia legislature; and early the next year, to wit, in April 
1778, the first court for the new county was held. The board 
of justices w^as in session two days, and transacted a great 
deal of important business, not only in process of civil organ- 
ization, but also in reference to various personal interests ©f 
individual citizens. 

The following paragraph, copied from the original min- 
ute-book of the court, will get the situation and the several 
actors on the scene clearly before us: 

Be it remembered that on the xxvii Day of April MDCCLXXviii a 
Commission of the peace and a Commission of Oyer & Terminer under the 
Hand of his Excellency Patrick Henry Esq. Governor in Chief, dated the 
xxiv Day of March MDCCLXXviii directed to Silas Hart, Daniel Smith, 
Abraham Smith, John Gratten, Josiah Davison, John Skidmore, George 
Boswell, Thomas Hewitt, John Thomas, William Nalle, Robert Davis, 
James Dyer, Henry Ewing, William McDowell, Anthony Ryder, John 
Fitzwater & Isaac Hinckel Gent. Justices for the County of Rockingham 
being read, Daniel Smith & Abraham Smith having administer'd the 
Oath of a Justice of Peace as prescribed by Act of Assembly also the 
Oath of a Justice of Oyer & Terminer to Silas Hart Gent, and then the 
said Silas Hart administered each of the said Oaths to Daniel Smith, 
Abram Smith, John Gratten, Josiah Davidson, George Bowell, Thomas 
Hewitt, John Thomas, James Dyer, Henry Ewing, William McDowell, 
Anthony Ryder, John Fitzwater & Isaac Hinckle, aforesaid, who were 
sworn in the Commission of the peace & Justices of Oyer accordingly. 

Following out a commission issued March 24, 1778, by 
Governor Patrick Henry, Silas Hart was sworn in as sheriff, 
with Gabriel Jones and Robert Cravens as sureties. Gaven 


Hamilton qualified as deputy sheriff. Thomas Lewis pro- 
duced a commission as county surveyor, from the president 
and masters of "the Colledge of Wm & Mary, " and was sworn 
into the office, having Daniel Smith and Abraham Smith as 
sureties. Peter Hog was unanimously chosen and appointed 
clerk of the peace. 

On this first day of the court, April 27, 1778, the follow- 
ing justices were present: 

Daniel Smith James Dyer 

Abraham Smith Henry Ewing 

John Gratten William McDowell 

Josiah Davidson Anthony Ryder 

George Boswell John Fitzwater 

Thomas Hewitt Isaac Hinckle 

John Thomas 

Various matters in the settlement of estates, etc., were 
transacted. The minutes are signed by Abraham Smith, but 
apparently written by someone else. 

The court resumed its session the next day, April 28, 
1778. At the opening six of the justices were present, 
namely: Daniel Smith, Abraham Smith, John Thomas, John 
Gratten, Isaac Hinckle, and John Fitzwater; an hour or two 
later Thomas Hewitt and James Dyer came in, and later still 
Josiah Davidson. A great deal of important business was 
transacted this day, in addition to the formal provisions for 
the settling of several estates. 

The sheriff was ordered to summon 24 freeholders as a 
grand jury for the county; 

William Bush, Jeremiah Beasly, Henry Brewster, George 
Huston, William Magill son of John, Elliot Rutherford. John 
Fulton, Jr., John Bryan, Jr., Reuben More, Mathias Leas, 
Jr., Joseph Custard, William Dever, Beerton Blizard, Samuel 
Skidmore, and Jacob Ellsv/orth were appointed constables in 
their respective districts; 

Abraham Smith was recommended to the governor and 
council as a fit man for the office of county lieutenant; Daniel 
Smith was in like manner recommended for colonel, Benja- 



min Harrison for lieutenant colonel, and John Skidmore for 

John Gratten, John Thomas, and Daniel Smith were ap- 
pointed coroners for the county; 

It was ordered that Gawen Hamilton, being first sworn, 
should run the division line between Rockingham and Au- 
gusta; also the "Length of the County from the said Line to 
Lord Fairfax's Line, or run any other Line by the Direction 
of Mr. Lewis the Surveyor to enable him to make out a plan 
of the County"; 

Gawen Hamilton was recommended as a proper man to 
serve as deputy surveyor under Mr. Lewis, "if he is pleased 
to appoint him to that office"; 

Gawen Hamilton was appointed a captain of the militia in 
the county; Joseph Smith, 1st lieutenant; John Rice, 2d lieu- 
tenant; and Wm. Smith (3d lieutenant?) ; Wm. Herring was 
appointed 2d lieutenant, and Joseph Dictam, ensign, in Capt. 
Robert Craven's company; Richard Reagen was appointed 
2d lieutenant, and Joseph Smith ensign, in Capt. Daniel 
Smith's company; 

It was ordered that Daniel Smith drav/ from the treas- 
urer of the Commonwealth 12 pounds, and "lay it out for the 
Support of Bridget Fowler the distressed Wife of John Fow- 
ler a Soldier in the continental Army from this County." 

Although Silas Hart had been sworn in as sheriff, under 
the governor's commission, he was not long permitted to 
enjoy the office; for in the record of the second day's session 
of the court we find a minute to the effect that Josiah David- 
son, John Skidmore, and George Boswell were recommended 
to the governor as candidates fit for appointment to the posi- 
tion. This procedure is explained in the same minute. It 
appears that Silas Hart and Daniel Smith, having been senior 
justices in Augusta, and having thereby held the office of 
sheriff before the division of the county, had agreed to relin- 
quish their claim to the office when they should fall vdthin 
the new county of Rockingham. Accordingly, they now 
agreed, or were required, to allow the office to be handed 



down the line of seniority. Josiah Davidson, one of the three 
nominees, was commissioned by the governor, and was sworn 
in as sheriff at the next monthly session of the court. 

The court, on the second day of the first session, having 
taken into consideration the "properest place" for the holding 
of courts until public buildings could be erected, unanimously 
resolved to hold court at the house of Daniel Smith, Gent., 
until the said public buildings were completed. The court at 
the time of this resolution was doubtless sitting at the home 
of Mr. Smith; for the Act estabhshing the county had desig- 
nated his house as the place for holding the first court. 

' 'Smithland, " now the residence of Geo. W. Liskey, stands 
on the southeast side of the Valley Pike, just a mile or two 
below Harrisonburg. It is one of the finest old country 
homesteads in many a mile. Situated near the brow of a 
lofty eminence, it commands a splendid view of vales, hills, 
and distant mountains. At the sharp turn of the pike just 
below the house, on the high bank at the left-hand side, the 
site of an old building may still be discerned: there, tradition 
says, the first justices of the county sat in their initial 

At the same time that Smithland was selected as the 
temporary seat of justice, it was ordered that Daniel Smith 
and Josiah Davidson be empowered to contract with some 
person for building a "square Log Jayl or prison 12 feet 
square, laid with square Logs above & below, 8 inches thick 
at the least, with one Window & a Door made of Iron barrs 
so as to suit the public Jayl when built, with a good Lock & a 
Cabin rooff over the upper flour, to be fixed on the most con- 
venient spott of the sd. Daniel Smith's plantation, and in the 
meantime that the Sheriff be empowered to hire a Guard to 
watch such prisoners as are taken into his Custody." 

After this action the court was adjourned to the next 
monthly session. 

The minutes of the second day are signed by Daniel 
Smith. It is likely that he or Peter Hog made the entries on 



the pages that are now yellow with age and worn with much 

The second court for Rockingham County was held on 
Monday, the 25th of May, 1778. 

Among other transactions, Josiah Davidson was sworn 
in as sheriff, under a commission from the governor dated 
May 7, 1778; GabrielJones was appointed deputy attorney for 
the commonwealth for Rockingham County, with a salary of 
£40 a year. 

Under commissions from the governor, Abram Smith 
took an oath as County Lieutenant; Daniel Smith, as Colonel; 
Benjamin Harrison, as Lieut. -Colonel; William Nalle, as 

Anthony Ryder, Gawin Hamilton, Thomas Hewitt, 
Thomas Boggs (?), Reuben Harrison, and Daniel Smith, Jr., 
were appointed captains of militia, and took oath according 
to law. 

Felix Gilbert was bound to the governor in the sum of 
£1000, with two sureties in the sum of £500 each, for a year 
and a day, to perform his good behavior towards the State 
and all the good people thereof, he having been charged by 
Andrew Skidmore with having uttered "words inimical to 
the State" — words that tended to "sow sedition among the 
settlers on the western waters." Gilbert was the wealthy 
store keeper, east of Harrisonburg, with whom we became 
familiar in the preceding chapter. 

The next day a large part of the business consisted in 
the appointing of road masters for the new roads that were 
being marked out in various courses. A more particular ac- 
count of these proceedings is given in Chapter XH. The 
sum of £20 was voted for the aid of Elizabeth Pennirey, wife 
of Thomas Pennirey, a soldier in the army of the United 

At the court held June 22, 1778, it was ordered that Wil- 
liam Nalle, Gent, take the list of tithables^ in the companies 

1- The tithables were those persons upon whom the poll tax was levied. 



of Capt. Coger and Capt. Frazier; George Boswell, Gent, in 
those of Capt. Hewit and Capt. Pence; Henry Ewing, Gent, 
in those of Capt. Cravens, Capt Hamilton, and Capt Hop- 
kins; John Fitzwater, Gent, in those of Capt Lincoln and 
Capt Boggs; Anthony Rader, Gent, in those of himself and 
Capt Harrison; Daniel Smith, Gent, in that of Capt. Smith; 
Isaac Hinckle, on the North Fork and South Branch; and 
James Dyer, Gent, on the South Fork. 

In following thus the official proceedings in the organiza- 
tion of the new county, one should keep in mind the cotem- 
porary events that were marking the initial steps in the life 
of the new nation. It was a great and stirring time. Just a 
little over a year before the General Assembly of Virginia 
passed the Act creating Rockingham County, Jefferson, a son 
of Virginia, had written the Declaration of Independence, 
upon which thirteen young states rose up before the world in 
a challenge of hope that was as daring as it was splendid and 
courageous. The very same year and month (October, 1777) 
that the said Act was passed, the new nation scored a tri- 
umph at a crisis in the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. 
In February following, just two months before the first court 
of Rockingham met at Smithland, France recognized the in- 
dependence of the United States, and thus made a telling 
contribution to their success in the long struggle for freedom. 
Through all the first years of the county's history this 
struggle went on, with Fortune wavering near the point of 
balance, until finally the political independence of the young 
states was acknowledged by the mother country in 1783. At 
that time Rockingham County was six years old; the new na- 
tion, counting from 1776, was just two years older. 

From the records of the county court, a number of which 

The lists included not only the planters and householders, but also their 
sons, men-servants, and slaves of sixteen years and upwards. The vari- 
ous Acts of the Colonial Assemblv relating to tithables may be found in 
Hening's Statutes. An authoritative discussion of the subject is presented 
in Philip A. Brace's Institutional History of Virginia, Vol. 1 1, pp. 548- 



are reproduced either in form or in substance in the following 
pages, it will clearly and repeatedly appear that Rockingham 
contributed in generous measure to the cause of American 
independence. Her soldiers fought on fields at home and 
abroad. Her citizens furnished supplies of varied kind and 
enormous quantity for military use. Her magistrates were 
liberal in providing for the wives and children of patriot sol- 
diers, and alert in suppressing tories. In these records the 
student of government will read efficiency and equity; the 
industrial economist will observe many statistics of kind, 
measure, and value; the soldier will discern military organiza- 
tion and activity; the sociologist will find a people simple and 
frugal; and the genealogist will recognize many an ancestor 
in honorable service. 

August 24, 1778, George Rootes, Gent. , took the oath of 
an attorney at law, which was ordered certified by the court. 
On the same day the court appointed John Hinton to draw 
£20 and lay it out for Bridget Fowler, wife of John Fowler, a 
soldier in the U. S. service, and her children. 

September 28, 1778, George Boswell and John Thomas 
were appointed to examine and receive the Jayl house built on 
Danl. Smith's plantation agreeable to a former order of court; 
whereupon the said gentlemen reported that they had viewed 
the said Jayl and found it sufficient, &c., except the iron door 
and window, which could not be procured. 

November 23, 1778, the court ordered £25 to be paid Mary 
Rupe, wife of Nicolas Rupe, a soldier in the continental 
army, to relieve the distress of herself and seven children. 

At a court held on Monday, March 22, 1779, a "Deed 
from Robt, Hill to the presbyterian Congregation was proved 
by the Witnesses & to be recorded Tho. Brewster to pay 

Mary Sybert, widow of Chas. Fred. Sybert, a soldier who 
died in the service of the Commonwealth, being in indigent 
circumstances, with one helpless child, was allowed £30. 

Elizabeth Shulenberger, widow of Geo. Shulenberger, 


deceased, late a soldier in the Continental service from this 
State, being in distressed circumstances, was allowed £30. 

George Ruddle and George Baxter, having produced com- 
missions from the governor, were sworn in as captains of 

John Herdman was sworn in as 1st lieut. and Thos. Gor- 
don as 2d lieut. 

Upon information lodged by Jacob Plumb, Nicolas 
Weatherholt was bound in the sum of £2000, with Martin 
Witsell as surety in the sum of £1000, for the said Weather- 
holt to appear before the grand jury in May to answer the 
charge of "conspiring & consulting the Destruction of the 
Commonwealth. ' ' 

At the court continued March 23, 1779: 

Rachel Cash, wife of Jno. Cash, a soldier in the service 
of the United States from this Commonwealth, being in dis- 
tressed circumstances with two small children, was allowed 

Henry Peninger was bound in the sum of £5000, with 
Sebastian Hover and Henry Stone securities, each in the sum 
£2500, to appear before the grand jury in May to answer to 
the charge of throwing disgraceful reflections upon the Con- 
gress, and of speaking words tending to depreciate the Con- 
tinental currency; and also to be of good behavior for a year 
and a day. Thomas Hicks and Nicholas Sybert were at the 
same time bound, each in the sum of £500, to appear person- 
ally before the said grand jury, to give evidence against the 
said Peninger. 

Robt. Davis, Robt. Cravens, Andrew Johnston, and John 
Rush, having produced commissions as captains of mihtia, 
were sworn in. 

Joseph Dictums was sworn in as ensign. 

The court proceeded to lay the ordinary [tavern] rates as 
follows, to wit : 

Rum by the gallon or French Brandy, £10 

Whisky, per ditto, 4 — 16 

Wine, per ditto, 10 


1 - 

4 — 

1 — 

4 — 


12 — 




12 - 


5 - 


6 - 


10 — 


6 — 


Cyder &, Beer, per ditto, 

Rum Toddy, per quart, with loaf sugar, 

Whisky ditto, per ditto, 

Warm Breakfast, 

Ditto Dinner, with Beer, 

A Bed, with Clean Sheets, per night, 

Oats or Corn, per gallon, 

Stableage, with Hay, a night, 

Pasturage, a night, 

Monday, April 26, 1779. 

"On the complaint of Henry Brewster agt. Gabl. Jones 
Gent for threatening to shoot him for taking his Horse by 
Virtue of Authority of Capt. Rush without showing his war- 
rant on hearing the Complaint & the answer of sd Jones the 
Court are of Opinion that the sd Brewster acted illegaly & 
therefore dismiss the Complaint." 

April 27, 1779. 

"Francis Stevins produced a Certificate of his Freedom 
from his master James Mcvey who acknowledged the same it 
is ordered to be certified." 

May 24, 1779. 

Andrew Bird took the oath "of a Captain of the militia 
in this County." 

Michael Bowyer produced a license from the governor, 
and took the oath of an attorney. 

May 25, 1779. 

Michl. Coger was appointed to take the list of tithables 
in his own company; William Nalle, in Capt. Frazer's com- 
pany; George Boswell, in Capt. Rush's company; Wm. Her- 
ring, in Capt. Hewitt's and Capt. Cravens' companies; Gawen 
Hamilton, in his own company; Henry Ewing, in Capt. Bax- 
ter's company; John Thomas, in Lincoln's company; John 
Fitzwater, in Capt. Boggs' company; Anto. Reader, in Capt. 
Ruddle's company; W^illiam McDowell, in Capt. Bird's com- 



pany; Daniel Smith, in Capt Smith's company; James Dyer, 
in Capt. Davis' company; and Isaac Hanckle, in Capt. John- 
ston's company. 

"On a majority of the Justices being present & conform- 
able to a resolution of the Court in March last, for fixing a 
place for the Court house, the several members having pro- 
posed three different places a majority were for fixing it on 
the plantation of Thomas Harrison near the head of the 
Spring. ' ' 

"John Davis, William McDowell, Jno. Fitzwater & Benj. 
Harrison Gent are appointed Commissioners to let out the 
building of a Court house of Stone 36 feet Long by 26 in 
Breadth one Story of 12 feet in higth with a partition at one 
End twelve feet wide to be divided into two Jury rooms with 
two angle fire places in each of the Jury rooms as also a prison 
built with Square Logs 12 Ins. thick in inside, 18 feet Square 
in the Clear & walled with stone 2 feet thick in the lower 
Story & the wall 18 Inches thick in the upper Story." 

June 28, 1779. 

Josiah Davidson, sheriff, being called on to undertake the 
collection of the taxes for the year, and having refused, was 
deprived of his of^ce; and Abraham Smith, John Gratten, 
and George Boswell were recommended to the governor for 
consideration in filling the office. An express was to be hired 
to carry the recommendation to the governor, the expense to 
be paid by the sheriff out of the "Depositum" in his hands. 

The commissioners appointed to arrange for the building 
of the court house and jail were empowered to choose a site 
of not less than two acres for the public buildings, and take 
deeds for the same in the name of the justices and their suc- 
cessors from Thomas Harrison, the proprietor, together with 
the liberty of stone and timber from the said Harrison's plan- 
tation for the said buildings. 

On August 5, 1779, Thomas Harrison, Sr. , and Sarah Har- 
son, his wife, in consideration of the sum of Five Shillings 



current money of Virginia, conveyed to Silas Hart, Gentle- 
man, first justice "in the Commission of the peace" for Rock- 
ingham County, his associate justices, and their successors, a 
tract of land containing Two Acres and a Half, for the sole 
use and behoof of the said county of Rockingham, upon v/hich 
to build the Court House and other public buildings necessary 
for the said county. The tract of land in question had lately 
been surveyed by Mr. Gawin Hamilton, one of the deputy 
surveyors of the county, and was set and bounded as follows: 

Beginning at a Cedar Stump near a Small Cedar thence North ten 
Degrees East twenty poles to a Stake thence South Eighty degrees East 
twenty poles to two Spanish Oak Saplins thence South ten degrees West 
Twenty poles to a post thence North Eighty degrees West Twenty Poles 
to the Beginning. 

At a court held for Rockingham the 23d day of August, 
1779, Thomas Harrison acknowledged the deed of bargain and 
sale for the lot in question, and the deed was ordered to be 
recorded. Teste Peter Hog, C. R. C. The record was made 
in Deed Book No. 0, page 291 — one of the volumes that were 
partly burned in 1864. ^ 

July 26, 1779. 

Abraham Smith was sworn in as sheriff of the county, 
with John Gratten, Henry Ewing, John Henton, David Ral- 
stone, George Chrisman, Francis Kirtly, and Jesse Harrison 
as securities. Gawen Hamilton and William Smith were 
sworn in as deputy sheriffs. 

Francis Mcbride was bound in the sum of £1000, with 
James Colhoon and George Chrisman, securities, each in the 
sum of £500, to appear before the grand jury in November to 
answer the charge of speaking "words disrespectful to the 
Government & present Constitution. " John Brown, James 
Floyd, and John Hinton were bound, each in the sum of £100, 
to appear in person to testify in the case of the said Mc- 

2. For a copy of the original deed made by Thomas Harrison to Silas 
Hart and others for the county lot, I am indebted to Capt. Geo. G. Grat- 
tan, formerly judge of the Rockingham County Court. 



Bride. The bond of John Hinton was to secure the evidence 
of his wife, Estor Hinton. 

The sheriff was ordered to pay the sum of £90 to James 
Butcher for going to Williamsburg and returning therefrom 
as express for the sheriff's commission — the said sum to be 
paid from the "Depositum" in the sheriff's hands. 

August 23, 1779. 

Upon information of Henry Peninger, Gerard Erwine 
was bound in the sum of £1000, with John Brown and Thomas 
Campbell, securities, each in the sum of £500, to appear be- 
fore the grand jury in November to answer the charge of 
having "propagated some news tending to raise Tumult and 
Sedition in the State." The said Peninger was also bound in 
the sum of £500 to appear as a witness in the examination of 

"Abraham Smith Gent Sheriff protested against the 
Sufficiency of the Jayl." 

Thomas Harrison acknowledged his deed of bargain and 
sale to Silas Hart and others, justices, on behalf of the 

The sum of £50 was placed in the hands of David Harnet 
for the relief of Bridget Fowler, wife of John Fowler, a sol- 
dier from this county "on the Continental Establishment," 
the said Bridget Fowler, with three small children, being in 
distressed circumstances. 

The sum of £20 was appropriated for Barbara Woolridge, 
and a like sum for Mary Rylie, wives respectively of George 
Woolridge and John Rylie, soldiers in the continental army. 

H. Dever and John Dever were fined "according to law" 
for breach of the Sabbath. 

August 24, 1779. 

William Nalle, with Gabriel Jones and Daniel Smith as 
securities, gave bond for the due execution of the office of 
escheator for the county. 



The sum of £30 was appropriated for Elizabeth Spikeard, 
whose husband, Julius Spikeard, and son, George Spykeard, 
were soldiers in the U. S. army. 

Vali. Sevier^ acknowledged deeds of lease and release to 
Robt. Rutherford. 

The sheriff was ordered to pay to Wm. McDowell £93 
15s. for the county seal. 

The sum of £40 was appropriated for Ann Gum, the wife 
of Claypole Gum, a soldier. 

The court proceeded to lay the levy: 

To James Dyer, for two old wolves' heads, 
" Sebastian Hover, one ditto, 
" James Davis, one ditto, 
" James Dyer, 2 old wolves, 
" Charles Wilson, one old wolf, 
" Joseph Kester, two old wolves, 
" Gabriel Jones, deputy atto., for his salary, 
" the Clerk for services, 1230 [lbs. tobacco?] 
" the Sheriff, for ditto, 1230 [lbs. tobacco?] 
" Gawen Hamilton, surveyor, per acct., 10 — — 

" Peter Hog, clerk, per acct, 270 [lbs. tobacco?] 
" Daniel Smith, per acct., 75—0—0 

" Joseph Smith, William Crow, and Benj. 
Smith, as guards, 9 days each, on three to- 
ries in the county jail, 54 — — 

" Daniel Smith, for the use of his house, in 
holding 5 courts "since laying last year's 
levy," 100—0—0 

" Daniel Smith, jailor, for committing and re- 
leasing of the tories, 2790 pounds of to- 
bacco, at £5 a 100- wt, 139—10-0 

3 This was either the father or the brother of Gen. John Sevier. 



— 5- 









— 5- 












a depositum for building the court house, 1783—18 — 
the Sheriff, commission on collecting £2466, 

at 6%, 147-19—6 

Total, £2466—0—0 
By 1379 tithables, at six dollars, or 36 shillings, 

per tithable, £2466—0—0 

Ordered that the sheriff collect six dollars, or thirty-six 
shillings, from each tithable in the county as the levy for the 
ensuing year. 

November 22, 1779. 

' 'The Court taking into Consideration the dangerous & 
malignant Fever that for some months past has raged in the 
Family of Daniel Smith Gent. & the Apprehension of the 
people that there is Danger of the Disorder being contagious, 
to remove any Obstruction to the Administration of Justice 
& to quiet the minds of the Suitors & others who may have 
Business at Court, are of Opinion that the Court should be 
adjourned to the plantation of Thomas Harrison & it is hereby 
adjourned accordingly. ' ' 

Signed by Daniel Smith. 

The sum of £30 was allowed to Anne McCoy, mother of 
William McCoy, a soldier. 

November 23, 1779. 

The sum of £20 was allowed Saml. Thornhill, father of 
John Thornhill, a soldier in the service of the States; and £30 
was appropriated for Theodisia Maiden, wife of James Maiden, 
a soldier in the same service. 

It was ordered that the sheriff pay Gawen Hamilton £55 
for a bookcase for the clerk's office. 

It was proved in court that Robert Menzies was a soldier 
in Capt. Hog's company of rangers in 1758, and that he had 
also served in Capt. Gist's'' company in the campaign of 1760. 

4. Capt. Gist was doubtless the famous scout and ranger, Christopher 



It was also established to the satisfaction of the court 
that John Smith, deceased, had been a lieutenant in Capt. 
John Smith's company of rangers in 1756, and had been killed 
at Fort Vause. Lieut. Smith was a brother to Abraham 
Smith. Claims for land were made upon the military service 
of Menzies and Smith. 

It was ordered that Benj. Harrison, William Herron, and 
John Davis, or any two of them, "let out the Building of a 
Courtho. of square Logs with diamond Corners Thirty feet 
Long by 20 feet wide from out to out with a partition twelve 
feet in the Clear across the house divided into two rooms on 3 
12 feet wide & the other 8 feet wide, the room 12 feet wide to 
have a neat stone Chimney inside at the Gavle End of it the 
whole to be floored with Earth as far as the Lawiers Bar & 
then to be raised with a plank floor to the Justices Bench 
which is to be raised three feet above the floor & the Breast 
of the Bench to be studed with a railed Top, the pitch of the 
house to be 10 feet clear Ceiling & lofted with Inch plank 
with two window on each side of the ho. facing the Clks. 
Table & one in Each of Jury rooms the windows 18 Lights 
each Glass 8 by 10 Inches, with a Door on — side just Clear 
of the Jury rooms." 

This order was evidently to take the place of the one 
issued May 25, preceding, as shown above. Accordingly, 
it appears that the first court house was built of logs instead 
of stone, and that in size it was 20x30 feet instead of 26x36. 
Neither the court house nor the jail seems to have been com- 
pleted before the end of 1783 or the beginning of 1784. 

March 27, 1780. 

The following were sworn in as captains of militia: 
Josiah Harrison, Richard Reagan, Jeremiah Beasley. 
The following as lieutenants: 
, Joseph Rutherford. S tephen Conrod, Robt. Smith. 

Gist, who accompanied Washington on his perilous journey to the French 
forts in 1753. 



The following as ensigns: 

Jacob Havener and Elliot Rutherford. 

An allowance of £120 was made for the relief of Jemima 
Kelly, wife of Emanuel Kelly, a soldier from Virginia in the 
army of the United States. This allowance was made in ac- 
cordance with a recent Act of the State Assembly, and was 
probably to be reimbursed from State funds. 

March 28, 1780. 
The court proceeded to rate the ordinary prices, for the 
articles named, as follows: 

West India rum or French brandy, per gallon, £48 — 0—0 
Rye liquor or whisky, " 24— 0—0 

Wine, " 48— 0-0 

Strong beer, per quart 1—10-0 

Cyder, " 1-10-0 

Hot dinner, 3—12—0 

Breakfast, 3— 0—0 

A cold ditto, 2— 2—0 

A good bed, with clean sheets 12 — 

Oats, by the gallon, 1—16—0 

Corn, by the gallon, 2— 8-0 

Stableage, with hay, per night, 2— 8-0 

Pasturage, pernight,^ 1—10—0 

David Laird proved that he had served as a corporal in 
Capt. Hog's company of rangers, from the time the said com- 
pany was raised until it was discharged at Bedford, and that 
he had not received any warrant for land under the provisions 
of royal proclamation in 1763. 

George Huston and John Fitzwater were sworn in as 
captains of militia. 

5. From the figures in the above schedule, as well as from other items 
preceding and following, it is easy to see how the purchasing value of the 
continental currency was decreasing. It thus continued to decrease until 
it had value only in the proverb: "Not worth a Continental." And yet, 
by a fateful irony of circumstance, men were being arraigned, even in 
Rockingham, for speaking words tending to depreciate it. 


Chesapeake- Western Bridge across the Shenandoah River near Elkton 

By per. of E. G. Furry 

The Bridge at Bridgewater 

[Page -200] 

Port Republic: Confluence of the Rivers, the Bridge, and the Heights towanl I'ro-s Keys 


Jacob Pence proved that he had served as a soldier in 
Capt. Hog's company of rangers from the beginning of the 
said company in 1757 until it v^as discharged at Bedford, 
making oath that he had never received any warrailt for 
land, as provided in 1763. 

Robt, Minnis made it appear that he had served as a sol- 
dier in CoUo. Byrd's regiment, &c. 

John Stephenson proved that he had been a soldier in the 
independent company under Capt. McClanahan, and also had 
.served in Boqueter's (?) company, &c. 

April 24, 1780. 

Geo. Armentrout proved that he had served in Capt. 
Hog's company of rangers, &c. 

Daniel Grubb proved service in the same company. 

May 23, 1780. 

In the case of the commonwealth vs. McBride, the latter 
'being adjudged guilty, was subjected to a fine of £250 and 
four days' imprisonment. 

June 9, 1780. 
At a special session of the court, called for the examina- 
tion of John Davis, suspected of being guilty of treason 
against the State, and of "other misdemeanors," Daniel 
Smith, Henry Ewing, Reuben Harrison, Thomas Hewit, and 
Benj, Harrison, justices, being present, the said Davis was 
upon trial adjudged guilty of treason, &c., and was ordered 
sent to the general court to be tried for the same. Further- 
more, Seruiah Stratton, James Rodgers, and William Gregg 
were bound, each in the sum of £10,000, to appear in the case 
as witnesses on the 6th day of the general court to be held at 
Richmond the following October. 

June 26, 1780. 

"Frederick Price, being bound over on Recognizance 
taken before Danl. Smith Gent for drinking the King of gt 




Britain's health & Huzzas for sd King," was tried and bound 
over to the grand jury court to be indicted, himself in the 
sum of £10,000, with Augustine Price and George Mallow, se- 
curities, each in the sum of £5000. 

John Nicolas, Abraham Hammond, and Jacob Arken- 
bright were bound, each in the sum of £1000, to appear in 
the above case as witnesses. 

"Ordered that Benja. Harrison & William Herring Gent 
be empowered to agree with the Undertaker of Courtho to 
omit the partion of the East End of the house for the Jury 
rooms & to sink the Joyst of the upper room from Gavel of the 
sd East end to the Joyst over the front Door so as to make 
a Jury room above wi a pair of Stairs in the Corner, or two 
jury rooms if the space will admit of it."*^ 

August 29, 1780. 

Silas Hart, Henry Ewing, John Davis, and William Her- 
ring were appointed commissioners to let the building of a 
county jail, according to the plan agreed on by the court, to 
the lowest bidder, "between this & the Nov. Court, & to give 
publick notice thereof," 

October 23, 1780. 

"On the application of John Magill setting forth that he 
has kept Ruth McDonald Daughter of Randall McDonald a 
soldier from this County in the Army of the United States 18 
months by agreement of the sd. Randall which being expired, 
& her Father still in the Service the Court are of opinion that 
the said Magill be allowed £35 for a barl of Corn & 200 
Dolrs for 50 w of pork for the support of the said Ruth Mc- 
Donald for 1 year." 

' 'The Court taking into Consideration the distressed Sit- 
uation of Anne Gum & two young Babes widow & orphans of 

6. Evidently, as the process of building continued, the temple of justice 
was growing smaller. The burden of war was bearing heavily upon the 
young county. 



Claypole Gum a Soldier from this County who died in the 
service of the States recommend her to the board of Auditors 
for such rehef as they think proper for her distressed circum- 

October 24, 1780. 

WilHam Herring was sworn in as captain of militia; 
Joseph Dictam and Andrew Shanklin, as first lieutenants; 
Robt. Harrison as ensign. 

George Boswell, upon commission from the governor 
[Thomas Jefferson] was sworn into the office of sheriff. 

November 27, 1780. 

Zeruiah Stratton was sworn in as a captain of militia. 

"A sufficient number of the grand jury not appearing 
[24 had been summoned] that the be discharged & the 
following persons being summoned & called & not attending 
that they be fined according to Law towit Jas. Beard Jo. 
Rutherford Zeb Harrison Adam Reader Peter Conrod James 
Dever Francis Stewart Jacob Lincoln & Nico. Cairn." 
November 28, 1780. 

' 'Silas Hart John Davis Henry Ewing & Wm. Herring 
Gent Commissioners appointed to let the building the County 
Jayl reported that they had let out the building of the same 
to Cornelius Cain for Eleven Thousand nine hundred & Sev- 
enty three pounds, & retd. a Bond of Said Cornes. Cain wi 
security for the Due performance of said building." 

Abraham Smith, having resigned the office of county 
lieutenant, on account of "his Disorder & Infirmities," the 
court recommended Danl. Smith for appointment in his 

The court allowed 3 barrels of corn, at £40 a barrel, and 

150 pounds of pork, at 30 , to Frances Clough, wife of 

John Clough, a soldier in the service of the States. 

The sheriff was ordered to pay Thomas Harrison £100 
for holding 3 courts in his house. 



March 26, 1781. 

Daniel Smith, Gent, was sworn in as county lieutenant 
of the militia; George Chrisman and Reuben More, as cap- 
tains; Jacob Lincoln, as a lieutenant 

' 'It is the Opinion of the Court that John Huston be al- 
lowed 60 dollars per Day from the 8th Jany till 18th Feby 
for acting as Dep. Comiss. to the militia sent down against 

March 27, 1781. 

"0 that the Clerk purchase a new Testament for the 
use of the Court & that the Sheriff pay him out of the 

"It is the opinion of the Court that James Davis a Com- 
missary for the militia of this County ordered to the Southard 
in Sept last be allowed 80 Dollars per Day from 22 d Sept till 
the 3d Novr. being 51 Days." 

"Ordered that the late Sheriff [Abram Smith] pay Robt. 
Campbell the bailee due him for the original Contract in 
building the Courtho, being £187." 

April 23, 1781. 

Stephen Conrad was sworn in as a captain of militia, 
Capt Jerema. Beeslie's company being divided. 

"Ordered that the Sheriff collect Seven Shillings & Six 
pence in the pound from every person within this County on 
each pound tax that the said person is now taxed at in the 
present assessment as pay for the Waggon found by this 
County for the State. ' ' 

"It is the opinion of the Court that Joseph Haines be 
allowed twenty pounds per day for acting as a Commissary 
to the prisoners Six Days when marching thro this, to Shan- 
doah County." 

May 28, 1781. 
' 'Anderson Moffet an anabist Minister having satisfied 


the Court by a certificate from the Elders of his Sect that he 
is duely qualified to administer the Sacraments is licensed to 
perform the function of marrying by Banns or License in 
this County." 

* 'The Court proceeded to alter the Ordinary rates in the 
following particulars towit 

a hot Dinner for one person, 30 Dollars 

strong Beer or Cyder, per Quart, 12 Dollars 

pasturage, per night, 12 Dollars 

Whiskey or Rye Liquor, per Gallon, £57-12-0." 

May 29, 1781. 

Silas Hart was appointed to take the list of tithables in 
the districts of Huston and Young; Josiah Davidson, in the 
districts of Rice and Harrison; An to. Reader, in the districts 
of Fitzwater and Ruddle; William McDowell, in the districts 
of Harrison and Dunlop; John Davis, in the districts of Her- 
ring and Magill; Michl. Coger, of his own company; Thos. 
Hewit, in Capt. Conrod and Capt. Beeslie's companies; James 
Dyer, in Capt. Johnson and Capt. Stratton's companies; 
Robt. Davidson, in his own company. 

This appears to be the first instance in which the term 
"district" is used, referring to a subdivision of the county. 
The original divisions, recognized for the purpose of listing 
the tithables, were evidently made according to the localities 
making up the several companies of militia. 

"The Court are of opinion that Henry Ewing be allowed 
twenty pounds per day for twenty-three Days that he acted 
as Commissary, of the provision Law & 100 Dollars for his 

August 27, 1781. 

Zeruiah Stratton produced an account in court for build- 
ing a granary, and for receiving the grain tax, which was 
allowed and certified by the court. 

"Thomas Hewit Gent is appointed by the Court to the 



Office of Sheriff for the ensuing year. to be certified to 
his Excellency the Govr." 

* 'It appearing to the Court that a traveller by the name 
of Moses Doughty with his wife & child was burnt up in the 
House of Adam Nelson & no relatives or other Connexions of 
the sd. Doughty appearing to claim administra. of his Estate 
consisting of a horse & a mare that the Sheriff take the 
same into his possession being now in the Custody of Jno. 
Thomas Coroner & sell them at publick Vendue & make a 
return to the Court." 

William Nalle was sworn in as lieutenant-colonel of the 

September 24, 1781. 

Isaac Hankie was sworn in as a captain of militia to suc- 
ceed Andrew Johnston, resigned. Michael Baker was also 
sworn in as a captain of militia. 

The signature of Daniel Smith, presiding justice, appears 
under this date for the last time. He died before the next 
court, held in November. The next records are signed by 
John Grattan. 

November 26, 1781. 

' 'Leave is granted to Samuel Gay to keep Ordinary at his 
house in Harrisons burg for one year from this Date." 

A bill of sale of Moses Dougherty's estate was returned 
by the sheriff and admitted to record. 

The court made out the following budget: 

To Gabriel Jones, Deputy Atty., 4000 lbs. tobacco 

To Peter Hog, Clerk, for extra 

services, 1200 "^^" 

To " " , account, 200 "^^," 

To the sheriff, for extra services, 1200 " " 

Total, 6600 lbs. tob. = at 10s. cwt, £33 


To Cornelius Cain, for building the 
Jayl, for the balance due and the de- 
preciation of the currency since it was 
undertaken, in specie, or in paper 
money at the depreciation fixed by 
the Assembly, 

To Samuel Parrot, 2 wolves heads. 

To Robt. Campbell, as a gratuity for 
building the courthouse. 

To Robt. Campbell, for the additional 
work on the courthouse. 

For finishing the Jayl, <&;c., 

A depositum, 

To the sheriff for collecting, 6% 


£ 1- 

- 5- 



- 3- 






- 0- 


£ 152- 

- 7- 


— — 

— — 



- 0- 





It was ordered that the sheriff collect 3s. in specie on 
every tithable in the county, as a levy for the ensuing year; 
or the equivalent value in paper currency, as fixed by the 

Income from 1450 tithables, £217—10—0 

November 27, 1781. 
"Ordered that the late Sheriff [George Boswell] pay to 
Cornelius Cain the Money levied this last County Levy for 
building the County Jayl being £11973, the Commissioners 
who let the building of the same having reported that the it 
is finished according to the plan." 

George Boswell, late sheriff, settled with the court, re- 
porting a balance on hand of £580—7 — 0, on 1459 tithables, 
8 supernumeraries, and 51 delinquents. 

' '0 that Andrew Shanklen keep the Courtho for the en- 
suing year & provide a Stock Lock for the fore Door & an 
Iron Bolt for the other Door & provide the Court with Fire & 



' 'Ordered that Robt. Campbell undertaker of the Courtho 
be allowed the further sum of £3. 8 in Specie on the Depre- 
ciation as settled by the Assembly." 

' '0 that Henry Ewing & William Herring Gent be ap- 
pointed as Commissioners to let out the finishing the County 
Jayl to the lov/est Bidder to [be] finished by the May Court." 

February 18, 1782. 

The former clerk [Peter Hog] being reported dead, 
Thomas Lewis was appointed clerk pro tem. 

Benjamin Harrison, Bruer Reeves, and John Fitzwater 
were chosen, according to an Act of Assembly passed the 
preceding October, as commissioners to value the lands be- 
longing to the sundry landholders of the county. 
February 25, 1782. 

Richard Matthews was appointed clerk pro tem., and 
Henry Ewing was elected to hold the office permanently. 

March 25, 1782. 
William Smith was sworn in as a captain of militia. 

At a court opened March 26, 1782, and continued several 
days for adjusting claims, agreeable to an Act of Assembly 
passed in October, 1781, the following claims were presented 
and approved. The services rendered and supplies furnished 
were for the United States in the War for Independence. 

Zebulon Harrison for 39 head of cattle, 24 hours at post, 
stableage for 2 horses 12 hours, corn and rations. Claim 
dated Dec. 4, 1781. 

Josiah Harrison, for 6 days with his team in conducting 
British prisoners from the South to "Shanado Courthouse." 
Claim dated March 1, 1781. 

Zebulon Harrison, for 700 lbs. of hay— clover and tim- 
othy -Feb. 24, 1781; 200 lbs. of beef for the use of British 
prisoners and guards, Aug. 20, 1781; for the use of the militia 
guard with British prisoners from this county to Shanado, 14 
bu. of oats, at 1 s. 8 d., Dec. 4, 1781. 


Josiah Harrison, for bullock driving, 1 day, Jan. 16, 1781. 

Gideon Harrison, for bullock driving, 1 day, Jan. 18, 1781. 

Archibald Hopkins, for 2 bags for the use of the militia 
going to "Tyger Valley," April 30, 1779, 18 s. ; and for 1060 
lbs. of flour, at 15 s. cwt. , for the use of the militia ordered 
on duty, May, 1779. These two items were charged against 
the State; all others herein recorded were charged against 
the United States, unless note is made to the contrary. 

Archibald Hopkins for 22J yds. of "Lining" [linen ?] 
for a tent for the use of the militia ordered to Richmond on 
duty, at 2 s. a yard, Jan. 16, 1781; for 7 head of cattle, 3 
years old, "Each Extraordinary large of that age Estimated at 
400 lbs. Each," at 16 s. 8 d. per cwt, for use of the mihtia 
ordered on duty to Carolina, Oct. 3, 1780." 

George Baxter, for 24 yds. of "lining" for use of the 
militia, ordered on duty to Richmond, at 2 s. a yard, Jan. 
16, 1781. 

John Hopkins, for 4 head of cattle, estimated at 1900 
gross, at 16 s. 8 d. per cwt. , for use of the militia ordered on 
duty to Carolina, Oct. 3, 1780. 

John Hopkins, for 245 lbs. flour, at 15 s. per cwt., for 
the militia ordered on duty to "Tygers Valley," May 5, 1779. 
This item was charged against the State. 

John Hopkins, for the making of 7 tents, £2 10 s., for 
militia ordered on duty to Richmond, Jan. 6, 1781; for 21 4-3 
yds. of "Lining," for the militia ordered on duty to Rich- 
mond, Jan. 16, 1781; fori 1-2 bus. corn, at 2 s. a bushel, and 
pasturage for 7 horses, 1 night, at 6 d. each, Oct. 27, 1780. 

Marthew Smith, * 'for one Black Horse 14 Hands High Well 
Made five years Old one Halter and Bell at 25£ for the use of 
ye Mai. Ord. on Duty to tygers," April 29, 1782; charged to 
the State. 

7. A marked difference in the size of cattle has been registered since 
the 18th century. In 1710 the average weight of beeves sold in the Smith- 
field market was only 370 pounds. As late as 1795 the average weight of 
London beeves was only 800 pounds. See Bogart's Economic History of 
the United States, page 72. In recent years Rockingham cattle have 
reached a maximum weight of 2000 pounds or more. 



William Hook, for 21| yds. "lining," for the militia or- 
dered on duty to Richmond, Jan. 18, 1781; for 3800 lbs. of 
"good timothy Hay," at Is. 6d. per cwt, for the use of the 
guard removing prisoners from Albemarle barracks to Mary- 
land, Jan. 20, 1781. — These prisoners were probably some of 
those taken at Burgoyne's surrender in October, 1777, and 
quartered for a year or two between Charlottesville and Ivy, 
in Albemarle County.^ 

James Bruster, for 98 days' service with a team, at 10s. 
a day, employed for the use of the militia ordered on duty to 
Richmond; account dated April 25, 1781; for 3 days' service 
with his team, at 15s. a day, employed in removing prisoners 
from Albemarle barracks, Jan. 10, 1781. 

March 27, 1782. 

John Hinton, for acting as forage master 7 days, at 5 s. 
a day; account dated Jan. 1, 1781; for a balance on a receipt 
for bacon, 50 lbs., at Is. per lb., and for wheat, 35i bus., at 
6s. per bu., April 30, 1779. The last two items were charged 
to the State. 

John Hinton was allowed other claims for cattle, flour, 
rye, flour casks, hay, corn, horse pasture, wagoner's ra- 
tions, etc. 

Thomas Moore, for 1 bullock, weight 440 lbs. neat, at 2i 
s. a pound, Febr. 25, 1781; for 18 "Diets" at 6d. each, and 7 
horses, 1 night, at good hay, 7| d. per horse, March 4, 1781. 

James Bruster, for 9 days public service with his team, 
at 10 s. a day; for feeding 1 public horse 3 days, at Is. 3d. a 
day; for 1 horse in public service 38 days, at 1 s. 6 d. a day; 
for 4 flour casks, at 2 s. each ; account dated Dec. 22, 1780. 

John Davis, for 12 yds. of "Course lin'g," at 2 s. 6 d. a 
yard, Jan. 16, 1781. 

James Dunn, for 19 yds. "Course Hning, " at 2s. 6d. a 
yard, Oct. 5, 1780. 

8. For a detailed account of the sojourn of these prisoners in Albemarle, 
see Edgar Wood's History of Albemarle County, Virginia, pp. 31-44. 



Elizabeth Shipman, for making 1 tent, 6s. 3d., Oct. 15, 

John Crafford, for 16 yds. ''lin'g" at 2 s. 6 d. a yard, Oct. 
15, 1780. 

William Diver, for "1 Kittle 1 Do 10s. per kittle," Oct. 
5, 1780. 

Ban. Wheton, for 10 yds. of coarse linen, at 2s. a yard, 
Jan. 16, 1781. 

George Gartner, for 1 blanket, "good in Quality," 20s., 
Oct. 26, 1780. 

Balser Counce, for 1 day public service with his team, 
Oct. 27, 1780. 

Ralph Lofties, for 1 iron pot, 20s., Oct. 9, 1780. 

France Ervin, for 919 lbs. flour, at 12s. 6 d. per cwt., 
Nov. 7, 1780. 

Henry Stolph, for 8 yds. of "Wolling not full'd," at 5s. 
a yard, Nov. 9, 1780. 

John Bowman, for 9 yds. of "Do.," at 5s. a yard, Nov. 
9, 1780. 

John Cring, for 13 yds. of "Do.," at 5s. a yard, Nov. 9, 

Daniel Love, for "4 Dozen of Oats," at Is. 6d. a dozen, 
and 4 bushels of [oats?], at 2s. a bushel, Nov. 6, 1780 [?]. 

Margret Devier, for making 1 tent, 6s. 3d., Oct. 7, 1780. 

George Long, for IJ bus. wheat, at 3s. a bushel, Nov. 
14, 1780. 

Godferry Hamileton, for 6 yds. cloth, at 5s. a yard, Nov. 
9, 1780. 

Richard Mathews, for "halfe a bus of allum," £1 10s., 
Oct. 7, 1780. 

Thomas Shanling, for 3 days public service with his 
team, at 10s. a day, and for 4i bus. oats, at Is. 8d. a bushel, 
Oct. 28, 1780. 

Jacob Seth, for 6 days public service with his team, 
March 1, 1781. 

William Devir, for 1 bell and strap and buckle, Oct. 13, 



Robt. Williams, for 6 days public service with his team, 
March 1, 1781. 

Isiah Shipman, for "1 Iron or Dutch oven, 1£," Oct. 6, 

David Harnet, for 200 lbs. hay, at Is. 3d. per cwt, Nov. 
3, 1781; for 300 lbs. hay, Jan. 14, 1781. "To the Above Ord. 
to be aded 31 Galls, of Corn at 4D per gall., and 30 Diets at 
6 per Diet." 

' 'The af oresd. Receipts Granted to Mr. Harnet the Ar- 
tickles Ware as appear to the Court for the use of the Mai. 
Called Out By Col. Jno. Smith Lieut, of Frederick County In 
Order to Repulse the enemy When Makeing their Rout as 
Was Supposed toward the Albamarle Barricks To Retake the 
Con-n troops Whence the Immergency that Cased [?] Oca- 
sion Every Man to ride [?] for Which." 

David Harnet, for 1100 lbs. hay, Jan. 2, 1782; for 7 
rations, Is. each, Aug. 27, 1781; etc. 

Michael Couger, for 1000 lbs. beef, Nov. 20, 1780; for 24 
diets, May 27, 1781; etc. 

Michael Roarick, for 11 yds. coarse linen, Jan. 19, 1781. 

William Donafin, for 1 gun, "Which Gun sd. Dunafin 

Lost In the Battle of Hot Water^ Being badly Wounded," 
£2 12s. 

John Harrison, for 26 diets, 6d. each, Nov. 13, 1781; etc. 

John Armentrout, for 23 days with team, Dec. 11, 1780. 

Peter Sellers, for 5 bus. corn, at 2 s., Nov. 14, 1780; 5 bus. 
rye, at 2 s. 6d., Nov. 10, 1780. 

Robt. Elliot, for 5 bus. corn, Nov. 14, 1780; etc. 

Frederick Rob, for 19 bus. corn, Febr. 23, 1781. 

Coonrod Fudge, for 96 lbs. pork, at 3d., Jan. 13, 1781. 

"The Same With Mr. Harnets from Shando." 

David Fudge, for 1 bu. corn and 3 suppers, at 6d. each, 
Jan. 13, 1781. 

9. The battle of "Hot Water" was fought, probably, on the 26th of 
June, 1781, not far from Williamsburg. If the engagement at the time 
and place mentioned was the "battle" named, Donafin was distinguished, 
since the Americans who took part therein were picked men, commanded 
by a Major Willis. See Waddell's Annals of Augusta, pp. 300, 301. 



William Young, for 130 lbs. hay, for 10 sheaves oats, Is. , 
and for 8 diets, at 6d. each, Jan. 13, 1781. 

"Same With Harnets." 

Adam Hansberger, for 52 bus. corn, Nov. 15, 1780; etc. 

David Fudge, for 1 bag, 6 s., Febr. 19. 1781. 

John Fudge, for 1 pair "Stilards," 12s. 6d., Sept. 16, 

Coonrod Hansberger, for 87 yds. woolen cloth, colored 
blue, at 7s. 6d. a yard, Jan. 16. 1781. 

Adam Hansberger, for 1 "Waggoner Cover Very Good," 
40 shillings, Oct. 8, 1780. 

Reis Thomas, for 1 good blanket, £1, Oct. 26, 1780. 

John Thomas, for 4 diets, at 6d. each, and 2 quarts 
whisky, 2s., Febr. 26, 1781. 

"Ord. that ye Sheriff summon Wm. Herring to attend 
Court tomorrow." 

March 28, 1782. 

Justices present: 

John Fitzwater Reuben Harrison 

William Nawl Wm. Herring 

Michael Couger 

Claims allowed: 
Leonard Herring, for 30 bus. corn, July 3, 1781. 
Frederick Armentrout, for 1 bag, and 2 bus. "Spotts," 
Nov. 15, 1780; for 1 bag, April 24, 1779; etc. 

Henry Miller, for 50 gals, whiskey, at 3s. a gallon, and 
casks, 6s., Sept. 14, 1781; 39 horses 1 night at hay, Jan. 14, 
1781; and 1 bu. "Spels,"^° Is. 8d. ; for 30 morning snacks and 
30 gills whiskey, Jan. 15, 1781. 

"This under the same Circumstances wt. harnets." 

10. "Spels" was doubtless spelt, a grain related to wheat and barley, 
much used for food in Germany and Switzerland. It is also called "Ger- 
man wheat." This is a circumstantial touch reminding us that most of 
the early settlers of Rockingham came from Germany and Switzerland. 
The "Spotts" sold by Fred. Armentrout were likely some grain or vege- 
table, also. 



Henry Miller, for 1 ax, 5s., Jan. 19, 1781; for 437 lbs. 
beef, June 6, 1781. 

Jere Besselly, for 1 bu. corn and hay for 27 horses 1 

night, Jan. 13, 1781. 

"Sam at harnet." 

Jere Beazle, for pasturing 5 horses 4 days, Sept. 22,. 
1781 1 

Jere Beezly, for 1 gal. salt, 7s. 6d., Jan. 13, 1781. 
George Kessle, for hay and oats, Jan. 1, 1782. 
George Kelsle, for 6 days with team, March 1, 1781. 

Gorge Kessle, for 8 days rations for 2 men, Feb. 23^ 


Georg Kezle,ii for 2 days with team, Feb. 12, 1781. 

James Laird, for 99 days public service with his team^ 

acct. dated April 11, 1781. 

Alexander Miller, for 725 lbs. beef, Nov. 15, 1780. 

Frances Stewart, for pasturing 10 cattle 7 days, Nov. 2,. 
1781; etc. 

. Ja s. Rutherford, for 6 bus. rye, Nov. 17, 1780. 

Sam. Hamphill, for 22J lbs. bacon, at 9d., and 97 lbs. 
pork, at 3d., Feb. 4, 1781. 

Peter Nicholas, for 10 soldiers' diets, Febr. 25, 1781; to 
the same, for hay, diets, forage, oats, corn, &c., at various, 

Jacob Nicholas, for 200 lbs. hay, and for pasturing 14 
head of cattle, Nov. 12, 1780. 

Reuben Harrison, for 99 days public service with his 
team, acct. dated Dec. 12, 1781. 

Banabas Carpenter, for 1 beef weighing 287 lbs., at 2d. 
a pound, Sept. 16, 1781; and for 1350 lbs. hay, at Is. 6d. per 
cwt, Jan. 1, 1782. 

Barnabas Simmerman, for public service with his team, 

Jan. 20, 1781; to the same, for hay, corn, diets, lodging, etc., 

at various times; and "for Damage Done by Continental 

troops to the possessions of sd. Simmerm., 8 shillings," Dec. 
4, 1780. 

11- Kessle, Kelsle, and Kezle were obviously one and the same man^ 
to-wit, George Keezell, for whom Keezletown is named. 



John Brown, for 2 bus. rye, at 2s. 6d. a bushel, Nov. 
17, 1780. 

John Frazor, for 2 bus. rye and 10 bus. corn, Nov. 26, 

Nana Simerman, for 66 lbs. mutton, at 3d. a pound, 
Febr. 21, 1781. 

Pat. Guin, for 3 bus. corn, Dec. 7, 1781. 

Daniel Smith, for pasturing 34 troop horses 20 days, for 
beef, corn, and whiskey, July 21, 1781; for pubHc service 
with his team, &c., Nov. 30, 1781. 

Michael Couger, for making 2 tents, at 6s. 3d., Jan. 18, 

March 29, 1782. 

Accounts were allowed for military supplies furnished, 

for public service with teams, for horses lost in public ser- 
vice, etc., to the following: 

Reuben Harrison Adam Sellers 

John Weir Robt. Slaughter 

Peter Miller, Sr. John Branum 

Ester Stephenson Jacob Peters 

John Burk Woolry Hershman 

Peter Miller, Jr. Ben. White 

Leonard Miller Henry Long 

Robt. Hook Lawrence Slaughter 

Jacob Bear Ann Field 

Henry Miller Jacob Kiblinger 

James Bruster And. Hudlow 

Coonrod Hulvah Joseph Hannah 

Gabriel Jones Paul Lingal 

Peachy Gilmore Hans Magart 

George Mallow George Boswell 

March 30, 1782. 
Accounts were allowed for linen, making tents, for flour, 

beef, pasturage, rations, etc., to the following: 
William Snoding 
Henry Stone 



Sebaston Hoover 
Henry Dove 
Henry Harter 
Daniel Smith 
William Nail 
Edward Williams 
Jacob Baer 
Woolry Hershman 
Jacob Moyers 
Darby Ragon 

Felex Gilbert (For putting in a new axletree, and other- 
wise repairing a public wagon, 5s. ) 
To the same, for corn, horse shoes, &c. 
John Perky 
George Pence 

Henry Pence (For 8 flour barrels. ) 

John Smith (For 7 days wagoning, in assisting with the 
British prisoners from the south, to Shen- 
andoah, March, 1781.) 
William Marshall 
Lewis Circle 
Zeb Harrison (For one "Brown Mare, 14^ hands High 

Stout made 15 years Old 10£.") 
To the same, "By a dutch Clark, ye hand not known, for 
40 head of Bullocks at Pasture one Night at 
3 per Head." 
Adam Argabright 
Martin Argabright 
Danl. Guin (For "1 Bay Mare 14 hands & 1 Inch High 5 

years Old Well Made Lost in Publick Service 

twenty Pounds." ) 
Brewer Reeves 
Isaac Wood 
Alex. Miller 
William Fitzwater 
Sarah Bags 
Jeremiah Ragon 



John Page 

John Ewin 
Wm. Stephenson 
Frances Erwin 
Gawin Hamilton 
Jacob Fowland 

Johnston Neilson (For '1 Riff el Gun Powder Horn and 
Shot bag Lost in ye Continental Service 
In ye year 76 In ye Expedition to 
Georgia £5 10s.") 
Jeremiah Harrison (By assignment from Conrad Smith, 
for 1 roan mare, with bell and pack 
saddle, lost in the State service in 
1774, "In the Exp. to ye point Under 
Dunmore," £10 ) 
Daniel Smith 

Handel Vance 

Nicholas Curry 

Michael Baker 

John Fitzwater 

Wm. Marshal 

Danl. Polser 

Wat. Crow 

James Elliot 

William Magill 

John Guin 

John Hemphill 

James Baird 

George Carpenter (For '1 Gun Lost In the year 81 In 
the Battle at Jas. Town gun Shot 
poutch and powder horn," £5 5s.) 
Wm. Smith (For acting as packhorse master in carrying 
provisions to "Tyger Valey," 40 days, at 6s. 
per day, "Who then Acted under the Direc- 
tion of Wm. Boon accordg appt By Col 
Abram Smith C£. sd Boon having someTime 
ago Retd his Papers By Col. Nawl," etc.) 


Jonathan Shipman 
Abijiah Warrin 
Jno. McGlahing 
Lind. Wade 
Jno. Armstrong 
Thomas Collick 
Jacob Glaspie 
William Rice 
James Bletcher 
John Rice 
Jeremiah Harrison 
Robt. Craveors 
John Deniston 
Abram Smith 
George Peirce 
William Young 

April 1, 1782. 

Benjamin Harrison took the oath prescribed by law for 
County Lieutenant of the militia. 

April 22, 1782. 

Will of Peter Hog, first clerk of the court, written in his 
own hand, proved by Richard Madison, one of the subscrib- 
ing witnesses. Gabriel Jones and George Matthews gave 
bond as executors. Elizabeth Hog is mentioned as surviving 

April 23, 1782. 

Accounts were allowed for service in the Revolution, as 

Sept. 27, 1780. -"To Jas. Carrel for one Waggon, 3 
Horses and Geers for four horses All lost in Publick Service 
Under Comd. of Genl. Stevans In Carolina Being first 52 
Days in ye service 7 Day Retg home at 5s. 6d. Day and 10s. 
6d. Day for sd. 52 Days in service." 

Carrel was allowed for his horses £25, £30, and £15, re- 
spectively; for the wagon, gears, &c., £18. 



To Wm. Magill, for 15 days serving as quarter master 
with the militia from this county, to "Head Qt. Mopin Hills," 
at 6s. a day. No date. 

To Wm. Hook, for 1 horse, lost in public service in 1779 

April 24, 1782. 

Accounts were allowed for service, supplies furnished, 
etc., during the Revolution, to the following persons: 

George Spears 

Sol. Mathews 

John Henton 

John Hopkins 

George Baxter 

Jeremiah Ragon 

Richard Mathews 

Archibald Hopkins 

Isiah Shipman 

Jonathan Shipman 

Archibald Henderson 

Silas Hart 

James Devier 

Hugh Devier 

Fred. Armentrout 

Mathias Kersh (For 3 beeves weighing nett 1750 lbs., 

at 2id. a pound. ) 
George Weaver 
John Weaver 
Jacob Perkey 
Thos. Care 
Henry Monger 
Adam Sellers 
Col. Wm. Nawl 
Robt. Elliot 
Henry Armentrout 
Wm. White 
Martin Petro 



Wm. Davis 

Wm. Mills 

Jacob Nicholas 

David Laird 

George Mallow 

Ann Carpenter 

George Carpenter 

Adam Fought 

William Hook 

Thomas Harrison 

Frances Stewart 

John Miller 

George Huston ( ' 'For paying for Keeping 1 Horse His 
Own Property But Lost In the Ctry 
Service in Mcintosh Expd. Taken Up and 
Again Rd. to Him For Sixty Days 4 Dol- 
lars And pay Is. 6d. for 106 Days Being 
ye Time of sd. Expt." 
Dated Feb. 18, 1779.) 

The sheriff was ordered to collect the window glass tax, 
agreeable to Act of Assembly passed in May, 1780, "Which 
Should Have Been Collected In Augt. 81." 

May 27, 1782. 

Frances Kees [?] took the oath of an attorney "in this 

May 28, 1782. 

It was ordered that James Montgomery, son of Sam. 
Montgomery, deceased, be bound according to law, by the 
church wardens, "To Mr. Jno. Hicks To Learn ye silver 
smith Trade untill he Comes of ye Age of 21 years he Being 
14 year Spt Ensuing and the sd. Hicks Learn him read 
Wright and Cypher." 

Accounts for services rendered, supplies furnished, etc., 
during the Revolution, were allowed to the following persons: 



James Grace Handel Vance 

John Davis Mary Cravens 

Henry Stone Margaret Cravens 

Frances Beaverly John Craig 

Henry Whisler Wm. Hook 

Fred. Keiler Abram Peters 

George Ruddle Nehemiah Harrison 
James Magill 

May 29, 1782. 

Accounts for services rendered, supplies furnished, etc., 
during the Revolution, were allowed to the following persons: 

John Shipman Jacob Coofman 

Reuben Harrison John Pence 

Thomas Harrison John Robison 

Robt. Harrison David Robison 

Robt. Hook John Thomas 

Walter Crow George Mallow 

Mathew Patton Augustine Price 

Robt. Davis Jacob Harmon 

James Dyer Jno. Bear 
Frederick Kester 

May 30, 1782. 
Revolutionary claims were allowed to 

Bethuell Herring Michael Stump 

France Irvine John Bullet 

David Ralston Charles Rush 

Robt, Slaughter Pasley Hover 

Jacob Moyer John Sellers 

Lewis Runckle Stephen Coonrod 

Henry Price Pet. Kize 

John Sword George Coonrod 

Hugh Dunahoe Pet. Coonrod 

Michael Cams Philip Long 

Thomas Hewitt William Pence 

Alex. Herring Lewis Rhinehart 

Frances Stewart John Fye 



Pet. Runckle Joseph Smith 

David Laird Thomas Harrison 

John Eddy 

June 7, 1782. 
Revolutionary claims were allowed to 

John Herdman Jacob Bear 

John Hinton Robt. Elliot 

John McWilliams James Dier 

John Ewins Easther Stephenson 

Chrisly Painter John Blain 

John Hopkins Jacob Warick 

Archibald Hopkins Joseph Strickler 

Robt. Dunlap Alex. Samples 

Ephraim Love John McDugal 

Brewer Reeves Henry Ewins 

Godfrey Bowman Wm. Hook 

Wm. Pettejohn Ezekiel Harrison 

August 28, 1782. 

"Came into Court Benj Crow & made oath that there 
was a Rifel gun powder horn shot pouch and knife taken 
from Him When a continental soldier In the year 1777 and 
put Into the Magn. for which he Reed a certificate Which he 
Lodged with Walter Crow who also came into Court and Made 
oath that He Has Lost the sd. Cera, and never Reed any val- 
ue for ye same the Court Is therefore of the oppinion that ye 
sd. Benj Crow Be allowed £7 10s for sd gun powder horn 
shot Pouch and knife and the Same Is ord. to Be Cert." 

* 'Came into Court Walter Crow And Made oath that He 
Delivered 280 lbs. of Bacon To Mr. Tate Comg. at Albamarle 
Barricks In April 1779 for Which he has Never Rd. any Valy 
or Satisfan. the Court Is therefore of ye oppinion that He 
Be allowed 7i per lb. and ye same Is ord. To Be Cerd." 

"Came into Court Robt. Davis Gent, and Made oath the 
Hemshire Cty Mai When in this Cty supressing The Tories 
Red. of Him 30 Diets for Which he Red. no the Court Is 



therefore of ye oppn. that he Be allowed 6 d. per Diet & S 
ord. To Cert." 

September 24, 1782. 

"To John Donaphan 1 Gun Lost in Hot water Battle a 
smooth Rhifle about 3 feet 7 Inches Long Brass mounted with 
Amidling Lock Vallued To £3 & C. 

"The Sd. Donaphan was wounded in the Action." — Ac- 
count dated July 26, 1781. 

October 29. 1782. 

"To James Reeves for One Rifle Gun Lost in Crossing 
James River at Sandy Point upon the March Against Genl. 
Arnold Valued at £5.0.0 Specie." 

November 27, 1782. 

James Devier was appointed to procure weights and 
measures for a standard in the county, according to law, 
* 'upon the best Terms he can as far as 40£ Will Extend Hav- 
ing Regard To ye Purchassing of the sd. Measures In ye first 

March 25, 1783. 

"Gawin Hamilton Gent, having advertised the Court of 
his intentions of removing from this State to the State of 
Georgia and as he is informed it is necessary for Strangers to 
carry with them a Certificate of their Character and Conduct 
from the place where they remove from prayed the Court 
would Certifie their Knowledge of him, The Court therefore 
taking the same under consideration and willing to do Justice 
as well to the said Mr. Hamilton as to their Fellow Citizens 
in the State where he is about to remove to, Ordered that the 
Clerk of this Court do Certifie that the said Gawin Hamilton 
hath been for many years past an Inhabitant of this County 
that he hath Acted therein in the public Character of an 
Assistant Surveyor of the aforesaid County, A Magistrate 
and a Lieutenant Colonel of the Militia, in all which said 
Capacities he hath demeaned himself with uprightness, in- 
tegrity Spirit and Resolution, and Show'd by his Actions 



through the long Contest with Great Brittain that he pos- 
sessed true Whiggish principles and upon all occasions exerted 
them for the Advantage of the United States." 

On April 29, 1783, certificates were granted to Ezekiel 
Harrison, Reuben Harrison, and Josiah Harrison, stating that 
they had been born and brought up in the county, and had 
behaved themselves as good, faithful citizens and soldiers in 
the contest with Great Britain, etc. They also were remov- 
ing to Georgia. 

April 29, 1783. 

William Dunaphans^^ was allowed £2 for a smooth bore 
gun lost ' 'in Serving a Tour of Militia Duty under Colo. Naul, 
sd. gun was lost at Stomen [?] Mill Near Portsmouth in the 
Year 1781." 

May 27, 1783. 

''On Application of John Brown Senr. on behalf of James 
Brown that he is Eldest Brother and heir at Law of John 
Brown deceased a Soldier in the 8th Virginia Regiment^- was 
in the Continental Service at the time of his Death— which 
is Ordered to be Certified." 

13- The Dunaphan family seems to have had a persistent misfortune 
with guns. This makes three lost by William and John. It is possible, 
however, that the above item refers to the same gun mentioned in the 
record of March 27, 1782. 

13. The 8th Virginia was the famous "German Regiment," commanded 
first by Muhlenberg, later by Abram Bowman. See Wayland's "German 
Element," pp. 143, 144. 

June 23, 1783. 

' 'Capt. Stephen Coonrod came into Court and proved that 
he lost or mislaid a Certain Certificate granted by Col. Wm. 
Nail to John Fie so that it cannot be found for one old Wolfs 
Scalp and that the same is Ordered to be Certified." 

June 24, 1783. 
Agreeable to an order of the court in March preceding, 



for the sheriff to let the paving "of that part of the Court 
House from the Lawyers Barr to the Chimney Ordered that 
Andrew Shanklin Let the said work with an Addition of two 
Windows one of each side of the Chair containing Twelve 
lights each Eight by Ten to be finished in a workmanlike 
manner with Suitable Shutters &c. by August Court next." 
On September 23 this w^ork was reported satisfactorily com- 

' '0 That William Herring and Andrew Shanklin Gent, do 
lay off the Prison bounds." 

Pursuant to the above, Herring and Shanklin made re- 
port that the said prison bounds * 'do begin at a Walnut tree 
In the Corner of Reeves Lott, from thence to a Stone set up 
below the South East end of Deviers House, from thence to 
two black Oak saplins growing from one Root, in the North 
Side of Lanahans Lott, from thence to a Stone Set up at the 
West side of Rutherfords Kitchen and from thence to the 

September 22, 1783. 

Daniel McKenley was granted a certificate, stating that 
he had been a resident of the county for "some years past," 
had been a person of sober conduct, had manifested true 
Whiggish principles in the long contest with Great Britain, 
and had been a good soldier, in the capacity of sergeant, in a 
long and tedious campaign. Mr. McKenley, like others al- 
ready mentioned, was going to Georgia. 

October 28, 1783. 

Henry Ewin, William Herring, and Benj. Harrison, ap- 
pointed by a former court, reported that they had viewed the 
work done by James Henton on the "Jayl, Pillory and Stocks, " 
and had found it done according to contract. An order was 
entered directing the sheriff to pay the said Henton £35 15s. 
for the said work. Henton was allowed 20s. for a stock lock 
"now on the inside Door of Jail upon his furnishing a Lock 
for the Iron Door agreeable to Article." 



September 27, 1784. 

Gawin Hamilton and Ralph Loftus, having been appointed 
by a former court to examine Mr. John Lincoln in regard to 
his abilities as deputy surveyor of the county, reported that 
they had found nothing to hinder his being admitted to the 

After the successful close of the Revolution in 1783, Vir- 
ginia bestowed a northwestern empire upon the new nation 
in 1784. In 1787 the famous ordinance for the government of 
the northwest and the new constitution for the nation were 
both drawn up. Two years later Washington was inaugurated 
first President, and the "tall young Adam of the West" 
began to stand erect. In 1793 Whitney invented the cotton 
gin; in 1798 Virginia and Kentucky passed their fateful reso- 
lutions in protest against the Alien and Sedition Acts; in 1803 
Jefferson purchased Louisiana; and in 1807 came a trilogy of 
great events: The passage of the Embargo, the proof of 
Fulton's steamboat, and the birth of Robert E. Lee. During 
all this time progress was rapid in Rockingham, notwith- 
standing the fact that she surrendered a large part of her 
territory in 1787 in the formation of Pendleton County. The 
people were subduing the earth and replenishing it; they 
were clearing forests, building houses, laying out roads, and 
establishing schools, churches, and towns: they were marry- 
ing and giving in marriage. If any one doubts the last, he 
may abundantly satisfy himself by referring to the list of 
marriages in the Appendix. At the end of the century Rev. 
John Walsh, of the Methodist Church, seems to have been 
best man to Hymen. For the year ending in April, 1798, 
he reported 30 marriages to the county clerk, and for the 
next year, ending May 13, 1799, he reported 45. 

In 1781 there were about 1500 tithables in the county. 
Accordingly, the total population was probably about 5000. 
In 1790 there were about 2100 tithables, and a total popu- 
lation of nearly 7500. By 1810 the figures were about 3000 



and 12,500, respectively. There was a variety of race ele- 
ments: German, Scotch, Irish, English, Dutch, and Negro: 
but the negroes were remarkably few, compared with the 
number to be found in the adjacent counties east of the Blue 
Ridge. The number of negro slaves reported for 1790 was 
only about 10 per cent, of the total population; the number in 
1810 being about 11 per cent, of the total. Most of the tax- 
payers had horses, while but a few of them had slaves. In 
1775 Felix Gilbert reported 12 tithables, and John Craig 
nine, — more than any one else in their district. The largest 
slave-holders in the county in 1788 were Peachey Ridgeway, 
John Mackalls, Thomas Lewis, and William Nail, with 12, 10, 
8, and 7 slaves, respectively. At the same time James Dyer 
had 19 horses and one slave; George Crisman, 17 horses and 
4 slaves; Gawin Hamilton, 16 horses and 3 slaves; and Jacob 
Coonrod, 16 horses and no slaves. Usually, however, those 
who had a large number of horses also had a considerable 
number of slaves, and vice versa. Another fact of special 
significance presents itself in this connection. In 1790 all the 
negroes in the county were reported as slaves: there were 
apparently no free negroes; but in 1810 there were 200 or 
more free negroes. This change was probably the result, in 
large measure at least, of the work done within this period 
by the Methodists and other religious bodies in behalf of 

Particular instances of emigration, about the close of the 
Revolution, have been recorded. Many other instances might 
be found. Through the kindness of Mr. H. M. Strickler I 
am enabled to present the following paragraphs in point 
from two letters written by Mrs. Ryland Todhunter of Lex- 
ington, Mo. Under date of August 26, 1911, she says: 

Almost the entire settlement of Madison County, Kentucky, was 
made up by a concourse of people who left Augusta, Albemarle, and 
Rockingham County in a body for that new country about 1785-91. 

Again, under date of September 12, 1911, she writes: 

In 1810 there were 100 families who came at one time from Madison 
County, Ky. , to settle in the new Missouri Territory. They were almost 



without exception the same names and children of the men who left 
Augusta and Rockingham County, Va. With them came my Elliott fam- 
ily and the allied families of Glasgow, Wallace, Estill, Trigg, Rodes, 
Lewis, Turner, Kavanaugh, Oldham, and others. It is possible that 
Elliott's Knob was named for my family. 

August 11, 1911, Maj. W. P. Pence, of Fort Monroe, Va., 
who has spent much time searching records in the effort to 
get a complete history of the Pence family, told me that 
about 1805-1815 there was a notable exodus from Rocking- 
ham westward, specially into the northwest territories. 

In 1780 Harrisonburg was established as a town; in 1791, 
Keezletown ; from 1801 to 1804 McGaheysville, Port Republic, 
and New Haven were laid out and named. The first Circuit 
Superior Court of Law and Chancery for Rockingham County 
was held in April, 1809, Judge Hugh Holmes presiding. In 
April, 1811, this court was put in charge of Judge Daniel 
Smith, to continue under his able direction till his death in 
1850. Much of the work done in the magistrates' court dur- 
ing the latter part of the 18th and the early part of the 19th 
century had for its purpose the improvement of facilities for 
travel and transportation: the laying out of roads, the clear- 
ing of fords, etc. Many details concerning this work may be 
found in Chapter XII. Educational and religious work was 
not by any means neglected. The Lutherans, the Reformed, 
the Mennonites, and the Episcopalians had been in the field 
from the beginning; the Bunkers, the Presbyterians, the 
Methodists, and the United Brethren were becoming well es- 
tablished. There were perhaps a few Catholics, Quakers, 
and Moravians in the county. Particulars regarding these 
various churches are given in Chapter XIV, while the subject 
of education receives special attention in Chapter XV. 

About 1809 George Rockingham Gilmer, later Governor 
of Georgia, visited Virginia, the home of his ancestors, and 
in particular the birthplace of his father in Rockingham 
County. He came up through East Virginia, stopping in 
Amelia, Cumberland, Albemarle, and other counties. He 
was in Charlottesville on the day of the election of members 
of the State legislature and Congress. 



Crossing the Blue Ridge, probably by Brown's Gap, he 
came into the beautiful Valley. Here I quote from his own 

I passed that evening the birthplace of my mother— then the resi- 
dence of my uncle, Charles Lewis— and arrived at Lethe, the birthplace of 
my father — the residence of my uncle, George Gilmer. 

I remained two months at this beautiful place, with the best and 
kindest people whom I have ever known. The house was of brick, situ- 
ated upon the descent of a hill, about three hundred yards from the 
Shenandoah River, which was seen over a beautiful meadow, and through 
thinly scattered sycamore trees, flowing away with a strong current. 
From the top of the hill, back of the house, might be seen exceedingly 
fertile fields, enclosed in a semicircle, formed by the river, and mountains 
extending in every direction. 

In the middle of the valley, between the North Mountain and the 
Blue Ridge, rose up almost perpendicularly, and to a great height, the 
Peaked Mountain. In a clear day, many excavations were visible on its 
side. Upon inquiring about them, I was informed that they had been 
made by the neighboring Dutch people in search of hidden treasure. A 
young fellow of the neighborhood, whose father was a man of some wealth 
and consequence, had a club-foot and was made a tailor of, as fit for 
nothing else. In following his trade, he went to many places, and became 
wise in the ways and some of the tricks of the world. After a while he 
returned to the neighborhood of the Peaked Mountain. The Dutch had 
heard, and were credulous enough to believe, that a wealthy lord was 
one of the first settlers of the Shenandoah Valley, had quitted the coun- 
try a long time before, and returned to Germany, leaving his money 
behind, hid in the Peaked Mountain. There had been some effort to 
discover the treasure by digging several places in the mountain side. 
The tailor told them that, in his travels through Ohio, he had been in a 
factory of spyglasses, which so added to the power of sight, that he 
could see several feet into the earth with one of them. Having excited 
great interest about these glasses and the hidden treasure by his tales, 
he proposed to the money-hunters that, if they would make up a suffi- 
cient sum, he would go with it to this factory, and buy them a glass, 
by which they could find the concealed gold. 

The required sum was collected, and the tailor went to Ohio. Upon 
his return, he informed his employers that he had purchased a glass bet- 
ter than he had ever seen before; that he had no doubt but that they 
could have seen through the Peaked Mountain, if he could have got it to 
them; but unfortunately, as he was traveling home with it, he was 
obliged to cross a rapid run, which proved more swollen than he supposed. 
He was washed down by the strong current, lost his saddlebags, with 



the glass in it, and came very near losing his life. Another sum of money- 
was made up with which the Irish club-footed tailor left the heighborhood 
of the Peaked Mountain, never again to be seen there. He laid out the 
money in the purchase of a tract of land, whilst some had theirs sold to 
repay the money which they had borrowed to supply the tailor with the 
means to buy the wonderful glass. 

Whilst at Lethe, I witnessed an electioneering scene, equally inter- 
esting with the one I had been present at in Charlottesville. David 
Holmes, who had for twenty years immediately preceding, represented in 
Congress the district of which Rockingham County made a part, had been 
appointed Governor of the Mississippi Territory by Mr. Jefferson. A new 
member had to be elected. The republicans and federalists were very 
equally divided in the district. Mr. Smith (now Judge Smith) became 
the candidate of the republicans, and Jacob Swope the candidate of the 
federalists. The Virginians vote viva voce. The candidates seat them- 
selves during the day of the election on the judge's bench, in the court- 
house, and as each voter names the person for whom he votes, he is bowed 
to, and thanked by the candidate voted for. I was in Harrisonburg, the 
court-house town of Rockingham, on the day of this election, and saw Mr. 
Smith and Swope, thus seated and occupied. Smith was of an old Vir- 
ginia family; Swope was German, and could speak the German language. 
The farmers of the county were mostly Germans; the lawyers, doctors, 
merchants, sheriffs, clerks, &c.,were Virginians. Mr. Smith and Swope 
addressed the people on the party topics of the day, British orders in 
council. Napoleon's edict restricting commerce, the embargo, and anti- 
commercial system of Mr. Jefferson. 

After both candidates had spoken, Mr. Swope commenced addressing 
the people in German, in reply to Mr. Smith. A huge old German rose, 
and in broken English, said Mr. Swope should not talk German, because 
Mr. Smith could not talk German, and stopped Swope. Mr. Swope was 
a merchant, a handsome man, and usually well dressed. He resided in 
Staunton, Augusta County. He came to Rockingham dressed in German 
fashion. The German succeeded, though the Smith party had the ma- 
jority in the district; and Mr. Smith was equal, if not superior to Mr. 
Swope in qualifications for Congressional service. 14 

The new nation won political independence in the war 
from 1775 to 1783, but another hard struggle was necessary 
to secure commercial independence. The conspicuous part 
taken in the Revolution by the new county of Rockingham 
has already been indicated, and it may be shown that in the 

14. From Gov. George Rockingham Gilmer's book on Georgians and 
Virginians, pp. 243-246. 



war from 1812 to 1815 it was not found wanting. In 1813 
and 1814 no less than five companies, aggregating nearly 400 
men, went into the military service of the nation from Rock- 
ingham County. The captains of these companies were 
Robert Magill, Thomas Hopkins, William Harrison, Robert 
Hooke, and Daniel Matthews; the names of their men may be 
found in the muster rolls in the Appendix. It is quite proba- 
ble that other soldiers from Rockingham, not listed in these 
rolls, also took part in the second war for independence. 
For example. Col. Joseph Mauzy (1779-1863), who was for 
many years a prominent citizen of the county, was in com- 
mand of a company at Norfolk; and under date of January 
11, 1861, the editor of the Rockingham Register made this 

In 1812 we furnished more than enough men to form a regiment, yet 
our men served under strangers. 

But peace marks progress while war wins victory. Dur- 
ing the war of 1812-15, as well as in the years preceding and 
following, progress in the new county was steady and sub- 
stantial. Things intellectual and spiritual were not lost sight 
of in the growth of things material. As early as 1813 David- 
son & Bourne had a printing establishment in Harrisonburg; 
two or three years later Lawrence Wartmann, whose publi- 
cations were to become famous, had opened his press in the 
same town. Daniel Bryan was writing poetry; Joseph Funk 
was publishing music; John Brown was advocating missions; 
the Methodists and others were trying to get rid of slavery; 
the palaces underground were being explored, and the foun- 
tains among the hills were being sought for health and pleas- 
ure: the day was at the morn in Rockingham. 



The period from 1820 to 1860 was one of varied and far- 
reaching activities. The new nation had won its political 
independence by the Revolution, and its commercial inde- 
pendence by the war of 1812: it was now achieving its indus- 
trial independence through the development of manufac- 
tures, the invention of agricultural machinery, and the im- 
provement of transportation facilities; and was preparing to 
realize its intellectual independence, as well, by thinking for 
itself and writing books that were no longer fashioned 
upon European models. Within this period fall the Missouri 
Compromise, the enunciation of the Monroe Doctrine, South 
Carolina nullification, the abolition movement, the economic 
crisis of 1837, the Mexican War, the Compromise of 1850, 
John Brown's Raid, and the beginning of secession. 

In Rockingham County the main currents of national 
movements were being felt and registered, and at the same 
tim.e affairs of State and local interest were riding upon high 
tides. Population was increasing and being widely dis- 
tributed by emigration; social institutions were being devel- 
oped, law systems were being perfected, military organiza- 
tions were being maintained, and natural resources were be- 
ing exploited. It was a time frequently marked by sharp 
political agitation, the constitution of the State being re- 
written twice within the period, once in 1829-30, again in 
1850-51. Churches were being extended, and not a little at- 
tention was being directed toward general education, but the 
chief local movements of the time appear to have been poli- 
tical, social, and economic, rather than religious or literary. 
It was a time of "internal improvements" — some railroads 

j: do 


being projected, some towns, perhaps, being "boomed," 
several banks being established, many roads being con- 
structed, and a large number of bridges being erected. In the 
decade preceding the crisis of 1837 the building of turnpikes 
was especially in vogue, the Valley Turnpike and the one 
leading from Harrisonburg to Warm Springs both being con- 
structed within that time. The Rockingham Turnpike, lead- 
ing from Harrisonburg eastward toward SvWft Run Gap, was 
not built until some years later, but still within the period 
under consideration. The roads, good and bad, were being 
utilized, not only for neighborhood communication and trans- 
portation, but also for a great wagon trade with Scottsville, 
Fredericksburg, Winchester, and other markets; and the 
Shenandoah River at the same time was a throbbing channel 
of navigation between the eastern sections of the county and 
the cities on the Potomac. 

Chapters XII and XXVI are devoted specially to roads 
and the river trade, respectively; further particulars regard- 
ing banks may be found in Chapter XXII; and a number of 
items concerning the bridges of the county will be found 
here and there— some further on in this chapter. 

Rockingham County has always been notable as a distri- 
buting center for people. In this respect it resembles those 
counties of Eastern Pennsplvania, whence most of its early 
settlers came. Far and wide, over the south, west, and north- 
west, in Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, 
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and many other States, not only indi- 
viduals but also communities may be found that trace their 
ancestry or former places of residence to Rockingham County, 
Virginia. As already indicated, emigration was common 
from the first, but so great was the exodus in the period under 
review that the number of Rockinghamers actually in Rock- 
ingham in 1850 was about 300 less than in 1830; and emigra- 
tion was so rapid in the decade following 1830 that the popu- 
lation (only the white population is included in these figures) 
was nearly 3000 less in 1840 than in 1830. To cite a single 
instance, there were nine children in one of the Kaylor fami- 



lies, but only one remained in Rockingham; from 1828 to 1833 
the other eight moved to Logan County, Ohio, where their 
descendants are numerous to-day; and with the last of the 
eight went the mother of them all. 

Another reason for the decrease of population in Rock- 
ingham between 1830 and 1840 is to be found in the forma- 
tion of Page County, in 1831, from Rockingham and Shenan- 
doah; but the part taken from Rockingham was small, as 
may be seen by a glance at the map, not large enough to re- 
quire of itself the growth of twenty years in compensation. 
We must reckon still with the steady stream going westward. 

The main reason for this movement towards the west is 
doubtless to be found in the liberal policy adopted by the 
Federal Government in 1820 for disposing of the public 
lands. Immediately the movement westward was acceler- 
ated, and for a number of years preceding 1837 the land 
fever was widespread and at high temperature. The popu- 
lation of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Iowa increased from 792,719 in 1820 to 2,967,840 in 1840. 
Much of the growth of Rockingham in this period must be 
registered in these States, rather than within her own defi- 
nite boundaries. 

But temporary loss of population did not diminish the 
fertility of Rockingham fields, or the vigor of her sons and 
daughters who abode at home. About 1845 Henry Howe 
traveled all over Virginia, then including West Virginia, and 
wrote an account of each county in order. Of Harrisonburg 
he wrote, ' 'The village is handsomely built, flourishing, and 
is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile country. "^ 

Among other towns and villages he mentions specially 
Mt. Crawford, Port Republic, Deaton (Dayton), and Edom 

One of the features — we might almost say, one of the in- 
stitutions—of Rockingham life in the early part of the 19th 
century was the annual Methodist campmeeting at Taylor 
Springs (now Massanetta). An intimate glimpse into the 

1. Howe's Historical Collections of Virginia, 1852 Edition, page 460. 



conditions frequently prevalent at that time is afforded by a 
notice that appeared in the Rockingham Register of August 
11, 1825, in which a committee of the brethren (probably the 
committee of arrangements) assured the order-loving public 
that they would spare no vigilance in protecting the meeting 
of that year against disorder, and that they intended to en- 
force the law against any who might interrupt the worship- 
ers with liquor-selling, swearing, drinking, or sabbath- break- 
ing. The committee consisted of Peachy Harrison, Stephen 
Harnsberger, and Edward Stevens. 

In the same issue of the Register appeared an article, 
copied with evident approval from the Alexandria Herald, 
which shows that the Methodists and other religious bodies 
of Rockingham were not alone in their desire to get rid of 
slavery. The article is as follows: 


In addition to the fact of the emancipation of 70 slaves by Mr. 
Minge, of Virginia, the Richmond Whig of Friday says that two in- 
stances of the triumph (of) philanthropy and patriotism, over the sordid 
selfishness of our nature, can be recited, equally as meritorious and splen- 
did as that act of distinguished munificence. The Rev. Fletcher Andrew, 
an ordained minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, had received 
from the bounty of a dying relative, twenty slaves, at that time valued 
at $10,000; shortly after he attained the age of twenty-one years, al- 
though they constituted nearly the whole of his worldly property, this 
amiable and pious man, generously emancipated every one of them. And 
Mr. Charles Crenshaw, a farmer residing in the neighborhood of Rich- 
mond, has recently manumitted all the slaves he owned, amounting alto- 
gether to sixty. 

An able writer in the Register of October 5, 1822, reviews 
the political condition of the country at large, and deplores 
the rivalries and dissensions so much in evidence among the 
different States and sections. He says: 

The preservation of our union is unfortunately too deeply connected 
with this interesting subject — an epoch has appeared in our History, that 
every federative government must sooner or later experience, an im- 
portant crisis has arrived; our future prosperity and happiness is wrap- 
ped within the events of the next five years, and it rests with us, whether 
we shall continue to enjoy the blessings of our present happy constitution, 



or be subjected to all the vicissitudes, and destructions, of a state of an- 
archy and confusion. Should one pillar of the Union be removed, the 
whole Edifice would soon tumble into ruins; and all hopes of a reestab- 
iishment will be preposterous. Every state will assume to itself individ- 
ual sovereignty, the smaller states will feel the encroachment of the 
greater, and be a prey to every dangerous passion. 

There was evidently a strong sentiment in Rockingham 
and adjacent counties favoring a revision of the State con- 
stitution in 1829-30. In Rockingham the vote was 630 for a 
convention, 125 against a convention; in Augusta, 560 for, 
109 against; in Shenandoah, 968 for, 13 against. All the 
counties of the Valley— perhaps all in the western part of the 
State — gave large majorities for a convention, while many 
of those east of the Blue Ridge gave majorities against it. 
After the convention had done its work, Rockingham gave 
457 votes in favor of adopting the new constitution, and only 
49 against adoption; in Augusta the vote was 285 and 270, 
pro and con; in Shenandoah, 671 and 61. 

In this connection it will be of interest to see how the 
famous Nullification Ordinance, passed by South Carolina in 
November 1832, was received in Rockingham County. The 
writer has been exceedingly fortunate in securing, through 
the kindness of Mr. James B. Stephenson of Harrisonburg, 
a copy of the Rockingham Register of January 12, 1833, in 
which is a full and detailed account of the great mass meeting 
that was held on Monday, January 7, 1833, to consider the 
burning questions of the time. 

The following editorial note, in the Register referred to, 
will introduce us to the situation: 

"In this day's paper we give the proceedings of the 
meeting held in the Court House on Monday last, pursuant to 
notice. It will be seen from the preamble and resolutions 
adopted, that Nullification finds but little favor in this 
county, and that the President's decided and patriotic course 
meets with general approbation from all parties. ' ' 

The meeting referred to in this note was held, as already 
stated, on January 7, 1833, a large number of citizens of all 
parties being present. Dr. Peachy Harrison was made chair- 



man, and Allan C. Bryan secretary. On motion of Au^stus 
Waterman a committee of seven was appointed to report a 
preamble and resolutions to the meeting. The following gen- 
tlemen composed the committee : Augustus Waterman, David 
Steele, Henry J. Gambill, Samuel Cootes, Dr. Michael H. 
Harris, Major Edward H. Smith, and James M. Huston. 

A lengthy preamble and extended resolutions under seven 
heads were reported. The preamble referred to the recent 
nullification ordinance of South Carolina and acknowledged 
the crisis thereby impending. Resolution 1 asserted the su- 
premacy of the national government, and denied that it was 
a compact or league of independent States; Resolution 2 ac- 
knowledged the right of revolution as a last resort, but denied 
the right of any State of nullification or peaceable secession; 
Resolution 3 deplored the "precipitate, rash, misguided vio- 
lence of our Sister State of South Carolina," and denounced 
her conduct as "plainly, palpably, dangerously unconstitu- 
tional"; Resolution 4 approved the proclamation of the Presi- 
dent; Resolution 5 reprobated the action of the governor of 
Virginia (John Floyd) in transmitting the ordinance of South 
Carolina to the Virginia legislature, and declared that the 
Virginia Resolutions of 1799 could not properly be held as 
justifying the recent action of South Carolina; Resolution 6 
cheered on the Union party in South Carolina; and Resolution 
7 ordered that the secretary transmit a copy of the proceed- 
ings to the President of the United States, to each of the 
Rockingham delegates in the General Assembly, and to the 
following papers: Richmond Enquirer, Constitutional Whig, 
Staunton Spectator, Rockingham Register, and The Globe. 

The resolutions adopted, particularly Resolutions 1 and 2, 
followed the constitutional sophistries of Daniel Webster; 
and on the same page of the Register with them is printed 
Webster's speech in Faneuil Hall, delivered December 17, 

Resolutions 3 and 6 were carried unanimously; the others 
"with a very few dissenting votes." We may infer that 
Peachy Grattan, I. S. Pennybacker, and Dr. Moomau were 



among the dissenting voters; for it is reported that these 
gentlemen offered substitute resolutions, and supported them 
in speeches. The defenders of the prevailing resolutions 
were chiefly Mr. Waterman, Thomas Clark, and Mr. Cootes. 

The above-mentioned meeting was perhaps the last 
notable gathering ever held in the Old Courthouse; for in the 
same issue of the Register that contains the account of the 
said meeting is to be found a notice, signed by Jacob Rush, 
David Henton, John Kenney, and Peachy Harrison, commis- 
sioners, that on the third Monday of January, 1833, the old 
building would be sold. It was to be remeved by March 15, 
in order to clear the ground for the new courthouse. 

The attitude of Virginia and Rockingham County toward 
the political issues of the time may be further illustrated by 
the following verses, which are the first two stanzas of a 
song reprinted from the New York Courier & Enquirer in 
the Rockingham Register of November 9, 1833. 

Save De Union. 

A mighty angry quarrel rose 
Among de Tariff's friens' an' foes, 
An' Souf Calina in a fit, 
De Union vows to curse an' quit. 
But save de Union, ole folks, young folks, 
Ole Virginny nevah tire. 

Virginny loves her Sistah State, 
An' most as much de Tariff hate, 
But while de Tariff she despise, 
De Union berry much she prize, 

So save de Union, ole folks, young folks, 
Ole Virginny nevah tire. 

In 1838 there were six voting places in the county, 
namely: Court House; Riddle's, in Brock's Gap; Zigler's 
School House, at Timberville; Richard Pickering's, at Sparta; 
Conrad's Old Store; Solomon Pirkey's, in McGaheysville. In 
1842 there were seven: Harrisonburg; Addison Harper's, 
Brock's Gap; Schoolhouse of John Zigler, Timberville; Rich- 
ard Pickering's; Conrad's Old Store; McGaheysville; Bright- 



well's old store, on Beaver Creek. In 1858 a precinct was 
established at the house of Samuel Cootes. 

The Rockingham Register, in 1840, was ardent in its sup- 
port of Van Buren. In the issue of August 15 a two-column 
campaign article appears, aimed, of course, at Harrison and 
the Whigs, and containing a long list of those gentlemen 
who constituted the Democratic Vigilance Committee for 
Central (or Harrisonburg) Precinct. Peachy Harrison was 
chairman of the committee. 

In 1841 the following persons were agents for the Regis- 
ter, at the places designated: 

Naason Bare— Timberville 

Jacob Deck— Brock's Gap 

R. Pickering — Spartapolis 

Geo. E. Deneale — Smith's Creek 

P. A. Clark -Mt. Crawford 

John Dinkle — Bridgewater 

Joseph Conrad— Conrad's Store 

D. Irick— McGaheysville 

Reuben Emick— Linvill's Creek 

Wesley Bare— Parnassus 

Young J. Hiner — Doe-Hill 

Wm. McCoy — Franklin 

S. Sterling, of Rockh., Gen. Agt. 

In 1844 the Harrisonburg Republican was in the Presi- 
dential campaign, for Clay and FYelinghuysen, and against 
the Register— wot to mention Polk and Dallas. The follow- 
ing paragraph is copied from the Republican of July 23, 1844. 

Our brother of the Fairmount (Va. ) Pioneer is correct. "The enter- 
prising Whigs of Rockingham have caused a Whig paper to be estab- 
lished in that strong hold of Locofocoism," and what is more to the point, 
they intend keeping it up. 

A few notes relating to military affairs within the period 
before us are herewith presented. On April 19 (a notable 
anniversary!), 1822, John Kenny was commissioned colonel 
(field officer of cavalry) in Rockingham. In 1828 the num- 
ber of Virginia militia totaled 100,707, Frederick County 



standing first with 2569, Shenandoah second, with 2556, and 
Rockingham fourth, with 2296. In 1835 the General As- 
sembly passed an Act establivshing in Rockingham a new and 
distinct regiment, to be known as the 145th Regiment of Vir- 
ginia Militia. The commissioners named in the Act were 
John Cowen, Samuel Cootes, John Allabough, Anderson 
Moffitt, George Piper, David Lincoln, Samuel Miller, Abram 
Burd, and David Hen ton. The next year an Act to apportion 
more equally the enrolled militia of the three Rockingham 
Regiments was passed. In the Register of April 7, 1838, is 
found a notice from Wm. Burnside, 0. S., ordering the rifle 
company, commanded by Capt. Speck and attached to the 
145th Regiment, to parade on the 2d Saturday of April at 
Paul's Mill, Beaver Creek. In another copy of the same 
paper, dated April 8, 1842, are three similar notices: One 
from J. Billhimer, 0. S., to Capt. 0. St. C. Sprinkle's com- 
pany, ordering it to parade in Harrisonburg on the 2d Satur- 
day of April; another, from John A. Hopkins, captain, 
ordering the artillery to parade at Mt. Clinton on the 2d 
Saturday; another, from Wm. Burnsides, 0. S., ordering the 
light infantry company, formerly under command of Capt. 
J. S. Carlile, to parade in Dayton on the 3d Saturday. In 
the last-named company an election was to be held for cap- 
tain. The hour appointed for the parade in each of the three 
notices was 11 o'clock. 

Twenty years ago a lady^ who was born in Harrisonburg 
in 1812, and who spent her early life there, wrote out her 
recollections of the olden time. Her account of the "big 
musters" is given in the following graphic words: 

The annual or general muster was the greatest thing, and was looked 
forward to for months with the greatest pleasure by all the negroes and 
children. Training of officers began several days before muster day. 
It was the most motley crowd that filled the square around the court 
house. Men of all sorts and sizes, dressed in tow-linen pants and shirts; 
few had coats and vests; some with old wool hats, and others with straw 

2. Maria Graham Carr, mother of Gen. C. C. C. Carr of Chicago. For 
access to copies of her manuscript I am indebted to Mr. R. A. VanPelt 
and Mrs. Hattie Newman. 



hats. I saw one man in this crowd when I was about ten years old; he 
had on tow-linen pants and shirt, coarse shoes, no stockings; around 
his waist was a bright red woolen sash: he had a rusty slouch hat on, 
without band, and torn at the edge. On the front of the hat was a long 
white feather with a scarlet top — he felt as proud as a general. I saw 
several soldiers there at one time with bright yellow coats trimmed with 
black, and green flannel ones trimmed with white or silver. I suppose 
these uniforms were some of the remains of the War of 1812. My aunt 
told me that my father had raised a company which he had uniformed at 
his own expense. 

Some men on muster day carried old umbrellas, cornstalks and sticks 
of wood instead of guns and swords. I suppose the officers were tired of 
trying to beat sense into these men, and gave up in despair, marching 
them out to a field in the N. end of town to try to drill them. 

After marching the militia out to the field, the Light Horse Company, 
of about fif cy men, under Col. McMahon, went out also. After all the 
men were on the field the staff officers went out to the Colonel's house to 
escort him to the field. Not one of them was uniformed. The Colonel 
had on a blue uniform with metal buttons, a red sash around his waist, 
and a helmet with a cow's tail on it, hanging down behind. The whisky, 
beer, and ginger-bread sellers were in their glory, as this was their har- 
vest, many persons taking home a jug full of something and a handker- 
chief filled with ginger-bread. 

I always loved dearly to hear the fife and drum, and got as near to 
them as I could, listening to them until the tears ran down my cheeks. 
I was never so affected by any other music. 

All the gentlemen of that day ordinarily wore knee 
breeches with silver buckles, some of these buckles being set 
with paste; they had shoe buckles to match; silk hose in 
summer, and black lamb's wool hose in winter. 

According to a letter written January 16, 1911, by Mr. 
D. M. Kaylor of Bellefontaine, Ohio, a famous ginger cake 
baker of the time was Mrs. Christopher Warvel, who lived 
near McGaheysville. Mrs. Carr mentions a Mrs. Nye of Har- 
risonburg who was also noted for her ginger cake, as well as 
for her molasses-beer and taffy. 

Through the favor of Mr. J. L. Argubright, of Dayton, 
I am able to reproduce the following interesting roll, from 
the original manuscript. It is a valuable piece of source 
material in Rockingham military history. 



Muster Rool of A Troop of Cavalry Commanded by Capt. 
John Nicholas for the year 1828 

John Nicholas Capt 

John Miller 1st Lt 

Henry Oungst 2nd Lt 

John Albright Cornet 

Charles Yancey 1st Sert 

(Jacob Frederick 2nd Sert) 

Samuel Royer 3th Sert 

Joseph Moyer 4th Sert 

Jacob Kiblinger 

John Royer 

Joseph Mahoy 

Jonathan Peal 

Jonathan Rush 

Jacob Armentrout 

James Dovel 

John Fisher 

John Alfred 

(Frederick Krahn) 

Charles Nicholas miller 

David Irick 

Tyree R. Brown 

Samuel Moor 

Michael Rowtz 

William Fisher 

(William Banner) 

Nicholas Miller 

Nathan Huston 

Peter Miller 

Philip Moyer 

(Alexa Newman) 

Hamilton I Hufman 

John Cline 

Thomas Reaves 

William Reaves 

Charles Chandler 

David Chandler 

(Tandy Dovel) 

William Bird 

John Anders 

David Weaver 

George Kaylor 

George Nicholas 
Philip Deal 
Solomon Leonard 
Berryman Dorsson 
David Royer 
Abraham Argebright 
James Kook 
(John Williams) 
David Huston 
John Argebright 
Jacob Royer 
Peter Roler 
John May 
Jacob Earman 
Jacob Allabaugh 
John Huffman 
Albert Yancey 
Francis Kertly 
John Dovel 
William Youst 
(John Wallace) 
George E. Craige 
William Eater 
David Oungst 
William Eaton 
(Joseph Oungst) 
Samuel H. Huffman 
David Eitor 
Samuel Showalter 
Adam Blose Jr 
Joshua Snider 
Abraham Whitmore 
Daniel Rife 
Benja Miller 
David Eversole 
(Jacob Kiblinger Jr) 
Henry Conrod 
Henry Hansbarger 
George Huston 
Reuben Propst 
Jacob Llnaweaver 



Wm Peterfish Jacob Conrod 

Ninrod Hitt Samuel Gibbons 

Jacob Blose Thomas Miller 

Isaac Hammer George Kellar 

John Hammer John Swats 

John Williamson George Secrist 

Westely Bear John Roberts 
St. Clair Kertley 

Upon special inquiry made not long since of two vener- 
ble gentlemen, Mr. Richard Mauzyof McGaheysville and Mr. 
J. N. Liggett of Harrisonburg, I was informed that Rocking- 
ham County, although a stronghold for Polk and his party, 
took very little interest in the Mexican War, 1846-8. Of 
Rockingham soldiers in Mexico, the following were all that 
could be recalled: John P. BrockM1823-1892) ; N. Calvin 
Smith" (1823-1897); William Smith (brother of Calvin). 

In October, 1873, William Ralston died near Linville 
Depot, aged about 50, It was said that he had been in the 
Mexican War, as well as in the Civil War. He was known as 
"Soldier Bill." 

Mr. Robert Coifman of Dayton states that Frederick 
Linhoss, formerly of the same town, was a soldier in Mex- 
ico; and Mr. Benj. Long, also of Dayton, agrees with Mr. 
Coffman in reporting the tradition, received from Mr. Lin- 
hoss and Mr. St. Clair Detamore, that a number of men 
(about a dozen) left Dayton for the Mexican War. 

The favorite method for raising money for all "good 
causes," particularly the building of expensive bridges, was 
by a lottery. Here is something specific in point: 

3. Born May 17, 1823, near Lacey Springs, died in November, 1892. 
He was captain of the Valley Rangers in the Civil War. 

4- Calvin Smith died in Providence, R. I. 






Ye elect sons and daughters of the goddess of For- 
tune, call and buy tickets in the Shenandoah Bridge Lot- 
tery, where large sums of CASH can be bought for the 
inconsiderable sum of $4, 

This is the heading of an advertisement that appeared 
in the Rockingham Register in January, 1833, regarding the 
Shenandoah Free-Bridge Lottery, to construct a bridge 
across the Shenandoah River on the Swift Run Gap road. 
The drawing was to take place in Winchester, on Tuesday, 
February 5, 1833. The capital prize was $10,000; other 
prizes in decreasing amounts were offered, there being finally 
18,000 prizes of $4 each. In all there were 18,556 prizes, 
aggregating in value $108,000. The number of blanks was 
17,434. David S. Jones was manager, with his ofRce at Har- 

At the same time that the above lottery was being pro- 
moted, another, with a capital prize of $8,000, was being 
advertised by Bruffy & Paul, managers, Mt. Crawford, Va. 
This was being conducted for the purpose of constructing a 
free bridge across the North River near Mt. Crawford. The 
drawing was to be held at Strasburg on January 15, 1833. 
In this there were 30,000 prizes— no blanks; but the small 
prizes were only $2 each, while the price of a ticket was $4. 
The aggregate value of the prizes offered was $90,000. This 
scheme therefore, would have allowed a balance of $30,000 to 
the managers with which to pay expenses, aid the bridge 
building, and profit themselves. The gross balance falling 
to the management under Mr. Jones' lottery would have 
been $35,960. However, there were repeated dravvlngs for 
the same bridge — at least in some cases. Mr. Jones states in 



his advertisement that he had already paid out prizes in the 
Shenandoah Bridge lottery ranging from $10,000 to $200; and 
in the same issue of the Register he advertises another draw- 
ing to be held at Winchester in April, 1833, for a capital 
prize of $12,000, v^^ith smaller prizes in great number. 

Among other contemporary lotteries that were author- 
ized or operated in Rockingham were the following: 

One in 1831-2 for raising money to construct a road from 
Harrisonburg to Moorefield; another at the same time for the 
benefit of the Port Republic and New Haven bridge; in 1833, 
one to be conducted by Wm. Thompson, Anderson Moffitt, 
John Zigler, Peter Grim, Saml. Hoover, and Isaac Thomas 
for erecting a free bridge near Thompson's Store (now Tim- 
berville); and one in 1838 for the benefit of the "Mt. Craw- 
ford Free Bridge." 

In the Rockingham Register of November 9, 1833, the 
following notice appeared: 

The annual general meeting of the Stockholders of the New Shenan- 
doah Company will be held at the house of Mrs. Graham, in Port Re- 
public, on the 15th day of November Inst. A general attendance of the 
Company is requested. S. H. Lewis, 

Treas'r. N. S. Com. 

In 1836 the General Assembly agreed to a resolution re- 
questing the board of public works to employ a competent 
engineer to survey a route for a proposed railroad from Gor- 
donsville, in Orange County, to Harrisonburg, in Rocking- 
ham County. 

The winter of 1840 in Rockingham was of unusual sever- 
ity, and is thus described by Joseph Funk in a letter written 
January 11: 

As our winter weather here has thus far proved to be rather extra- 
ordinary, I will state to you something about it. On Saturday night and 
Sunday before Christmas there fell a snow 14 or 15 inches deep, on a 
previous snow several inches deep; and on Friday after Christmas, (being 
on the day of Hannah's infair which was held at Daniel Frank's) there 
fell another about 10 or 12 inches deep, which drifted, together with the 
other, in such a manner that many places of roads are impassible either 
with wagon or horse. Mounds of snow are drifted together from 4 to 6 



feet deep. Your sister Elizabeth could not return home from the wed- 
ding till the following Wednesday and they were obliged to go through 
fences and fields to get along: Since then we have had 3 snows several 
inches deep. Both our lanes and many others, have not yet been passed 
through by any person since the snows fell. The weather has also been 
extremely cold, but has now moderated and become more mild and 

Financial, agricultural, and religious conditions are de- 
picted, in a letter written by Joseph Funk, October 2, 1842, 
as follows: 

Times with us are very pressing in the money way; of which, how- 
ever, our county has felt less weight than any of the adjacent. But in 
many respects the times are good. The season has, the past summer, 
been very good; heavy crops of wheat oats and corn were produced, so 
that we abound in the provisions of life. But, with regret I mention, 
that I fear there is too little of true and unfeigned religion among us; 
which in a great measure, may be owing to the Clergy. If in the room 
of a pious life — good examples— and warmly preaching the Word of God 
to our hearts, the preachers read their sermons, and live in conformity 
to the world, and its vain fashions, I think the church committed to their 
charge, of course, cannot grow and thrive. 

The California gold fever of 1848-9 seems to have affected 
Rockingham only slightly. Says Mr. Mauzy: 

"If any persons from this county went, at that time, to 
California, I do not know it, though it is probable that a few 
did so. I know of two who went from Woodstock— John 
Anderson and a friend of his named Harrison."^ 

Says Mr. Liggett: 

"As to gold seekers: On conference with Mr. John Ken- 
ney, whose memory of ancient occurrences is more tenacious 
than mine, the following are recalled: John Higgins, Thomas 
Fletcher, Jacob Jones, Benj. Miller (probably), — Britt, and 
John Williams; the last a lawyer. . . . Mr. William Dainger- 
field emigrated too at an early date, and achieved distinction 
and fame, ultimately being elevated to the judicial bench. 
He was a brother of Capt. Daingerfield and Leroy, soldiers 
celebrated for gallantry in the Confederate army."^ 

5- Letter of February 25, 1912. 
<i. Letter of February 24, 1912. 



Gen. Sam uel H. Lewis, ^ who Jived a mile or two below 
Port Republic, was a wealthy farmer and man of affairs. 
Like many of his contemporaries, he frequently consulted 
the almanac in the management of his farm, and was in the 
habit of recording weather observations and related items at 
the proper places in the calendar. His almanac for 1852 is 
before me, and I reproduce from it the following item: 

Great Flood. 

April 19.— Great flood in the river& runs— Being as high (within two 
inches) as in 1842. — The Bottom field being recently ploughed, & almost 
ready to be planted in corn, was very much damaged 

In his letter of 1840 Joseph Funk makes reference to a 
wedding and an infair. In order that present-day readers 
may know what an infair was, and at the same time appre- 
ciate more definitely the social conditions that obtained in the 
earlier half of the century, I append the following account, 
written for this work, upon special request, by Mrs. Bettie 
Neff Miller, of Bridgewater. 

I will tell you of the first wedding I ever witnessed. My step-grand- 
mother Neff 's maiden sister, Barbara Landes, was united in marriage 
with David Stemphley (a German) sometime in the forties. I was about 
8 years old. (You remember Stemphleytown near Bridgewater; since 
he was the first settler there the place was named for him.) 

I will describe the costumes. The groom was dressed in drab cloth; 
the bride in a brown merino dress-made petticoat and short gown, with a 
white apron and handkerchief and a white jaconet cap. 

The first relative wedding I ever attended was Uncle Abe Neff' s. 
That was soon after the other— sometime in the forties. He was attired 
in fine black cloth, the bride in a white dress, with apron of the same 
material, a beautiful white silk handkerchief and a bobinet cap. The 

7. Samuel H. Lewis (1794-1869) was the son of Charles Lewis (1772- 
1832), who was the son of Thomas Lewis (1718-1790). Thomas was the 
eldest son of John Lewis, pioneer of Augfusta. Thomas lived and died at 
Lewiston, below Port Republic. He was the first surveyor of Rocking- 
ham, and had one of the largest libraries in the West. General Andrew 
Lewis (1720-1780) and Col. Chas. Lewis (1736-1774) were his brothers. 
Samuel H. Lewis was the father of Sen. John F. Lewis and Samuel H. 
Lewis (1820-1892). 



ceremony was rather long, including a prayer, in which all knelt When 
they arose the minister sang a few lines: 

Bless, Lord, this newly-married pair. 
And make the match a blessing prove. 

Uncle Abe's was the first infair I attended. All rode on horseback. 
When they came near the house they galloped the horses, and all alighted 
in a huddle. The friends came to meet them, and ushered them into the 
house, where the bride and her attendant dressed for dinner. The bride 
wore a blue alpaca dress, a black silk apron, and a fancy silk handker- 
chief. Her bonnet was a white lawn over a whole pasteboard — or half a 
one, I should have said. Of course, we all thought it was beautiful and 
tasteful. The table was set with pies, puff cakes, pickles, and different 
kinds of preserves, with chicken, turkey, and ham on a side table. After 
eating plenty of meat and chicken, the plates were removed, and pie and 
cakes were served. 

After dinner all went into a room prepared to have them spend their 
time in playing the oldtime apple-butter plays. We children looked on 
with delight. Bridal presents were unknown. 

I attended several infairs just like the one I have described. In 
earlier days, while on the road to the groom's home, two young men were 
sent for two bottles of wine to treat the bride and groom before they 
arrived at the house. When Aunt Mary Neff was married to William 
Pence they prepared to send out two bottles of wine— had the bottles 
trimmed, and looked for the men to come. Old Mr. Pence was an old- 
fashioned man, and wanted to treat his nevv^ daughter-in-lav/. Your 
mother and I were in that bridal procession. Times changed somewhat 
before your mother and I were married. My bridal presents were a home- 
woven wash line, a home-made linen towel, and a wash-bowl with pitcher. 
Since then there have been many changes, as you know. 8 

In the four-cornered fight for the Presidencj^ in 1860 the 
Rockingham Register supported Douglas. In the issue of 
August 3, 1860, the editor disapproves the talk of revolution 
and declares for the preservation of the Union, yet expresses 
fear of "black republican fanaticism" and flays the aboli- 
tionists. At the same time the division of the Democratic 
party is deplored. On election day the vote in Rockingham 
stood as follows: 676 for Breckenridge, 888 for Bell, and 1354 
for Douglas. If Lincoln got any votes in the county, the 
Register did not report them; yet it was only 78 years since 

£. From a letter written September 4, 1911. 


( Fapres oo'i, :!5ti) 


his father and grandfather had left Rockingham, and a num- 
ber of his relatives were still residing in the county at the 

By December 14, 1860, the Register, while still adoring 
the Union, showed decided signs of secession sentiment. 
Evidently it had veered considerably during the last pre- 
ceding month or two. In the issue of December 28 appears 
the following, anent the secession of South Carolina: 

We are sorry that the gallant Palmetto State did not continue in the 
Union until the North had time to retrace its steps and do us justice. 
There are unequivocal signs of returning reason in many portions of the 
North, and we at least hope they will yet do what they ought before the 
rest of the Southern States dissolve their connexion with the Union. 

These words have an ominous sound. Coming events 
were casting shadows.'^ 

y. For letters, almanacs, old newspapers, etc., belonging to the period 
covered by this chapter, I am indebted, among others, to Mrs. E. Rue- 
bush, Dayton, Va., and to Mr. S. C. Rohr and Hon. George N. Conrad, 
both of Harrisonburg. 




186L— 1865. 

A consecutive and detailed narrative of a great county 
in a great war cannot be attempted in a single brief chapter, 
yet enough may be given to bring those ' 'old, unhappy, far- 
off things and battles long ago" vividly before us. The rising 
spirit of early '61 may be felt in the following, copied from 
the Rockingham Register of January 25, 1861: 

Military Meeting. 

Monday was a proud day for old Rockingham. Notwithstanding the 
diversity of opinion which exists as to the best mode of settling our 
present difficulties, all are agreed on arming our Volunteer Regiment. 
The immense crowd was addressed by Messrs. Warren, Shands, Winfield 
and Yancey, in patriotic and thrilling speeches, and when the motion was 
made by Mr. Shands, to ask the County Court to subscribe $2000 in addi- 
tion to the amount already subscribed, there was not a dissenting voice 
in the crowd that was audible. The meeting adjourned with three cheers 
for the Regiment. The arming and equiping of that Regiment is a fixed 
fact. It was the largest meeting ever convened in our Court-House. 
Hundreds outside could not gain admittance, but endorsed the action of 
the meeting. 

The voting places in the county at this time were as 

District No. 1. 
Conrad's Store McGaheysville 

District No. 2. 
Taliaferro's Store Port Republic 

District No. 3. 
Mt. Crawford Dayton 


District No. 4. 
Bridgewater Ottobine 

District No. 5. 
Mt. Clinton Bowman's Mill 

District No. 6. 
Court House Keezletown 

District No. 7. 
Spartapolis Henton's Mill 

District No. 8. 
Cootes' Store Timberville 

Mennonite School House 

District No. 9. 
Sprinkel's Store Wittig's Store 

On February 4, 1861, an election was held to choose 
delegates to the State convention. S. A. Coffman, John F. 
Lewis, and A. S. Gray were chosen. An unusually large vote 
was polled, and was distributed among the several candidates 
as follows: 













In reporting the election, the Register of February 8 says: 

The delegates elect are all conservative Union men, and were voted 
for by the people with the understanding that they are to be the repre- 
sentatives of the strong Union sentiment of the county. Yet while they 
are all Union men, yet none of them desire to be classed in the category 
of ''submissionists." They will go for the Union as long as there is hope 
of its honorable preservation; but when all just and proper efforts in that 
direction fail, then they will go, as Virginians and Southern men, for the 
rights, the honor, and dignity of the old Commonwealth out of the 
Union. — We hope and pray that such an alternative may not be pre- 
sented; but if it should, we know enough of the metal of our delegates 



to the Convention, to be assured, that Virginia's sacred honor will be 
safe in their hands. 

Politics were ignored in the canvass. In politics, the delegates stand 
as follows: Two democrats, (Messrs. Coffman and Gray,) and one whig, 
(Mr. Lewis.) They are all comparatively young men, Mr. Coffman, the 
foremost man in the race, being the youngest of the three. 

Vote for and against referring the action of the conven- 
tion to the people: 

For Ref. Against Ref. 

Harrisonburg, 474 183 

Keezletown, 52 4 

Conrad's Store, 144 76 

McGaheysville, 77 73 

Port Republic, 145 2 

Taliaferro's Store, 107 14 

Mt. Crawford, 175 38 

Dayton, 118 9 

Bridge water, 151 6 

Ottobine, 180 20 

Mt. Clinton, 93 1 

Bowman's Mill, 185 8 

Spartapolis, 138 49 

Henton's Mill, 82 10 

Timberville, 123 3 

Trissel's School House, 61 6 

Cootes' Store, 100 64 

. Sprinkel's Store, 13 22 

Wittig's 71 00 

2499 593 

As shown by the unusually large vote, the people all over 
the county were intensely aroused. Wednesday morning, 
March 27, 1861, a Confederate flag was seen floating from 
the Exchange Hotel in Harrisonburg — three weeks before the 
Virginia convention adopted the ordinance of secession, and 
eighteen days before Lincoln's call for troops. "It was," 
said the next Register, ' 'the work of a portion of the gallant 



fair ladies of our town, who are in favor of joining the 

On April 17 the convention at Richmond adopted an 
ordinance of secession by a vote of 88 to 55. Consistently 
with his declarations before the election, Mr. Lewis voted with 
the minority, and steadfastly refused to sign the ordinance 
after it was passed. 

The division of opinions and convictions in the convention 
but reflected the similar divisions over the State — particularly 
in the western part. In Rockingham the majority agreed 
with the majority of the convention, but there were also a 
number who thought differently. For example, in the Blue 
Ridge sections of East Rockingham, where anti - slavery 
sentiment and martial spirit were both strong, a number of 
men went north and joined the Union armies. In other 
sections of the county the peace principles of large numbers 
of the people, particularly the Dunkers and Mennonites. kept 
many from assuming a decided attitude oneway or the other; 
but notwithstanding all these conditions, the attitude of the 
county as a whole was soon definitely and decidedly for the 
Confederacy. On April 20, when the "Mountain Guards," 
from Spring Hill, Augusta County, and the "Rockbridge 
Rifles" were passing through Harrisonburg the ladies pre- 
sented them with flags. The firing on Sumter, Lincoln's call 
for troops, and the action of the Virginia convention had 
aroused tremendous enthusiasm. Meetings to organize 
home guards, etc., were held at Bridgewater, Lacey Spring, 
Harrisonburg, and elsewhere. 

Before the war was over, Rockingham men were serving 
in many different commands; but the organization that is 
perhaps most frequently thought of in connection with the 
military history of the county is the 10th Regiment, Va. V. 
I., made up chiefly of Rockingham soldiers; and we deem our 
readers fortunate in having presented to them herewith an 
account of this regiment, written by one who knows its 
history at first hand. 





Written Specially for This Work. 

The nucleus of the 10th Regiment Virginia Volunteer In- 
fantry was formed in Rockingham County just prior to the 
commencement of the Civil War. One company, the Valley 
Guards, was organized before the John Brown raid at Harper's 
Ferry, with S. B. Gibbons as captain. This company was 
sent to Charlestown as part of the military force used as a 
guard. These events created or aroused a military spirit in 
Rockingham, resulting in the formation of six other com- 
panies, viz., the Rockingham Rifles, captain, James Kenney; 
Chrisman's Infantry, captain, George Chrisman; Bridgewater 
Grays, captain, John Brown; Brock's Gap Rifles, captain, 
John Q. Winfield;2 Peaked Mountain Grays, captain, William 

1. Col. Martz was born at the old family homestead near Lacey Spring, 
March 23, 1837. After his early life on the farm he engaged in mercan- 
tile business, which was interrupted by the war. He rose from the 
rank of sergeant in the 10th Virginia Infantry to that of colonel, and 
at the close of the war he was in command of the 10th, 23d, and 37th 
Virginia regiments. After a number of years in business again he was 
elected, in 1887, clerk of the circuit court in Rockingham County, and 
still holds that office. He has been commander of the S. B. Gibbons 
Camp, Confederate Veterans, since 1893. On November 14, 1860, he 
married Miss Mary Nicholas Carter. Mr. Ed. C. Martz, a well-known 
lawyer of Harrisonburg, is his son. 

2. Capt. Winfield was born at Mt. Jackson, Va., June 20, 1822, the son 
of Dr. Richard Winfield. He was a graduate of Washington College, 
Lexington, Va., and of Jefferson Medical College, Phila. As captain of 
the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles, in the 7th Va. Cavalry, he won dis- 
tinction, and was mentioned as the one likely to succeed Ashby in command 
of the regiment, but failing health interrupted his military service. In 
spite of failing health he continued the practice of medicine at his home 
in Broadway, where he died July 29, 1892. Mr. Chas. R. Winfield, 
attorney-at-law, is his son. 



B. Yancey; Riverton Invincibles, captain, W. D. C. Covington. 
These seven companies were organized as a regiment just 
before the war, under the Virginia laws, as State Volunteer 
Militia, with S. B. Gibbons colonel, E. T. H. Warren lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Burke Chrisman and George W. Miller majors. 
The last two did not see active service. 

At the outbreak of the war this regiment was ordered to 
Harper's Ferry, leaving home on the 18th day of April, 1861, 
as the 4th Virginia Regiment of State troops. The regiment, 
as finally organized, became the 10th Virginia Infantry, C. S. 
A., with S. B. Gibbons colonel, E. T. H. Warren lieutenant- 
colonel, and Samuel T. Walker major. With the addition of 
three companies from Shenandoah County — one each from 
Strasburg, Woodstock, and Edinburg — the regiment remained 
at Harper's Ferry until some time in June, 1861. Then it 
moved to Romney, now in West Virginia, by way of Win- 
chester, as part of the 4th Brigade, commanded at the time 
by Col. A. P. Hill of the 13th Va. On the way back to Win- 
chester the Brock's Gap Rifles were transferred to the cavalry, 
the regiment being finally composed of eleven companies: six 
from Rockingham, three from Shenandoah, one from Page, 
and one from Madison. 

The impending battle of Manassas caused the army in the 
Valley, under Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, to be moved to eastern 
Virginia, reaching Manassas Junction on the 21st of July. 
Thence it was hurried to the field of battle. Only four 
companies, however, of the 10th Regiment (now in Gen. 
Arnold Elzey's brigade) took part in the battle, having been 
detached from the regiment and sent to strengthen the Con- 
federate left. These four companies suffered some loss in 
killed and wounded. After this battle the Confederate army 
remained around or near Manassas Junction until the following 
spring, when it was moved to the south side of the Rappa- 
hannock River. 

Nothing of importance affecting the 10th Regiment 
occurred in this time until April, 1862, when it was trans- 
ferred to the Valley, and made a part of Gen. W. B. Talia- 



ferro's Brigade, Jackson's Division, then at what is nov/ 
Elkton. The regiment was composed of the eleven companies 
aforesaid: A, C, and F from Shenandoah; B, D, E, G, H, and 
I from Rockingham; K from Page; and L from Madison. 
While at Elkton Co. C was disbanded, and a new Co. C from 
Rockingham, Robert C. Mauck captain, assigned to the 

Early in May, 1862, Jackson's command was sent to 
reinforce Gen. Edward Johnson, in the campaign ending 
May 8 in the battle of McDowell, with Gen. Milroy in com- 
mand of the Federals. In this battle the 10th Regiment had 
the misfortune to lose its colonel, the brave and chivalrous 
S. B. Gibbons,^ as well as several men. Soon the command 
was marched back to the Valley by way of Bridgewater, 
moved down to New Market, thence over the mountain into 
the Page Valley, down by Front Royal, thence across to the 
Valley Pike at Middletovv^n, and on to Winchester after Gen. 
Banks, who had v/ithdrawn to Winchester and there made a 
stand. Being so vigorously assailed by Jackson and Ewell as 
to be completely routed, he hurried on toward the Potomac. 
The 10th Regiment did not actively engage in this battle, but 
nevertheless suffered some loss, Capt. Mauck of Co. C being 
wounded and permanently disabled. 

After pursuing Banks several miles, the troops were 
withdrawn and moved rapidly up the Valley to Harrisonburg, 
the 3d Brigade going to a point between Port Republic and 
Cross Keys. V/hile a battle was being fought there, on 
Sunday morning, June 8, the enemy occupied Port Republic 
and planted a piece of artillery at the mouth of the bridge, 
on the Port Republic side of North River. The 3d Brigade 
was hurried to the bridge, drove the enemy away and took 
possession of the village. 

3. Simeon B. Gibbons was born May 25, 1833, at Shenandoah Furnace, 
Page Co., Va., and was educated at the Virginia Military Institute. 
When put in command of his regiment, he was the youngest colonel in 
the Confederacy. His, father was a Col. Gibbons of Virginia, later of 



The battle of Port Republic was fought on the next day, 
June 9, but the Tenth did not become engaged, though hurried 
to the front to join in the attack upon Shields. A few days 
after Fremont and Shields had been disposed of, Gen. Jackson 
was ordered east to join Gen. Lee in the defence of Richmond. 
Marching to Mechum's River, he went thence by rail to 
Beaver Dam; thence marched to the scene of the conflict, 
which culminated in seven days of desperate fighting, Mc- 
Clellan to capture, Lee to save, Richmond. However, from 
the time the Tenth reached its destination until the end of 
the struggle, it did not fire a gun, being held in reserve; but 
it was exposed for a time to damage from the exploding 
shells of the enemy at Malvern Hill, while supporting a bat- 
tery, two or three men being slightly wounded. 

Soon after the close of this part of the campaign Gen. 
Jackson with his corps was ordered to Gordonsville to look 
after the redoubtable Federal general, John Pope. On the 
8th of August (1862), a few miles south of Culpeper Court 
House, near or at Slaughter's Mountain, called by the Con- 
federates Cedar Run, the first encounter took place between 
Jackson and Pope, resulting in a hard-fought battle, with vic- 
tory for a time trembling in the balance, llie Tenth, under 
command of Major Stover, was in the fray from start to finish, 
suffering a considerable loss in killed and wounded. After 
this battle the troops followed Pope's discomfited army, ex- 
pecting to give him battle before he could recross the Rap- 
pahannock; but this plan failed from some cause. The next 
move was to cross the Rappahannock and give him battle. 

For Jackson, the next thing was to move up the river, 
cross its two branches, pass around Pope's right, and move 
on Manassas Junction, thus getting completely in Pope's rear 
— a very daring and desperate move, resulting in a three days 
battle, the Second Manassas. In all this the 10th Virginia 
took an active part, losing heavily in killed and wounded. 
Among the latter were Lt.-Col. Walker and Major Stover. 
On the second day. Col. Warren being absent, the command 



of the regiment devolved upon Capt. W. B. Yancey. Pope's 
army was routed and driven back with tremendous loss. 

The next move was the invasion of Maryland. The Tenth 
passed through Frederick City, and came back into Virginia 
by Williamsport to Martinsburg, where it was left on duty 
with the 2d Va., while Jackson captured Harper's Ferry. 
The Tenth remained here until the army returned to Vir- 
ginia, after the battle of Sharpsburg. After remaining in the 
lower Valley for a time, the army crossed into eastern Vir- 
ginia, and, moving near Fredericksburg, took position on the 
hills running parallel with the Rappahannock, back of the 
town. The Federal general, Burnside, was on the Stafford 
Heights, on the opposite side of the river. 

On the 13th of December (1862) Burnside, having suc- 
ceeded in crossing the river, fought the desperate and bloody 
battle of Fredericksburg. The Tenth did not take an active 
part on the 13th, but was placed on the front line that night, 
expecting bloody work the next day; but Burnside thought it 
better not to renew the battle, and withdrew to the north 
side of the liver. 

Gen. Lee went into winter quarters at Skinker's Neck, 
on the south side of the Rappahannock. In the meantime 
"Fighting Joe Hooker" was placed in command of the 
Federal army, and in the spring of 1863 began his "on to 
Richmond" campaign, posting his army about Chancellors- 
ville. Then was planned Jackson's famous flank movement 
around Hooker's right. The Tenth, being with Jackson, 
took an active part in the assault upon the enemy, losing 
many officers and men, on Saturday evening. May 2. Among 
the wounded were Col. Warren and the writer. On Sunday 
further heavy losses were sustained, among the killed being 
Lt.-Col. Samuel T. Walker and Major Joshua Stover. 

The next movement was into Pennsylvania, and on to 
Gettysburg, where the Tenth again participated in some 
heavy fighting, under the command of Capt. W. B. Yancey. 
The loss here was not heavy. 

After the battle of Chancellorsville the writer was pro- 









^^ »-Z^ .s^-«- /^^ 





























/o /CM.^ 

. AT. 














J^ ^P- 1 it/j 

2^ ay 

Z3i\^ J3_\^ 



^ ■ " 

Facsimile of manuscript statement made out by Capt. A. S. Byrd, quartermaster inth Reg 
Va. \'ol. Inf., and countersigned by Col. E. T. H. Warren (Pages IMS, i:«)) 


moted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After Gettysburg 
the army returned to Virginia, soon moving east of the Blue 
Ridge and placing itself in front of Gen. Meade, the new 
Federal commander. The Tenth, now of George H. Steuart's 
brigade, Edward Johnson's division, engaged in a hot fight 
with the Federal general, French, on November 27, at Mine 
Run, losing several men in killed and wounded. This was 
supposed to be the prelude to a bloody battle, for which 
great preparations were made, but Meade finally concluded 
not to risk it. Thus ended the campaign of 1863. The Army 
of Northern Virginia went into winter quarters near Orange 
Court House. 

About the 1st of May, 1864, Gen. Grant, now in supreme 
command of the Army of the Potomac, began to move. The 
first important battle was fought May 5, in which the Tenth 
again lost heavily in killed and wounded, among the former 
being Col. Warren* and Major I. G. Coffman, leaving the writer 
the only field officer of the regiment. On the evening of 
May 10 the enemy captured part of our works, which the 
Tenth helped to recapture from them. On the 12th of May 
Gen. Hancock, of the Federals, made his famous assault on 
our works, capturing nearly all of Johnson's division, includ- 
ing the 10th Va. and the writer. The brave adjutant of the 
regiment, Whit. Kisling, was killed in this fight. A small 
remnant of the regiment, under command of that veteran, 
Capt. W. B. Yancey, took part in several skirmishes until he 
was permanently disabled by a severe wound. 

Shortly after May 12, 1864, the Tenth was made part of a 
new brigade under Gen. Wm. Terry, being later moved to 
the Valley, whence, under Gen. Early, it again went into 
Maryland to threaten Washington, in process of which it took 

4. Edward Tiffin Harrison Warren was born in Rockingham, June 19, 
1829. At Frescati, Orange County, be married Virginia Magruder, De- 
cember 5, 1855. His son, James Magruder Warren, was a prominent 
physician in the 80's and 90's at New Hope and Bridgewater. Col. Warren 
was a practicing lawyer at Harrisonburg at the outbreak of the war. 



part in the battle of Monocacy, July 9, 1864, in which Gen. 
Lew Wallace was defeated. 

The writer was exchanged on the 3d of August, 1864, 
came home, and rejoined his command. In the meantime, 
however, the regiment, now no larger than a company, took 
part in the third battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, 
when Capt. C. F. Campbell was killed, and at Fisher's Hill, 
both engagements being disastrous to Early, who came up 
the Valley as far as Weyer's Cave. In a short time he moved 
down the Valley, surprising the enemy by a flank movement 
at Cedar Creek on the morning of October 19, in which the 
Tenth took an active part, the Confederates driving every- 
thing before them. They captured a large number of pris- 
oners, many pieces of artillery, and quantities of supplies, 
only to lose all except the prisoners, and more too, before 
the day ended. 

In December (1864) Terry's brigade was sent to Gen. 
Lee, near Petersburg, camping on Hatcher's Run, a few 
miles south of the city. The Tenth took part in a hotly fought 
battle in February, 1865, the writer being in command of the 
10th, 23d, and 37th Va. Regiments. Later on we were moved 
to a point in front of the city, where on the morning of April 
2, as part of Gen. J. B. Gordon's corps, we stormed and car- 
ried the enemy's works, but were finally driven back, the 
Tenth losing many of its number in killed, wounded, and 

Late on the 2d of April we withdrew from the front 
of Petersburg, in the vain effort to get away from Grant. 
On the retreat we took part in the fight at Sailor's Creek, 
with but two commissioned company officers in the Tenth: 
Lieut. John H. Ralston, who was badly wounded and left in 
the hands of the enemy, and Lieut. J. G. H. Miller, now com- 
manding the regiment. 

On the morning of April 9 we had a skirmish with the 
enemy at Appomattox, driving them some distance, only 
to be withdrawn and to furl our banners, — banners never 
again to be unfurled. But the Tenth did not surrender the 



old battle flag, which was hidden under his coat by Lieut. J. 
G. H. Miller, 5 and which is still preserved in Rockingham 
by his family. 

Lieut. Miller commanded the regiment at Appomattox, 
now reduced to 8 or 10 muskets. The writer had been put in 
command of the 10th, 23d, and 37th regiments. Here ended 
the military career of the noble Tenth Virginia. By April 
15 we were home again to start life anew.^ 

We give below Gen. Jackson's own occount of the battle 
of Cross Keys and Port Republic, June 8 and 9, 1862, as em- 
bodied in his report to the Department Headquarters. 

We reached Harrisonburg at an early hour on the morning of the 5th, 
and, passing beyond that town, turned towards the east in the direction 
of Port Republic. On the 6th, General Ashby took position on the road 
between Harrisonburg and Port Republic, and received a spirited charge 
from a portion of the enemy's cavalry, which resulted in the repulse of 
the enemy, and the capture of Colonel Wyndham and sixty-three others. 

Apprehending that the Federals would make a more serious attack, 
Ashby called for an infantry support. The brigade of General Geo. H. 
Stewart was accordingly ordered forward. In a short time the fifty- 
eighth Virginia regiment became engaged with a Pennsylvania regiment 
called the Bucktails, when Colonel Johnson, of the first Maryland regi- 
ment, coming up in the hottest period of the fire, charged gallantly into 
its flank and drove the enemy, with heavy loss, from the field, capturing 
Lieutenant Colonel Kane, commanding. In this skirmish our infantry 
loss was seventeen (17) killed, fifty (50) wounded, and three missing. In 
this affair General Turner Ashby was killed. An oflficial report is not an 
appropriate place for more than a passing notice of the distinguished 
dead; but the close relation which General Ashby bore to my command 
for most of the previous twelve months, will justify me in saying that 
as a partisan oflftcer I never knew his superior. His daring was pro- 
verbial; his powers of endurance almost incredible; his tone of character 
heroic, and his sagacity almost intuitive in divining the purposes and 
movements of the enemy. 

5. Capt. Miller died at his home in Elkton, June 16, 1889. Upon the 
old flag he saved may still be read the names of the following battles: 
Manassas No. 1, McDowell, Winchester No. 1, Port Republic, Cold Har- 
bor, Malvern Hill, Cedar Run, Manassas No. 2, Chantilly, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Winchester No. 2, Gettysburg. 

<5. Complete muster rolls of the various Rockingham companies are 
given in the Appendix, as far as possible. 



The main body of my command had now reached the vicinity of Port 
Republic. The village is situated in the angle formed by the junction of 
the North and South rivers, tributaries of the south fork of the Shen- 
andoah. Over the larger and deeper of those two streams, the North 
river, there was a wooden bridge, connecting the town with the road 
leading to Harrisonburg. Over the South river there was a passable 
ford. The troops more immediately under my own eye were encamped 
on the high ground north of the village, about a mile from the river. 
General Ewell was some four miles distant, near the road leading from 
Harrisonburg to Port Republic. General Fremont had arrived with his 
forces in the vicinity of Harrisonburg, and General Shields was moving 
up the east side of the south fork of the Shenandoah; and was then at 
Conrad's store, some fifteen miles below Port Republic, my position being 
about equi-distant from both hostile armies. To prevent a junction of 
the two Federal armies, I had caused the bridge over the south fork of 
the Shenandoah at Conrad's store to be destroyed. Intelligence having 
been received that Gen. Shields was advancing further up the river. 
Captain Sipe,7 with a small cavalry force, was sent down during the night 
of the 7th to verify the report and gain such other information respecting 
the enemy as he could. Captain G. W. Myers, of the cavalry, was sub- 
sequently directed to move with his company in the same direction for 
the purpose of supporting Captain Sipe, if necessary. The next morning 
Captain Myers' company came rushing back in disgraceful disorder, an- 
nouncing that the Federal forces were in close pursuit. Captain Chipley 
and his company of cavalry, which was in town, also shamefully fled. 
The brigades of Generals Taliaferro and Winder were soon under arms, 
and ordered to occupy positions immediately north of the bridge. By 
this time the Federal cavalry, accompanied by artillery, were in sight, 
and, after directing a few shots towards the bridge, they crossed South 
river, and dashing into the village, planted one of their pieces at the 
southern entrance of the bridge. In the meantime the batteries of 
Wooding, Poague and Carpenter were being placed in position, and 
General Taliaferro's brigade having reached the vicinity of the bridge, 
was ordered to charge across, capture the piece, and occupy the town. 
Whilst one of Poague 's pieces was returning the fire of that of the enemy 
at the far end of the bridge, the thirty-seventh Virginia regiment, 
Colonel Fulkerson, after delivering its fire, gallantly charged over the 
bridge, captured the gun, and followed by the other regiments of the 

". Emanuel Sipe, captain Co. H, 12th Va. Cavalry, later lieutenant- 
colonel, assigned to command of the 7th Va. Cavalry. He was born in 
Rockingham, July 5, 1830. Prior to the war he was lieutenant-colonel of 
the 116th Va. Militia; and both before and after the war was a prominent 
merchant and man of affairs. He died Sept. 23, 1901. 



brigade, entered the town, and dispersed and drove back the Federal 
cavalry. Another piece of artillery, with which the Federals had ad- 
vanced, was abandoned and subsequently fell into our hands. 

About this time, a considerable body of infantry was seen advancing 
up the same road. Our batteries opened with marked effect upon the 
retreating cavalry and advancing infantry. In a short time the infantry 
followed the cavalry, falling back to Lewis', three miles down the river, 
pursued for a mile by our batteries on the opposite bank, when the enemy 
disappeared in the wood around a bend in the road. This attack of 
General Shields had hardly been repulsed, before Ewell was seriously 
engaged with Fremont, moving on the opposite side of the river. The 
enemy pushed forward driving in the fifteenth Alabama, Colonel Canty, 
from their post on picket. This regiment made a gallant resistance, 
which so far checked the Federal advance as to afford General Ewell time 
for the choice of his position at leisure. 

His ground was well selected, on a commanding ridge, a rivulet and 
large field of open ground in front, wood on both flanks, and his line in- 
tersected near its centre by the road leading to Port Republic. General 
Trimble's brigade was posted on the right, somewhat in advance of his 
centre. The batteries of Courtnay, Lusk, Brockenbrough, and Raines in 
the centre, General Stewart's brigade on the left, and General Elzey's 
brigade in rear of the centre, and in position to strengthen either wing. 
Both wings were in the wood. 

About ten o'clock, the enemy threw out his skirmishers, and shortly 
after posted his artillery opposite to our batteries. The artillery fire was 
kept up with great animation and spirit on both sides for several hours. 
In the meantime a brigade of Federal forces advanced under cover, upon 
the right, occupied by General Trimble, who reserved his fire until they 
reached the crest of the hill, in easy range of his musketry, when he 
poured a deadly fire from his whole front, under which they fell back. 
Observing a battery about being posted on the enemy's left, half a mile 
in front, General Trimble, now supported by the thirteenth and twenty- 
fifth Virginia regiments, of Elzey's brigade, pushed forward for the pur- 
pose of taking it, but found it withdrawn before he reached the spot, 
having, in the meantime, some spirited skirmishing with its infantry 
supports. General Trimble had now advanced more than a mile from his 
original position, while the Federal advance had fallen back to the ground 
occupied by them in the morning. 

General Taylor, of the eighth brigade of Louisiana troops, having 
arrived from the vicinity of the bridge, at Port Republic, towards which 
he had moved in the morning, reported to General Ewell about two, P. 
M., and was placed in rear. Colonel Patton, with the forty-second and 
forty-eighth Virginia regiments, and first battalion of Virginia regulars, 
also joined, and, with the remainder of General Elzey's brigade, was 



added to the centre and left, then supposed to be threatened. General 
Ewell having been informed by Lieutenant Heinrichs, of the engineer 
corps, who had been sent out to reconnoitre, that the enemy was moving 
a large column on his left, did not advance at once; but subsequently 
ascertaining that no attack was designed by the force referred to, he 
advanced, drove in the enemy's skirmishers and, when night closed, was 
in position on ground previously held by the enemy. During this fight 
Brigadier Generals Elzey and Stewart were wounded, and disabled from 

This engagement with Fremont has generally been known as the 
battle of Cross Keys, in which our troops were commanded by General 
Ewell. I had remained at Port Republic during the principal part of the 
8th, expecting a renewal of the attack. As no movement was made by 
General Shields to renew the action that day, I determined to take the 
initiative and attack him the following morning. 

Accordingly, General Ewell was directed to move his position at an 
early hour, on the morning of the 9th, towards Port Republic, leaving 
General Trimble with his brigade, supported by Colonel Patton with the 
forty-second Virginia infantry and the first battalion of Virginia regulars, 
to hold Fremont in check, with instructions if hard pressed to retire 
across the North river, and burn the bridge in their rear. Soon after ten 
o'clock, General Trimble with the last of our forces had crossed the North 
river, and the bridge was destroyed. 8 In the meantime, before five in 
the morning, General Winder's brigade was in Port Republic, and having 
crossed the South Fork, by a temporary wagon bridge, placed there for 
the purpose, was moving down the River road to attack the forces of 
General Shields. Advancing a mile and a half, he encountered the 
Federal pickets and drove them in. 

The enemy had judiciously selected his position for defence. Upon a 
rising ground near the Lewis House, he had planted six guns which com- 
manded the road from Port Republic, and swept the plateau for a consid- 
erable distance in front. As General Winder moved forward his brigade, a 
rapid and severe fire of shell was opened upon it. Capt. Poague, with two 
Parrott guns, was promptly placed in position on the left of the road to 
engage, and if possible to dislodge the Federal battery. Captain Car- 
penter was sent to the right to select a position for his battery, but 
finding it impracticable to drag it through the dense undergrowth, it was 
brought back, and part of it placed near Poague. The artillery fire was 
well sustained by our batteries, but found unequal to that of the enemy. 

8. The squad that burned the bridge was in charge of Courier Geo. H. 
Hulvey, a native of Rockingham, born at Cross Keys, April 19, 1844. He 
lost his left arm in the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. For the past 25 years 
or more he has been superintendent of schools for Rockingham County, 
and is one of the best known educators in the State. 


a fc 

a -I 

4-> bo 

\ & 


In the meantime, Winder being now reinforced by the seventh Louisiana 
regiment, Colonel Hays, seeing no mode of silencing the Federal battery, 
or escaping its destructive missiles but by a rapid charge, and the capture 
of it, adranced with great boldness for some distance, but encountered 
such a heavy fire of artillery and small arms as greatly to disorganize his 
command, which fell back in disorder. The enemy advanced across the 
field, and, by a heavy musketry fire, forced back our infantry supports, 
in consequence of which our guns had to retire. The enemy's advance 
was checked by a spirited attack upon their flank, by the fifty-eighth and 
fifty-fourth Virginia regiments, directed by General Ewell and led by 
Colonel Scott, although his command was afterwards driven back to the 
woods with severe loss. The batteries were all safely withdrawn except 
one of Captain Poague's six-pounder guns, which was carried off by the 

Whilst Winder's command was in this critical condition, the gallant 
and successful attack of General Taylor on the Federal left and rear, 
directed attention from the front, and lead to a concentration of their 
force upon him. IMoving to the right along the mountain acclivity, through 
a rough and tangled forest, and much disordered by the rapidity and ob- 
structions of the march, Taylor emerged with his command from the 
wood, just as the loud cheers of the enemy had proclaimed their success 
in front; and although assailed by a superior force in front and flank, 
with their guns in position within point blank range, the charge was 
gallantly made, and the battery, consisting of six guns, fell into our 
hands. Three times was this battery lost and won in the desperate and 
determined efforts to capture and recover it. After holding the batteries 
for a short time, a fresh brigade of the enemy advancing upon his flank, 
made a vigorous and well conducted attack upon him, accompanied by a 
galling fire of canister from a piece suddenly brought into position, at a 
distance of about three hundred and fifty yards. Under this combined 
attack, Taylor fell back to the skirt of the wood, near which the captured 
battery was stationed, and from that point continued his fire upon the 
advancing enemy, who succeeded in recapturing one of the guns, which 
he carried off, leaving both caisson and limber. The enemy, now occupied 
with Taylor, halted his advance to the front. Winder made a renewed 
effort to rally his command, and succeeding, with the seventh Louisiana, 
under Major Penn, (the Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel having been 
carried from the field wounded,) and the fifth Virginia regiment. Col. 
Funk, he placed part of Poague's battery in the position previously 
occupied by it, and again opened upon the enemy, who were moving 
against Taylor's left flank, apparently to surround him in the wood. 
Chew's battery now reported, and was placed in position, and did good 
service. Soon after, guns from the batteries of Brockenbough, Courtnay 
and Rains, were brought forward and placed in position. Whilst these 



movements were in progress on the left and front, Colonel Scott, having 
rallied his command, led them, under the orders of General Ewel', to the 
support of General Taylor, v^^ho, pushing forward with the reinforcements 
just received, and assisted by the well-directed fire of our artillery, forced 
the enemy to fall back, which was soon followed by his precipitate 
retreat, leaving many killed and wounded upon the field. General 
Taliaferro, who the previous day had occupied the town, was directed to 
continue to do so with part of his troops, and, with the remainder, to 
hold the elevated position on the north side of the river, for the purpose 
of co-operating, if necessary, with General Trimble, and prevent his 
being cut off from the main body of the army by the destruction of the 
bridge in his rear. But finding the resistance more obstinate than I 
anticipated, orders were sent to Taliaferro and Trimble to join the main 
body. Taliaferro came up in time to discharge an effective volley into the 
ranks of the wavering and retreating enemy. The pursuit was continued 
some five miles beyond the battle-field by Generals Taliaferro and Winder 
with their brigades and portions of the batteries of Wooding ard Caskie. 
Colonel Munford, with cavalry and some artillery, advanced about three 
miles beyond the other troops. Our forces captured in the pursuit about 
four hundred and fifty (450) prisoners, some wagons, one piece of 
abandoned artillery, and about eight hundred muskets. Some two 
hundred and seventy-five (275) wounded were paroled in the hospitals 
near Port Republic. 

Whilst the forces of Shields were in full retreat, and our troops in 
pursuit, Fremont appeared on the opposite bank of the south fork of the 
Shenandoah, with his army, and opened his artillery upon our ambulances, 
and parties engaged in the humane labors of attending to our dead and 
wounded, and the dead and wounded of the enemy. The next day, with- 
drawing his forces, he retreated down the Valley. 

On the morning of the 12th, Munford entered Harrisonburg, where, 
in addition to wagons, medical stores and camp equipage, he captured 
some two hundred small arms. At that point there also fell into our 
hands about two hundred of Fremont's men, many of them severely 
wounded on the 8th, and most of the others had been left behind as sick. 
The Federal surgeons attending them were released, and those under 

their care paroled. 

The official reports of the casualties of the battle show a loss of six- 
teen (16) officers killed, sixty-seven (67) wounded, and two (2) missing; 
one hundred and seventeen (117) non-commissioned officers and privates 
killed, eight hundred and sixty-two (862) wounded, and thirty-two 
missing, making a total loss of one thousand and ninety-six, (1,096) 
including skirmishers on the 6th; since evacuation of Winchester, one 
thousand one hundred and sixty-seven, (1,167;) also one piece of artillery. 
If we add to the prisoners captured on the 6th and 9th, those who were 
paroled at Harrisonburg, and in hospitals in the vicinity of Port Republic,. 



it will make the number of the enemy who fell into our possession about 
nine hundred and seventy-five, (975,) exclusive of his killed, and such of 
his wounded as he removed. The small arms taken on the 9th, and at 
Harrisonburg, numbered about one thousand (1,000.) We captured seven 
pieces of artillery, with their caissons and all of their limbers, except 
one. The conduct of the officers and men, during the action, merits the 
highest praise. 

I forward, herewith, two maps, by Mr. J. Hotchkiss, one giving the 
route of the army during the retreat from Strasburg to Port Republic, 
and the other of the battle-field. 

On the 12th, the troops recrossed South river, and encamped near 
Weyer's Cave. For the purpose of rendering thanks to God for having 
crowned our arms with success, and to implore His continued favor, 
divine service was held in the army on the 14th. 

The army remained near Weyer's Cave until the 17th, when, in 
obedience to instructions from the commanding General of the Depart- 
mert, it moved towards Richmond. 

I am. General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Lieutenant General. 

The following letter, giving additional particulars relating 
to the battle of Cross Keys, was written in May, 1912, at 
Frankfort, Indiana, by Capt. William N. Jordan, a native of 
Rockingham, then nearly ninety-two years of age. 

I was born in Mt. Crawford Christmas Day in the year 1820, and my 
mother died when I was nine days old. I was taken and raised by 
strangers in the neighborhood of Friedens Church, by a man named Martin 
Neir, and I staid with him until he died in 1844. Before I was seventeen 
years old I commenced driving his team of six horses in hauling produce 
to market, — Fredericksburg and Richmond were the markets at that 
time. After some time had passed Scottsville became a market for pro- 
duce, and after a few years more Winchester became a market for the 
people of Rockingham. 

I still remained on the place. On the 5th day of October, 1847, about 
eight o'clock, we had a cyclone. It tore the barn clear away, and part 
of the house; and in a large orchard there was not one tree left standing. 
Wife and I and the girl were in the part of the house that was not torn 
down. In the part of which the roof was taken off were two boys; but 
none of us was hurt. 

Then Martin Neir's widow and I made sale of the land and property, 
and I bought me a home near the Cross Keys, and lived there until the 
Civil War commenced. I was assessor of that district in '59 and '60, and 
I was captain of the Cross Keys and Mt. Crawford cavalry. I had about 



100 men in the company, and we were mustered into service of the Con- 
federacy on the third day of June, 1861, and were in a number of battles. 
Among them was the fight at Cross Keys. We were on the left flank of 
Gen. Ewell's army during the fight. 

My farm was just outside of the line of battle. The Yankees broke 
open my corn crib and took corn to feed their horses, but did not disturb 
my family. This was on Sunday, and the next morning Gen. Jackson 
took us across the river and burnt the bridge; and the North River being 
high they could not follow us; and we went across South River, then down 
the river, and whipped Shield's forces, and ran them away below the 
White Post; and on Monday night Fremont began to fall back. 

They had made a hospital of a very large two-story house, and set it 
afire when they left. It was thought by the old people that lived close 
there that there was a large number of dead and wounded in the house at 
the time, for they heard some of them calling for help. And they left 
their dead lying all over the battlefield; and we had to make a big circuit 
to cross the river to get on the battlefield [of Cross Keys]. We did not 
get around there until Wednesday morning. Gen. Imboden, who was in 
command of the cavalry, detailed me and my company to gather up and 
bury the dead. At one place we buried 81 bodies, and at another 21. 
They were mostly foreigners, from the looks of them. It has been so 
long ago that I don't remember how many we lost in that battle. 

I had eight children of school age at that time, that I thought ought 
to be going to school. As there was no free school system then, I thought 
I would go to a state where they could get an education. So I sold out 
there and came to Indiana. My wife died January 21, 1911. We were 
married and lived together nearly sixty-six years. I am now staying 
with one of my daughters, and expect to stay here what few days may 
yet be allotted to me. 

I voted for James K. Polk in 1844, for President, and I am still a 
Democrat. So good bye. 

(Signed) Capt. Wm. N. Jordan. 

In 1860 there were in Rockingham County 2387 slaves; 
in 1863, 2039: loss, 348. During the same time the number of 
horses was reduced from 7670 to 6656: loss, 1014; and the 
number of cattle from 21, 413 to 14,739: loss, 6674. ^ But when 
these statistics were gathered the worst was yet to come. 

In the fall of 1864 Sheridan's army was encamped about 
Harrisonburg and Dayton. One rainy evening Major John R. 
Meigs, of Sheridan's staff, and two other Federals met three 
Confederate scouts near Dayton, and attempted to capture 

9- Rockingham Register, March 25, 1864. 



or kill them, but in the fight Meigs himself was killed. It 
was reported to Sheridan that Meigs had been shot by a 
bushwhacker. To administer a gentle reproof to the com- 
munity, Sheridan ordered that every house within five miles 
of the spot where Meigs fell should be burned. The work of 
burning began, A number of buildings in the vicinity w^ere 
devoted to the torch. The people of Dayton were warned of 
the impending destruction, and moved out into the surround- 
ing fields, where men, women, and children spent the chill 
October night as comfortably as they could, waiting to see 
their homes go up in flames. But sometime the next evening 
they were told the order to burn the town had been with- 
drawn, and were allowed to return to their houses. 

I have heard several explanations as to why Dayton was 
not burned. One report has it that a Masonic apron was 
found by the burners in one of the houses nearby; another, 
that the many kindnesses extended to the Federals by the 
people of the community were remembered in the camps. 
Not long ago I learned that the Federal officer whose task it 
had been to carry out the order to burn was still living in Ohio, 
and I wrote to him asking him for information. He is mayor 
of Clarington, Monroe County, Ohio. His letter follows. 

Clarington, Ohio, March 16, 1912. 

My Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 11th reed. In reply will say that I was 
a main participant in that stirring and heart-rending event of Oct. 5th, 
1864, at the town of Dayton, Va. , where, at 5 o'clock P. M., by an order 
issued by our commander, Genl. P. H. Sheridan (order No. 89) , I was 
ordered to take my regiment, the 116th 0. V. I., and set the torch of 
destruction to every building in that beautiful town, for what some fool- 
hardy citizen had done, or was supposed to have done — the killing of 
Major Meigs of Sheridan's Staff. 

Now the reason why the order of Genl. Sheridan was not carried out 
is, Genl. Thomas F. Wildes of my brigade, at one time colonel of the 
116th O. V. I. (my regiment), who was a particularly ideal officer under 
Sheridan, and suited Sheridan on account of his bravery and fighting 
qualities, begged and prayed Sheridan to revoke the order, as my regi- 
ment, the 116th O. V. I., formerly Genl. T. F. Wildes' regiment, was 
the regiment detailed by Sheridan to carry out his heart-rending order. 



Gen. Wildes prevailed on Sheridan to revoke the order, and I got the 
order 5 minutes before we were to apply the torch to that beautiful and 
peaceful town. 

When I announced the revoking of the order, there was louder cheer- 
ing than there ever was when we made a bayonet charge. 

I know every foot of ground in that country. I was only 17 years old 
then, and my heart fairly leaped for joy when the order was rescinded. 
Brigadier-Genl. Thomas F. Wildes, together with the regimental officers, 
are the ones who saved those towns, Dayton, Harrisonburg, and Mt. 
Crawford, from being burned down. We fought quite a hard battle at 
Piedmont on June 5th, under Genl. Hunter. 

Yours very truly. 

Col, S. Tschappat. 

It was just a day or two after the incidents above re- 
corded that Sheridan began his wide-spread retreat down the 
Valley, burning mills and barns, and driving off or killing 
horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs. 

A vivid and realistic conception of the destruction 
wrought in Rockingham by the "burning" may be obtained 
by looking over the various items in the following letter, 
written by a gentleman living at the time in the vicinity of 
Timberville, and published in the Rockingham Register of 
March 24, 1865. 

Near Timberville, Va , February 13, 1865. 

Editors of the Register: — I hereby send you a list of losses sustained 
in this portion of Rockingham county, by Sheridan's army. The prices 
fixed are those prevailing before the war. 

David Cline, one barn, horse stable, 300 bushels of wheat, 34 tons of 
hay, 9 cattle, 30 sheep, loss about $2,600. 

George Moffett, 1 barn, 20 tons of hay, cattle, farming utensils, &c., 
loss about $1600. 

Jonas Early, 1 barn, 150 bushels of wheat, 10 tons of hay, house 
property, &c. , loss $2000. 

John Rife, 1 barn, wheat, hay, &c. , loss $1000. 

John W. Driver, 6 horses, 14 sheep, loss $800. 

Widow Driver, 1 barn, horse stable, 200 bushels of wheat, 20 tons of 
hay, wagon, ploughs, &c. , loss $2,500. 

S. H. Myers, 1 barn, 325 bushels of wheat, 10 tons of hay, 7 cattle, 
and other property, $2500. 

Thornton Thomas, 5 horses, 10 cattle, 30 sheep, loss $700. 

George Lohr and Sons, 3 barns, 1000 bushels grain, 10 tons hay, 7 
horses, 10 cattle, farming implements, &c., $5,900. 



Philip Lowry, 1 stable, 1 horse, hay, &c., $400. 

Jesse Bushong, 2 horses, 3 cows, $225. 

A. Bushong, 1 horse, $100. 

Albert Flemens, 1 barn, 2 cows, hay, &c., $700. 

Matthias Minnick & Son, 1 barn, 225 bushels of wheat, 6 tons hay, 
5 horses, 12 cattle, threshing machine, ploughs, &c., $2,000. 

George Arehart, 1 barn, 160 bushels of wheat, 10 tons hay, 8 cattle, 
farming in7plements, $1,400. 

Abram Arehart, 1 barn, horse stable, 200 bushels wheat, 12 tons hay, 
11 cattle, sheep, hogs, &c., $2,000. 

Jacob Arehart, 3 horses, 4 cattle, 11 sheep, $400. 

Moses Tussing, 1 barn, 4 tons hay, 3 horses, 2 cows, $900. 

David Bowman, 1 barn, 500 bushels wheat, 10 tons hay, 12 cattle, 
&c., $2,000. 

William G. Thompson, 1 merchant mill, some grain, horse gears, 
cattle, etc., $4,000. 

The above list comprises that portion of the 8th district, north of the 
Shenandoah River and east of the Timberville road. A number of other 
persons had small losses which are not mentioned in the above list. 
Yours, Respectfully, 

B. Hoover. 

The losses enumerated by Mr. Hoover foot up a total of 
$33,725. The district in which this loss was sustained is not 
over one-sixtieth of the productive portion of the county; 
therefore, if equivalent loss was suffered all over the county, 
the grand total would exceed $2,000,000— estimated upon 
ante bellum prices. Estimated upon contemporary prices in 
Confederate money, the grand total would be over $20,000- 
000. A calculation of this sort will obviously justify the fol- 
lowing statement found on page 1303 of Garner and Lodge's 
history of the United States: 

' 'The value of property destroyed in Rockingham County 
alone was estimated at $25,000,000; thousands of families 
were reduced to absolute want and on every hand the signs 
of desolation were pitiable in the extreme." 

In the summer of 1864, upon the advance of Hunter's 
army up the Valley, a lot of the records of the county and of 
the circuit court were loaded on a wagon and hauled east- 
ward, the aim being to take them through Brown's Gap to a 
place of safety in or beyond the Blue Ridge. The wagon was 



overtaken on the road between Port Republic and Mt. Ver- 
non Furnace by some of Hunter's men, and set afire. After 
the Federals left, some persons in the neighborhood put out 
the fire, using for the purpose, it is said, some green hay just 
cut in a nearby field. The records left at the courthouse were 
not injured, though the files of the Rockingham Register, in 
the office of that paper, were destroyed. The partly burned 
records of the county were collected and brought back to the 
county-seat, where many of them may still be seen. An ef- 
fort has been made to restore them as fully as possible. 

A war always stimulates home manufactures. ''Neces- 
sity is the mother of invention." In Chapter XXI will be 
found a number of items showing some of the particular 
manufactures in Rockingham during the war, as well as dur- 
ing other periods. It is needless to say that a war also raises 
prices. Here are some illustrations from the case before us: 


"Prices Reduced! Best fine salt at $9 to $9.25. Prime 
Super Flour $4.75.— Isaac Paul." 

Brown sugar 20 cents a pound. 

Orleans molasses $1.00 a gallon. 


Cash prices paid by Isaac Paul in August: Butter, 40c; 
cheese, 40c; lard, 25c; hard soap, 30c; bacon, 27-30c. 

In October Isaac Paul was advertising tobacco at 60 cents 
a pound, and oflfering to pay the following prices: Wool, $1 
to $1.25; flax seed, $1 to $1.25; butter, 40 to 50c; cheese, 40 to 
50c; lard, 25c; flour, $8 to $8.50; bacon, 35 to 40c. 

In September-October salt was over $15 a sack. 

In November ink was $1 a bottle; Isaac Paul was offering 
75c for butter and cheese; J. N. Hill was offering to pay $1 a 
pound cash for 10,000 pounds of good roll butter. 


In April flour was $20 a barrel at the mill; wheat was $4 
a bushel; corn, $4; bacon, $1 a pound; hay, $1 a cwt. 


In February the American Hotel in Harrisonburg was ad- 



vertising board at $150 a month; supper, lodging, and break- 
fast for $10; board at $10 a day; single meals at $4. "Posi- 
tively no credit." 

The same month D. A. Flecker was urging: "Buy your 
salt two years in advance when you can get it at 50 cts. 
per pound"; while Fishback iS: Long, at Montezuma, were 
offering "Also, a lot of Salt which we will sell at 60 cents by 
the sack." 

In May Isaac Paul had some salt at 45 cents. 

In July $1000 was given or offered for a horse. 

In December salt was 80 cents a pound. 


In the Register of March 24 the following estray notice 
appeared: "A White Boar, supposed to be one and a half 
years old, left ear cut, appraised at $175." 

But the flowers still bloomed In Rockingham, though 
often broken in the strife. In the fall of 1861 the Female 
Seminary, located where the Main Street school in Harrison- 
burg now stands, J. Mark Wilson, principal, was turned into 
a hospital for wounded and sick Confederate soldiers. Early 
in 1864 there was a general hospital at Harrisonburg, Dr. A. R. 
Meem, surgeon in charge. More than 300 Confederate soldiers 
were buried in Woodbine Cemetery, where, every springtime, 
sw^eet flowers in fair hands are borne to mark the place. 

In Chapter XVI other particulars are given that have 
application here. 

In 1862 Rev. Daniel Thomas, a Dunker minister, sold 
1000 gallons of cane molasses at $1 a gallon. Confederate 
money, to his poor friends and neighbors, when he was of- 
fered $2 a gallon in gold or silver, by speculators. At an- 
other time he sold several hundred gallons of flaxseed oil at 
great pecuniary loss, for benevolent reasons. 

In the Register of April 24, 1863, appeared a fine tribute 
to the Rockingham farmers. It was shown that they were a 
sturdy, industrious class of loyal citizens, even in the midst 
of most aggravating circumstances. When their fields were 
devastated, their stock driven off, and their buildings burned 



by the public enemy, and when their own fellow-countrymen 
in arms failed to respect their rights— riding down grain and 
grass in mere wantonness, burning fences, men and officers 
alike, and even threatening the protesting owners, the farm- 
ers of Rockingham County were still loyal, and strove with 
no less energy to raise supplies for their country at large as 
well as for their immediate families. 

The following paragraphs appeared in the Register of 
February 5, 1864: 


At a meeting of the Rockingham Medical Association, held in Har- 
risonburg, January 18th, 1864, the following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved, That we will practice at old rates, notwithstanding the 
present high prices of medicines, in all cases where our patrons will pay 
us in produce at old prices. 

Resolved, That in every case where it is not convenient to pay in pro- 
duce, we will receive a bond at old rates, payable after the war. 

Resolved, That in every instance where it is desirable to pay us in 
money, we will regulate our charges in proportion to the prices of the 
produce of the country; except for our services to the poor and needy, 
and especially to families in service, or killed or disabled in the service. 

Resolved, That all old open accounts standing upon our books shall 
be included in the above regulations. 

The next meeting will be on the 3d Monday in February, at 10 

Geo. K. Gilmer, Secretary. 

This chapter must be concluded with another excerpt 
from the Rockingham Register, — that paper true to its name. 
The following article appeared under date of March, 24, 

Trotter's Stage Line. 

One of the "institutions" that has, so far, survived "the wreck of 
matter" caused by the Yankees in this beautiful Valley, is Trotter's 
stage line. Notwithstanding the heavy losses of the enterprising pro- 
prietor caused by the enemy, he is still in motion, and his teams and his 
stages still run up and down the Valley as though nothing had occurred 
to molest them. A stage line requires unusual energy and industry in its 
proper management, and that is exactly what "Trotter's line" (most 



appropriate designation!) has. It required great skill and activity to 
save the stages and teams from the Yankees the last time they came up 
the Valley; but Trotter has the singular good fortune to have an agent at 
this end of the line, who may be safely trusted to take care of everything 
under his control. Jos. Andrews is as energetic as the proprietor of the 
stage line whose interests he so carefully protects and promotes. It is to 
the energy and industry of Mr. Andrews, (who, by the way, is "an old 
stager" himself,) that the Valley people are now indebted for the mail fa- 
cilities and other very great accommodations resulting from the movements 
of a regular daily line of stages. These can hardly be properly estimated 
and appreciated. We almost felt as if we were cut off from the outside 
world and the rest of mankind until the arrival of Trotter's stages dis- 
turbed the Sabbath-like stillness of our paralyzed village. With our 
stores closed, (the merchants fearing that the Yankees might soon come 
again,) and with our Post Office shut up as if v/e had entered upon an 
unending Sabbath, it was really a pleasant sight to us to see Trotter's 
teams coming trotting in a week ago as gaily as if there never had been 
Yankees in the Valley, and as if forage and corn could still be had in 
abundance. It has, really, been a wonder with us, how the large number 
of teams have been kept up so well. It is all attributable to the tireless 
activity and industry of the chief director and agent, Mr. Andrews, who 
is known to all travellers in the Valley as one of the most accommodating 
stage agents to be met with. A stage line, under his management, is 
obliged to go ahead. If ever any stage line deserved encouragement and 
countenance Trotter's Valley line assuredly does. In fact, we cannot 
see how the people could possibly do without 

10. For the gift or loan of old papers and other source materials for 
the period covered by this chapter, I am under grateful obligation to 
Mrs. Cornelia S. Burkholder, of Harrisonburg, and to the following gen- 
tlemen: Joseph E. Shaver, Friedens; C. L. Denton, Pleasant Valley; 
Joe K. Ruebush, Dayton; A. E. Wyant, Elkton; W. H. Sipe, Bridge- 
water; Rev. C. W. Stinespring, Baltimore; and Q. G. Kaylor, Marshall 
Crawford, C. A. Hammer, and Capt. J. H. Dwyer; Harrisonburg, as 
well as to others whose names have already been given. 



In no period of our nation's history have so many great 
problems thrust themselves upon us as during the decade im- 
mediately following the Civil War. America continued to be 
a world stage for the play of giants; and while the full light 
was upon the center, the great drama, in its subsidiary parts 
and inevitable accompaniments, was in thrilling action round 
all the widening circles. Although Rockingham County was 
more or less remote from the stage's center, it never lost its 
cue or count from the bitter opening to the better end. It 
played its part and suffered its share of the tragic years. 

In other chapters, under particular topics— roads and rail- 
roads, churches and religious life, education and schools, 
banking, manufacturing, etc.— will be found much of the 
matter that chronologically falls in this; but enough will 
doubtless be given here to justify the title: "Days of Re- 

The period was marked first by high prices and financial 
stringency; later came the rush of enterprise and speculation, 
attendant upon rising prosperity; then the crash of '73, and 
the tedious recovery from the shock. In January, 1867, flour 
was selling in Harrisonburg at $12 and $12.50 a barrel; bacon, 
hog round, at 11 and 12 cents a pound; butter at 25 cents. In 
the same issue of the Register from which these quotations 
are taken is found the following paragraph: 

At a recent sale in Shenandoah county of the property of Mrs. Han- 
nah Wilkin, dec'd, wheat sold for $3.10 per bushel; com, 69 cents; cows 
$25 and $32; beds and bedding each from $30 to $35.1 

I- Roc kingham Register, January 17, 1867. 


One of the most striking features of the time, up to 1870, 
■or thereabouts, was the prevalence of lawlessness. Robbery 
and vandalism were rife. There was robbing of stores, 
mills, smoke-houses, and persons. Early in 1870 the street 
lamps of Harrisonburg were smashed, and a few months 
later a large number of shade trees about the public square 
and elsewhere were "belted"— the bark being cut off in a 
circle all around the trunks. Cattle were killed in the fields 
—the meat being carried off, the horns and hide usually being 
left. Hogs in their owners' fields or sties were either butch- 
ered there or driven away. Much of this freebooting was 
done by negroes lately slaves and by poor whites hard pressed 
by evil times; but it is also known that some of it was done 
by young white men of respectable families, whose foraging 
propensities still lacked restraint. War is always demoraliz- 
ing; and the country fell heir to more than one unwelcome 
legacy from the years of '61 to '65. 

But, as already intimated, depression and stringency 
were soon overborne by the rising spirit of progress and the 
onrush of material prosperity. In April, 1866, there were 
two iron foundries in full blast at Port Republic. Conditions 
in May are thus graphically portrayed in the Register: 

The remarkable display of energy by the people of the Valley, since 
the close of the war, is the most forcible commentary that could be given 
of their character. Without a currency, almost destitute of money, 
their fields laid waste, barns and other farm houses destroyed, stock 
stolen and driven off, no surplus supplies on hand, and their labor system 
broken up, yet they have managed to rebuild their fences and barns, 
repair their premises generally, and [make] progress in improvements 
heretofore not enjoyed. Throughout the entire Valley steam saw-mills 
dot almost every neighborhood, factories and foundries are being built, 
and the slow and imperfect implements of agricultural husbandry here- 
tofore used supplanted by the most improved labor-saving machinery. 

.... At Mt. Crawford a large Woolen Factory is in process of 
construction; also, an Earthen Ware establishment. In Harrisonburg, 
Messrs. Bradley & Co. have in successful operation their Foundry, and 
will shortly commence erecting a much larger one, on ground recently 
purchased for that purpose near the old buildings. At Port Republic and 
McGaheysville the spirit of enterprize is fully awakened, factories, foun- 
dries and mills being put into operation as rapidly as the workmen can 



complete their contracts. Carding mills are, also, multiplying through- 
out the county, and many other improvements are being inaugurated, 
which we have not space to enumerate. 2 

By June a great many of the barns and mills destroyed 
by Sheridan in October, 1864, had been replaced. In Sep- 
tember the editor of the Register wrote: 

Our friends, Henry E. Rhodes and David Weaver, have erected and 
completed not less than eight large Swisher barns within the last six 
months. These barns are all in Rockingham, and all, with but one 
exception, take the places of barns burnt by Gen. Sheridan. 3 

In his issue of October 11 the editor of the same journal 
devotes a full column to progress in the eastern section of 
the county: The sawmills of Dr. S. P. H. Miller & Co., near 
Conrad's Store; the iron furnace of Milnes & Johns, succes- 
sors of the Forrer Brothers; the chapel erected by the iron- 
masters foT* the benefit of the iron-workers, etc. 

In the Register of December 20 (1866), a correspondent 
from John J. Bowman's mill, on Linville Creek, says: 

You can count ^around it [the mill] some fourteen new barns, one 

extensive tannery, and one first class up-and-down saw mill, all 

erected during the past summer and the previous autumn. 

Among the other features of the year, a find of coal was 
reported on Briery Branch. During the next decade or more 
this coal field was a center of interest and speculation. 

Early in 1867 it was announced that Philo Bradley & Co. , 
operating the foundry in Harrisonburg, had sold within the 
past year more than 700 ploughs of their own pattern, and 
had been obliged to refuse orders for more.* 

A noteworthy instance of energetic push and practical 
method in rebuilding material fortunes out the wreck of war 
was cited at River Bank, two and a half miles east of Mc- 
Gaheysville, where Larkins & Harlow had installed a circular 

2. Rockingham Register, May 24, 1866. 

3. Idem, Sept. 20, 1866. 

4. Idem, February 7, 1867. 



saw, laid the foundations for a large flouring mill, and made 
other substantial improvements.-^ 

By the latter part of 1868 Harrisonburg had made so 
many important steps upward, and had so many more in con- 
templation, that we might truthfully declare that it was ex- 
periencing a moderate "boom." The same might be said of 
Bridgewater, Timberville, and other towns of the county. 

From 1866 to 1872 John Woods of Shenandoah, the famous 
bridge builder, had built or rebuilt no less than five bridges 
in Rockingham: one each at Bridgewater, Mt. Crawford, the 
crossing above Mt. Crawford, River Bank, and Conrad's Store. 

In the last month of 1868 the Manassas Gap railroad was 
extended to Harrisonburg, and the first train ran into the 
town. Other railroads were projected, and construction 
work on some was seriously begun. In 1873 work was begun 
on the Washington, Cincinnati & St. Louis (narrow gauge) 
road, surveyed westward past Bridgewater; and in 1874 the 
Valley road was pushed on to Staunton. Some of the wagon 
roads were laid out upon new routes, and many were im- 
proved one way or another. 

There was a revival in things spiritual as well as things 
material. Soon after the close of the war, about 1867, a 
county library association was formed, with James Kenney as 
president. In November, 1867, the Valley Musical Associa- 
tion was organized at Harrisonburg. A great wave of tem- 
perance sentiment began to sweep over the country, and 
friends of temperance associated themselves for aggressive 
service under different names. In June, 1868, the Ladies' 
Memorial Association was formed, under the presidency of 
Mrs. C. C. Strayer, with Mrs. W. H. Ritenour and Mrs. M. 
M. Sibert. secretaries. In the fall of 1868, and again in 1875, 
the second coming of Christ was preached in Rockingham and 
adjacent sections by William C. Thurman and others. In 
May, 1873, a Young Men's Christian Association was organ- 
ized at the Episcopal Church in Harrisonburg, with F. A. 
Berlin, president; and in October of the same year the Rock- 

5. Rockingham Register, May 23, 1867. 



ingham County Bible Society was organized at the Methodist 
Church in the same town, with Philo Bradley, president. 

In March, 1866, there was a small squad of Federal sol- 
diers in the county, looking up horses, etc., bearing the 
United States brand. They also made one or two arrests, 
under military orders. Later, a number of the civil officers 
were removed by order of the military governor, but for the 
most part the military aspects of the reconstruction program 
were less prominent in Rockingham than in many other sec- 
tions of the State. On March 18, 1866, a large mass meeting 
of citizens of the county was held at the court house, and 
resolutions were adopted expressing hearty approval of Presi- 
dent Johnson in his efforts to uphold the Constitution against 
infringement by Congress, and declaring a cordial loyalty to 
his administration. On the whole, there appears to have 
been a good feeling between the two races, and a sensible co- 
operation between them. An exception to this might have 
been noted at Bridgewater, on the night of December 24, 
1868, when some young white men entered the colored school 
building, recently opened by an agent of the Freedmen's 
Bureau, and knocked out the windows, broke the stove, dam- 
aged the other furniture, etc. ; but this act was not approved 
by the better judgment of the people at large.*' 

A notable incident of the year 1866 was a violent tor- 
nado, which, on the 23d of April, swept in a semi-circle 
around Harrisonburg, not damaging the town, but blowing 
down barns and other buildings, uprooting trees, unroofing 
barns and houses, etc., in the vicinity. 

At the time under consideration Harrisonburg was a 
great distributing point for mail. From July 1, 1867, to 
June 30, 1871, the mails went out thence into the county and 
adjacent sections according to the following schedule: 

To Waynesboro and intermediate points, 34 miles, and 
back, twice a week; 

To Keezletown, Roadside, and intermediate points, 18 
miles, and back, twice a week; 

6. See the Old Commonwealth, January 6, 1869. 


(Pages 161, 356, 35?) 


To Cootes* Store, Broadway, New Market, etc., 33 miles, 
and back, twice a week; 

To Franklin and intermediate points, 43 miles, and back, 
once a week; 

To Bridgewater, Mt. Solon, Deerfield, Bath Alum, etc., 
62 miles, and back, twice a week. 

E. M. Nuckols got the contract for carrying the mails 
between Harrisonburg and Waynesboro at $446 a year, for 
four years; and C, W. Airy secured the job of carrying them 
between Harrisonburg and Franklin at $300 a year.'' 

The old county court, composed of justices of the peace, 
continued till 1870. The circuit superior court, held first in 
1809, was succeeded by the present circuit court in 1852. The 
judge of the circuit court from 1866 to 1869, a critical period, 
was Hon. John T. Harris, a citizen of Rockingham, dis- 
tinguished in various departments of public service. No 
truer commentary on the times and no keener analysis of con- 
ditions can be found than that presented in his charge to the 
grand jury, May 11, 1867, and it is accordingly reproduced in 

I feel it my duty to say a word to you on the changed condition of 
our public affairs with a view that you may the more fully understand 

Since our last meeting a very material and important change has 
taken place in our State and National relations. For the first time in 
our history, the civil law has become subordinate to and dependent on 
the military. —This you may suppose works an important change in your 
duties, but it does not, as I will presently shew. You who have ever 
been taught that in peace at least, the civil tribunals are supreme, can 
scarcely realize that now they are a mere institution of the moment, 
liable at any time to be superceded or abolished at the will and pleasure 
of a military commander. It seems anomalous that the power hereto- 
fore only secondary and used in aid of the civil law, shall, in the twink- 
ling of an eye, become supreme, and all else to it secondary and only 
existing by its v/ill and its pleasure. Yet such is the stern reality, and 
one of the many sad results of the terrible conflict from which we have 
just em-erged Changes as important and more marvelous than this have 
been wrought. In a brief space the political institutions of a whole 

7. See Rockingham Register, January 10 and March 28, 1867. 




section have been changed. From the greatest and most enlarged 
liberty compatible with republican government enjoyed by one class, and 
the most absolute servitude imposed on another, we witness a curtail- 
ment of the enlarged liberty of the one and an entire disenthrallment of 
the latter; and where once existed legal and political distinctions so 
broad, positive and marked, that it was thought nothing but Providence 
could remove them, now are seen the entire obliteration of those distinc- 
tions and all before the law are placed in a great measure upon an equal 

The question recurs, shall we recognize the changes as facts fixed 
and irrevocable, and conform our actions accordingly, or shall we per- 
versely and stubbornly refuse to do anything to ameliorate the condition 
of the people?— Wisdom, patriotism, love of family, love of friends and 
duty to posterity, all combine to enjoin upon us the full recognition of 
our true condition, and stimulate us to active exertion to do all that is 
possible to restore as far as may be the countless blessings v/e once 
enjoyed. Fault-finding, crimination, recrimination, partj'^ strife, unchar- 
itableness of thought and opinion will not promote this much desired 
result, but only tend to increase our troubles, intensify the feelings of 
hostility and postpone the end desired, if not sought by all, the restora- 
tion of the States to all the rights and powers to which they are now 
entitled. This consummation so devoutly wished can best be attained by 
a strict adherence to the appeal made us by the General commanding 
this State, wherein he says:— "The undersigned appeals to the people of 
Virginia, and especially to Magistrates and other civil officers, to render 
the necessity for the exercise of this (military) power as slight as possible 
by a strict obedience to the laws and by impartial administration of justice 
to all classes. " Strict obedience to the laws and impartial administration 
of justice to all classes, the cultivation of kindly feeling one for another, a 
due deference to the opinion of those who differ from us, an honest effort 
to overcome prejudices of a century, the banishment of visionary hopes 
of other and better terms of National adjustment, a frank and manly 
acceptance of the terms and conditions imposed upon us, will tend in a 
great degree to lighten our burthens and bring us back to other and 

better days. 

Notwithstanding these important revolutions, the Judiciary still 

exists — still continues to perform its varied functions, and to this time 
has not been touched even by the hand of the military. And you, gentle- 
men, are not only permitted but enjoined to perform your time-honored 
and sacred duties without "fear or favor, " only remembering that so 
far as pertains to your office and duty, that the law has wiped out all 
distinction of caste, and placed all, in regard to "crime and punish- 
ment, " on a common footing. I trust, gentlemen, you will prove equal 
to the occasion. 8 

8. Rockingham Register, May 16, 1867 



This authoritative recommendation, so obviously the ex- 
pression of common sense and prophetic wisdom, must have 
had a far-reaching influence, and doubtless accomplished 
much in bringing the people at large to "a frank and manly- 
acceptance" of the results of the war and the actual condi- 
tions of the time, and thus in relieving Rockingham from 
some of the unfortunate experiences that attended recon- 
struction in so many other places. 

The number of white voters registered in Rockingham in 
1867, — ^the first registration under the reconstruction laws of 
Congress, — was 3228, a very large number considering all the 
circumstances; and the number of colored men registered was 
418.^ These figures, compared with corresponding ones in 
other sections of the South, will in large measure explain 
why the process of reconstruction was accomplished here 
with so little disturbance. 

There were nine voting places in the county at this time 
(1867), namely. Roadside (near Conrad's Store), Port Re- 
public, Mt. Crawford, Bridgewater, Hopkins' School House, 
Harrisonburg, Lacey Springs, Bowman's Mill, and Squire 
Fulk's. The colored voters were lined up in ' 'Loyal Leagues, ' ' 
but of course this made little difference, they being so few. At 
the election, October 22, 1867, the whites cast 261 votes for a 
constitutional convention in Virginia, and 1082 votes against 
such a convention; the negroes cast 304 votes for, and 10 votes 
against, a convention. At the same time J. N. Liggett and 
John C. "Woodson, Democrats, were elected delegates for 
Rockingham by decided majorities.'" 

The watchful editors of the Register, J. H. Wartman 
and S. M. Yost, reported what they regarded as a decided 
movement of immigration into Rockingham from the States 
north and west during the year 1867, etc. ; but at the same 
time they were obliged to chronicle with regret a continuance 
of the westward movement on the part of home folks. About 
the only consolation the loyal editors had in the matter was 

9- Rockingham Register, October 17, 1867. 
10. Rockingham Register, October 24, 1867. 



that many of those who left Rockingham had the Register 
sent after them. Before me is one of the old ledgers used in 
the Register office— the one covering the period from 1857 to 
1868; and from it one can determine not only the names of many 
who had left the county during these and preceding years, 
but also the places to which they had gone. In this particu- 
lar ledger there are the names of 1343 subscribers to the 
Register, 214 being in States other than Virginia; and these 
214 names are thus distributed: 



New York, 2 

West Virginia, 


Alabama, 1 
District of Columbia, 1 



Florida, 1 



Georgia, 1 
Kansas, 1 




Kentucky, 1 
Massachusetts, 1 

Pennsylvania, 4 Oregon, 1 

Texas, 3 Washington Territory, 1 

Maryland, 2 

The following table, showing the number of marriage 
licenses issued to persons of both races in Rockingham during 
certain years, will be of interest. 

Year. To White. 

To Colored. Total. 



1 209 



4 281 



13 267 



22 185 



- 1875 


22 208 

In January, 1868, the Register paid a handsome compli- 
ment to Joseph D. Price, "formerly of Maryland, but now 
a permanent resident of this place [Harrisonburg] —a gen- 
tleman who has done more to stimulate enterprise and busi- 
ness in this part of the State than any other citizen of the 
Valley." Price was at the time head of a wood- working 
factory company in Harrisonburg, and a dealer in real estate. 



In May, 1868, Mr. Ela, member of Congress from New- 
Hampshire, made a political speech in Harrisonburg, dividing 
time with Hon. John B. Baldwin. According to the facetious 
(though I suspect slightly prejudiced) report given in the 
next issue of the Register, the gentleman from New Hamp- 
shire was somewhat enlightened and very decidedly out- 

In September, 1868, it was announced that the people of 
East Rockingham were to have improved mail facilities— 
that the mail was to be carried to Keezletown, McGaheysville, 
and Roadside three times a week instead of twice, as before. 

Early in 1870 some changes were made in the political 
divisions of the county, and the nine townships, according to 
the new arrangement, had the following names, with the 
respective areas, as indicated: 

sq. mi. 

Brock's Gap, 171.7 

Plains, 84.8 

Linville's Creek, 91.0 

Elk Run, 107.6 
Stonewall (including McGaheysville, Port Re- 

pubHc, etc.), 94.2 
Ashby (including Cross Keys, Peale's Cross 

Roads, etc.), 59.8 
Harrisonburg, 29.0 
Central, 144.8 
Franklin (including Mt. Crawford, Bridge- 
water, etc.), 95.1 

Total, 878.0 

(561,920 acres). 

Of the total, about 500 square miles were reckoned as 
mountain land, the remainder, 378 square miles, being com- 
paratively level. Of these 378 square miles, nearly one- 
fourth was supposed to be in timber in 1870. It is safe to 



conclude that practically all the mountain land was in 

According to the current edition of Johnson's Cyclopaedia, 
there were about this time 14 flouring mills in the county. 
This was doubtless below the actual number; for the Register 
of November 3, 1870, gives the following statistics for the 
four tov/nships named: 

-D^^v^l^ Productive 

P^^P^^- Industries. 

Elk Run, 2341 10 

Plains, 3040 30 

Brock's Gap, 1366 16 

Linville, 3547 17 

The most memorable, as well as the most disastrous, 
incident of the year 1870 was the great flood in October. The 
Shenandoah River, as well as many others streams of Vir- 
ginia, rose to an unprecedented height, field crops, fences, 
bridges, buildings, stock, and even people being carried away 
in the rush of swirling waters. At Bridgewater, Mt. Craw- 
ford, Port Republic, River Bank, Conrad's Store, Shenandoah 
City, and many other places in Rockingham and Page the 
damage done was incalculable, and in many cases irreparable. 
In the Register of September 14, 1871, the following 
figures of values, prepared by S. R. Sterling, appeared: 

Township. Real Estate. Personal Property. 

Harrisonburg, $ 930,389.82 $ 377,063.88 

Central, 1,127,827.13 372,617.00 

Frankhn, 1,048,063.47 397,534.00 

Ashby, 901,783.07 182,333.00 

Plains, 1,276,247.00 349,152.00 

Linville, 1,179,022.29 320,132.00 

Stonewall, 681,966.21 159,069.00 

Elk Run, 545,095.41 92,580.00 

Brock's Gap, 91,503.29 43,118.00 

Total, $7,781,897.69 $2,293,598.88 

Grand Total, $10, 075, 496. 57 

11- See Rockingham Register, May 5, June 2, and August 25, 1870. 



Appended is this note: "Stonewall and Elk Run Town- 
ship were seriously injured by the flood of 1870, and these 
assessments were made since then. The re-assessment of the 
lands in these Townships has greatly reduced their value.'' 

In January, 1872, John E, Roller of Rockingham intro- 
duced in the Virginia Senate a bill proposing to re-arrange 
the townships of the county, reducing their number, etc. 
On March 2, following, this bill was passed, and the next 
month George J. Kisling, Henry Neff, and George H. Dinges, 
commissioners, appointed under the Act, made a division of 
the county into five townships, or districts, as at present 

Prices of some common necessities and luxuries in June, 
1872, were as follows: Flour, $8.50 to $9.75 a barrel; wheat, 
$1.85 a bushel; corn, 80 cents a bushel; bacon, hog round, 8 
cents a pound; chickens, live, $3.00 a dozen; turkeys, 7 cents 
a pound. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1872 Rockingham seems 
to have been enthusiastic for Greeley and Brown, giving them 
2130 votes; but the 735 votes cast for Grant and Wilson at 
the same time is a surprisingly large number, considering 

In 1873 the assessors' books showed the number of horses 
in Rockingham County to be 7550, and their value $418, 297. 00. 
At the same time there were 16,946 cattle, valued at 

As an example of the numerous development enterprises 
of 1872, 1873, etc., many of which found Black Friday of 
September, 1873, an unlucky day, the Virginia Improvement 
Company may be cited. This company was chartered and 
organized in 1873, with a capital stock of $500,000.00. B. B. 
Thomas was president; R. N. Pool, vice-president: Robt. C. 
Thomas, secretary; Eugene Borda, treasurer; and Henry M. 
Clay, general superintendent. The principal offices were at 
Philadelphia, Pa., and Bridgewater, Va. The principal ob- 
jects appear to have been the building of North River Rail- 
road and the booming of Bridgewater. 



In the State election of 1873 Rockingham gave 2794 votes 
to Kemper (Conservative) and 623 to Hughes (Republican). 
There v^ere at this time 19 voting places in the county, dis- 
tributed among the five townships as follows: 

In Stonewall three: Conrad's Store, McGaheysville, and 
Port Republic. 

In Ashby five: Cross Keys, Mt. Crawford, Dayton, Bridge- 
water, and Ottobine. 

In Central three: Keezletown, Harrisonburg, and Mt. 

In Linville Creek four: Melrose, Edom, E. Hoover's 
Cooper Shop, and Singer's Glen. 

In Plains four: Tenth Legion, Timberville, Cootes' Store, 
and Wittig's Store. 

In April, 1874, the county supervisors adopted the plans 
of Julius C. Holmes of Charlestown, W. Va. , for a new court 
house; in May the contract for the building v/as let to Holmes 
at $11,450.00; and in December the new building was used 
for the first time. 

I have before me a diary, covering the years from 1873 
to 1880, kept in the exact hand of James Kenney, who for 
nearly four years, 1870 to 1873, was judge of the Rocking- 
ham County Court. Two items from this diary are here in- 

Feb. 8, 1876— Wednesday— 7 A. M. 10 degrees below 0. Clear & cold. 
The coal oil in the lamp on the office mantel piece froze. I do not mean 
solid, but it had that white, milky look like sweet oil when it freezes. 
This is decidedly the coldest weather I can remember. 

Apr. 24, 1875 — Saturday — J. R. Jonesi2 who owns the old stone Pres. 
church on East Market St. is now having it pulled down for the erection 
of a nev/ building for business purposes on the same site. My earliest 

12. John Robert Jones, son of David S. and Harriet Yost Jones, was 
born in Harrisonburg in 1828. As captain he served the South with dis- 
tinction in Florida, March, 1861; in April following he enlisted a company 
of 104 men in Rockingham County, Va. , and joined Gen. Johnston at 
Winchester, his company a little later being made Co. I, 33d Va. Infan- 
try, Stonewall Brigade. In August, 1861, he was made lieutenant-colonel 
of the 33d regiment, and in July, 1862, was promoted to the rank of briga- 



recollection of a church was this one where I went to Sunday school at 
least 44 years 

At the April court, 1875, ten licenses for selling liquor in 
Rockingham County were granted: five at Harrisonburg, one 
at Timberville, two at Broadway, one near Airey's still house, 
and one at Rawley Springs. Applications for four others 
were refused. 

On August 4, 1875, the 10th Regiment, Virginia Volun- 
teer Infantry, the history of which has been given in the 
preceding chapter, held a reunion at Brock's Springs, and 
effected a permanent organization." 

The Reconstruction Period and this chapter may both be 
fittingly closed with two more extracts from Judge Kenney's 
diary, which are herewith presented. 

1876 Saturday Jan. 22 

I have just returned from a visit to the Soldiers' 
Monument. It was completed on yesterday, the 21st of January 1876. 
The monument is quite handsome and speaks well for the taste of those 
who got up the design and for the skill and workmanship of Anthony who 
did the stone work and carving and superintended the erection. I had 
the honor of preparing two of the inscriptions. Shortly after the war 
which ended in 1865 a Memorial Association was formed by some of the 
ladies of our town and county. The bodies of the Confederate soldiers 
who had died or were buried in this Rockingham County were removed 
to a lot adjoining Woodbine Cemetery, and every year since the war the 
ladies have designated a day, and with processions, dirges, muffled drums, 
and tolling bells laid spring flowers and ever greens above the dust of the 
dead soldiers, and this spring these ladies can point with pride to this 
beautiful tribute of patriotism and gratitude. 

dier-general. He was captured at Gettysburg, and held as a prisoner at 
Johnson's Island and at Fort Warren till July, 1865. For a number of 
years following the war he was a dealer in agricultural implements, and a 
writer on agricultural subjects. For eight years or more, from about 
1876, he was commissioner in chancery for the circuit court. He died 
April 1, 1901. 

13. I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Chas. Switzer, of Harrison- 
burg, for the loan of the Kenney diary. 

14. Rockingham Register, August 12, 1875. 



Mrs. Juliet Strayeri5 is the president of the Association and to her 
more than any other person belongs the credit of erecting this Monu- 

December 31, 1876,' Sunday 

This is the last day of the year 1876, a year that will be considered 
in the future history of the nation as remarkable for many reasons. This 
is the 100th year of our national independence, that is that on the 4th of 
July, 1776, the colonies through their representatives in Congress assem- 
bled at Philadelphia declared their independence of Great Britain and af- 
ter a seven years war assisted by the French their independence was 
acknowledged. The anniversary was celebrated by a national exhibition 
at Philadelphia. It was called the Centennial Exhibition and all the na- 
tions of the earth were invited to participate and most of them did. The 
exhibition was a complete success. I went to the exhibition and was 
astonished at its magnitude. 

This has also been a remarkable year for the Presidential election. 
It is remarkable in this, that questions have arisen for which there is 
neither law nor precedent to decide. Hayes, Governor of Ohio, was the 
administration or Republican candidate, and Tilden Governor of New 
York the Democratic or Conservative candidate. Soon after the election 
(which was held on Nov. 7 1876) it was announced that Tilden had 
received 203 electoral votes and Hayes 163, it requiring 185 electoral 
votes to decide, but in a short time it was reported that South Carolina, 
Florida and Louisiana, had gone for Hayes and those the states having 
19 electoral votes would change the whole matter give Hayes 186 votes 
and leave Tilden 184. The Democrats charged that it was a fraud per- 
petrated by the retiring board all of whom were of the administration 
party, that they had changed the true vote and counted the Hayes 
electors in. Affairs were in this situation when Congress met in Decem- 
ber, the Democrats having a majority in the house of representatives 
and the Republicans in the Senate. Both houses of Congress at once 
appointed committees to proceed at once to those three states examine 
into the questions of fraud. So far only one committee have reported 
& they say that South Carolina voted for Hayes by a small majority. 
The people of the whole country are greatly excited and many persons 

15. Juliet Lyle Strayer, wife of Crawford C. Strayer, lived in Harri- 
sonburg over 40 years, and was president of the Ladies' Memorial Asso- 
ciation about 35 years. She was born Nov. 12, 1826, the daughter of 
Abraham and Martha Reid Smith of Rockingham, and died in Harrison- 
burg Aug. 31, 1893. On the entrance to the soldiers' section of Wood- 
bine Cemetery is a tablet with this inscription: "To the Memory of Mrs. 
Juliet Lyle Strayer Founder and for Many Years President of the Ladies. 
Memorial Association." 



fear a civil war, but I have no apprehensions. Most persons are willing 
that the Congress settle the question, and I think they will. The popu- 
lar vote was Tilden 4,268,207. Hayes 4,027,245. Peter Cooper 82,920, 
and about 11,000 scattering. The administration is with Hayes and is 
loth to see the power pass from their party. There are more than 100,- 
000 office-holders, all appointees of the administration and they will do any- 
thing they dare to retain their party in power. In South Carolina in 
addition to the presidential contest they have one for Lieut. Governor, 
Members of Congress and members of the State Legislature. The Demo- 
crats claim the election of their candidates and the Republicans the 
election of theirs. Both Governors have been inaugurated, and there are 
two Legislatures, each body claiming to be the Legislature of South Car- 
olina according to the laws and constitution of the state. The adminis- 
tration sides with the republicans and keeps its candidate in power by 
the aid of the United States soldiers. 

In Oregon the Governor refused to certify the election of Hayes 
electors in full and gave a certificate to one of the Tilden electors. At 
this date, the 31st of December 1876 no one can forsee the result but I 
hope the whole matter may be settled without bloodshed. I have been 
through one war and do not wish to see another. (Added later) On the 
25th & 26th January 1877 Congress passed a compromise election bill 
selecting a committee of 15 to decide all disputed questions as to the 
electoral vote. 


FROM 1876 TO 1912. 

The earlier periods of the history of the County have 
been presented in chapters of considerable length, but it is 
not deemed necessary or advisable to make this chapter very 
long. Accordingly, it is made to consist, for the most part, 
of a brief chronicle of certain important or significant events. 

In 1876 Rockingham County gave Tilden and Hendricks 
3444 votes, as against 514 for Hayes and Wheeler; the nation at 
large gave the former 4, 284, 885 and the latter 4, 033, 950. Not- 
withstanding these facts, and others even more pertinent, the 
Electoral Commission, by a partisan vote, declared Hayes and 
Wheeler elected. The South, to use the words of Judge 
Kenney, had been through one war, and did not wish to see 
another, and so accepted the ruling. President Hayes, on 
his part, did the fitting thing by withdrawing the last Federal 
troops from the South, and Reconstruction, as prepared by 
Stevens and distributed by carpetbaggers, came to an end. 
Rockingham had already begun to show, in her own revival 
and progress, what the whole South was soon to become. 

One of the significant things about the county has been 
that she has always contributed liberally to good causes. 
Possibly herein is revealed the secret of her growth and 
prosperity. She has given abundantly, not only in means, 
but also in women and men. Her part in the development of 
the great West and Northwest has already been referred to 
several times. During the years now under consideration the 
building of the West was going rapidly on, and Rockingham 
still continued to send forward sturdy helpers. In 1876 there 
seems to have been a marked immigration from the Valley 
and other parts of the State. In February of that year a 


party of about fifty persons went west from Rockingham. 
It may have been a loss to Rockingham, but it was certainly 
a gain to the West. 

On Friday, March 9, 1877, Judge Kenney wrote in his 
diary: "A volunteer company was formed to-night called 
after my old company, the Rockingham Rifles (the name was 
subsequently changed). 0. B. Roller was elected captain." 

In November, 1877, another great flood devastated the 
river sections of Rockingham and adjacent counties. Of all 
the floods in the Valley, those of 1870 and 1877 are most fre- 
quently referred to as notable for destructiveness.^ 

On January 27, 1878, Judge Kenney wrote: "I notice 
some 10 or 12 English sparrows in the street. Last fall or 
winter was their first appearance in this town [Harrison- 

On Sunday, September 29, the same year, he wrote: 
"Col. A. S. Gray died about 2 P. M. He was in the 65th 
year of his age. He was the son of Robert Gray, who was born 
in Ireland. A. S. Gray was born in Harrisonburg. He began 
life as a lawyer; was a militia colonel; was a member of the 
convention when the war began, and was opposed to seces- 
sion. After the war was a Republican, and was marshal of 
this district for about 8 years." 

March 3, 1879, an Act was passed by the General As- 
sembly for the protection of deer in Rockingham County, 
making it unlawful to kill them from December 1 to August 1. 

Three more brief extracts from the Kenney diary are here 
introduced; natural history, State politics, and agricultural 
progress being the respective topics. 

Friday, May 9, 1879: Birds that I have seen in our yard in the last 
day or two: the house sparrow, English sparrow, wren, yellow bird, blue 
bird, cat bird, bee bird, peewit, robin, martin, chimney sweep, house 
martin, sand martin, & oriole; and the humming bird will come when the 
trumpet creeper blooms. 

Tuesday, Nov. 4, 1879: This is election day for a Senator & two 
delegates from this county. There is great excitement throughout the 

1. On the flood of 1877, see the Rockingham Register, Nov. 29, 1877. 



state in regard to the adjustment of the state debt. One party is called 
funders and the other party readjusters. The funders support the law 
known as the McCullok bill, and the other party want a new settlement. 
Tuesday, June 22, 1880: I went to Lurty's farm to see a self-bind- 
ing reaping machine. It works well. 

About January 1, 1881, there was intense cold through- 
out the Valley. The snow in Rockingham and surrounding 
districts was from 25 to 30 inches in depth. At Harrison- 
burg the temperature was 20 degrees below zero; at Mt. 
Clinton and Broadway it was 30, and at Bridgewater 22. In 
June of the same year a terrific hail-storm swept over Port 
Republic. In August, 1882, Harrisonburg and vicinity was 
visited by a destructive flood. 

There were at least two notable incidents in 1883. In 
July John F. Lewis, J. B. Webb, and Henry B. Harnsberger, 
commissioners, selected the site in Harrisonburg for the new 
Federal court house. The Baptist Church lot, the Henry 
Shackiett lot, and the W. C. Harrison lot, lying together in 
the corner of Main Street and Elizabeth Street, east of Main, 
were taken at the price of $12,000. In September about 200 
Union veterans came in a body to visit the Valley. Harrison- 
burg and the county turned out in hearty style, and gave 
them a royal welcome. 

In 1884 certain changes were made in two of the lines 
dividing townships: (1) the one between Ashby and Central; 
(2) the one between Linvilleand Plains. The same year the 
work of restoring the county records, partly destroyed in 
1864, was authorized. 

In April, 1887, three of the five districts in Rockingham, 
namely, Ashby, Central, and Linville, voted under the local 
option law to prohibit the sale of liquor. The vote in each 
district was as follows: 

Ashby, 714 against license; 121 for license. 

Central, 692 against license; 451 for license. 

Linville, 286 against license; 252 for license. 

The vote taken in Plains at the same time resulted in a 
count of 301 against license, and 329 for license. But there 
were no bar-rooms in any of the districts except Central (at 



Harrisonburg) and Stonewall (one at McGaheysville). The 
vote taken in Stonewall the following July resulted in a con- 
siderable majority in favor of license. - 

The year 1889 was remarkable for its heavy rainfall. It 
was thought by Rockinghamers to have broken the record of 
a century or more. Floods did much damage to crops in 
various parts of the county. This will be remembered as the 
year of the Johnstown flood. Other things too were at the 
flood in Rockingham and neighboring counties; for this year 
of 1889, with the year or two following, has ever since been 
called the "Boom Time." Cities were laid out — on paper — 
and built, too, — on cherished hopes and fair prospects. The 
farmers of Rockingham almost always know what to do with 
their money, but at that particular period it soon became pain- 
fully evident that some of them, not a few, did not know. 
Harrisonburg, Shendun, and Elkton were doubtless the Rock- 
ingham towns most conspicuous in the booms, but Broadway 
and other places were also heard from. It is only fair to add 
that nearly all these towns have ever since had a normal, 
healthy growth, even if the dreams of boom times have not 
all come true — yet. 

In 1890 the population of the county was 31,299: 28,477 
white, 2822 colored. Upon petition of the requisite number of 
voters, Judge George G. Grattan, of the county court, ordered 
a new division of the county into voting precincts. A new 
voting place was established at Swift Run. As finally ad- 
justed, the arrangement was as follows: 

Stonewall District: Port Republic, Swift Run, McGa- 
heysville, Furnace No. 2, Elkton. 

Ashby District: Moyerhoeffer's Store, Cross Keys, 
Pleasant Valley, Mt. Crawford, Bridgewater, Dayton, Otto- 

Central District: Mt. Clinton, Keezletown, Harrison- 

Linville District: Oak Grove School House, Singer's 
Glen, Edom, Melrose, Mountain Valley. 

3. See Rockingham Register, April 28 and July 14, 1887. 



Plains District: Tenth Legion, Broadway, Timberville, 
Cootes' Store, Wittig's Store. 

In 1891 there was much agitation for better roads in 
Rockingham. The year is especially notable for the death of 
the pine trees all over the Appalachian region in Virginia, 
West Virginia, etc. 

It is said that Rockingham, in 1892, was the first Vir- 
ginia county to organize forces to take part in the great 
world's fair at Chicago. Governor McKinney appointed Dr. 
S. K. Cox and Mrs. A. E. Heneberger as managers of the 
Rockingham exhibit at the fair, and they appointed assistant 
committees in the several districts of the county. Mrs. K. 
S. Paul of Harrisonburg rendered notable service in the en- 

In the Presidential election of 1892, Rockingham gave 
Cleveland 569 votes more than she gave Harrison. In 1888 
she had given 281 more to Harrison than to Cleveland; and in 
1884 she had given Cleveland the princely plurality of one 
vote over Blaine. 

In 1891 a dispute had arisen between Rockingham and 
Augusta concerning the location of the dividing line from 
North River to the top of the Blue Ridge — past Grottoes and 
Black Rock Springs. About June, 1893, the matter was 
settled, according to the Rockingham claims, for the most 
part, at least. Professor William M. Thornton of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia acting as expert arbiter. In August (1893) 
stones were put up, marking that part of the line that had 
been in dispute. 

On November 11, 1893, the S. B. Gibbons Camp, Con- 
federate Veterans, was organized at Harrisonburg, with the 
following officers: Captain, D. H. Lee Martz; First Lieu- 
tenant, B. G. Patterson; Second Lieutenant, S. H. Butler; 
Adjutant, J. S. Messerly; Quartermaster, Giles Devier. 

The following statistics relating to marriage licenses 
issued in Rockingham County during certain recent years 
may be apropos: 

1876 total, 208 


Stone Barn Built in 180:!, 

on BurkhoWer Farm, "Fort Lynne' 





I Page lit? J 

^^ SwKl 

Funk Pi-inting- House, Singers Glen 
I Pages 320, 321, 33-2 1 

Madison Hall. Port Repul)lic 
I Page 355] 

Smithland, Home of O o W. Liskey 

Burtner House at Dayton. Old Stone Fort 
(Page lii,H| 

Cown an'.s Mil!, < . : -, •_..■.,. ,.nl 
I Page 3751 

Bogota, Home of Gabriel Jones 



to colored, 

















1879 to white 





In July, 1894, there was a destructive hurricane in the 
vicinity of Broadway. On August 22 the Kagey family held 
its annual reunion at Dayton. Former reunions had been 
held in Ohio, Illinois, and elsewhere. Franklin Keagy, Cham- 
bersburg, Pa., published a massive, splendidly illustrated 
history of the family in 1899. 

The assessment for 1895 shov/ed the following real 
estate values in the several districts of the county: 







$ 6,612 


















Totals, $7,161,677 $42,134 $7,203,811 

The values of real estate in the towns are included in the 
above statement. In Central District most of the property 
owned by colored persons was located in Harrisonburg, the 
value of such property there being $15,940. 

On September 29, 1896, the northern sections of the Val- 
ley were visited by another notable freshet, thought by some 
persons to have been the worst since 1870. The loss in Rock- 
ingham to public roads, bridges, etc., was estimated at $15,- 
000 to $20,000. Mr. S. H. W. Byrd of Bridgewater has re- 
corded four unusual floods at that town, in as many different 
years, to wit: 1870, 1877, 1889, and 1896. In 1877 North 
River came up Main Street to Bank Street; in 1896 Dry River 
broke across the bottom above the town and poured in a tor- 
rent diagonally across, passing between the Methodist Church 



and the public school, and crossing College Street just east 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

On October 15, 1896, the corner stone of the present 
splendid court house was laid, the address of the occasion 
being made by Judge John Paul, an eminent son of Rocking- 
ham. The finished building was formally opened on Sep- 
tember 28 of the next year, the address on that occasion being 
made by Senator John W. Daniel. A nev/ jail for the county 
was completed about the same time. The board of county 
supervisors, under whose authority the court house was built, 
was corc posed of the following men: W. L. Dechert, J. H. 
Shipp, E. W. Carpenter, C. E. Fahrney, and D. H. Moore. 
The building committee were W. L. Dechert, E. W. Car- 
penter, and C. E. Fahrney. W. M. Bucher was superin- 
tendent, W. E. Speir, was contractor, T. J. Collins & Son 
were architects. According to the report made to the sup- 
ervisors in June, 1898, the cost of the court house was $82, - 
142.77. Including the outlay for approaches, furniture, etc., 
the grand total was stated as $96,826.24. 

At the November election in 1896, McKinley was given 
3525 votes, Bryan 2998, Levering 100, and Palmer 27. These 
figures totaled the largest number of votes ever cast in the 
county at one election up to that time. A vote distributed 
like this one affords concrete and striking evidence of the 
fact that decided changes in political affiliation have taken 
place since the days when overwhelming Democratic majori- 
ties were the rule in Rockingham. 

On May 12, 1898, the Harrisonburg Guards, E. W. Sulli- 
van, captain, left for the war in Cuba. Col. 0. B. Roller, 
who accompanied the Guards, was acting colonel of the 2d 
Virginia Regiment at Jacksonville, Florida, during the sum- 
mer. On September 23, after an absence of four months, 
the Guards, now Co. C of the 2d Va. Infantry, reached home. 
Most of their time away had been spent in camp at Jackson- 
ville, and they were properly chagrinned because they had 
not been called to the front. ^ 

3. Muster Rolls of the Guards may be found in the Rockingham Regis- 
ter of May 13 and 20, 1898. 



Fittingly, in view of the events and spirit of the time, 
it vv^as in the summer of 1898 that the movement, long re- 
tarded, to mark the spot where General Turner Ashby fell, 
June 6, 1862, culminated in the erection of a monument. It 
is made up of two great stones, a huge pointed granite ele- 
vated upon a massive limestone base, and stands a mile and 
a half south of Harrisonburg, on the wooded hill where the 
gallant cavalry leader received his death wound. It was un- 
veiled on the 6th of June, 1898, just thirty-six years after 
the sad day held in memory. The place is visited each year 
by an increasing number of persons interested in the history 
of Virginia, as wrought in the valor of her sons. Since the 
State Normal School was opened at Harrisonburg in 1909, a 
large number of young women from all parts of the State 
have visited the Ashby monument, and have carried the 
story learned there back to their homes and into their schools. 

The claims allowed by the county supervisors at their 
June meeting in 1898, for sheep killed by dogs, amounted to the 
surprising figure of $678.60. A century earlier the justices' 
court was paying for the scalps of wolves. It might have 
been proper for the fathers of 1898 to have considered the 
advisability of putting a premium on the scalps of worthless 
and dangerous curs. 

In February, 1899, the thermometers in Rockingham reg- 
istered 23 degrees below zero. There was a big blizzard — 
the snow was deep and drifted. The editor of the Register, 
shivering still in memory, no doubt, wrote: 

It made the deepest snow and the coldest weather we have known, 
certainly since the famous winter of 1856-7, and possibly since the begin- 
ning of the century. 4 

He apparently had overlooked or forgotten the cold of 
January, 1881. Thermometer readings in rural sections of 
the county, however, seemed to sustain the editor's conclu- 
sion. In the next issue of his paper it was reported that 
Eld. John P. Zigler's thermometer had registered 40 degrees 

4. Rockingham Register, February 17, 1899. 



below zero, and that those of Jack Bradford and Michael J. 
Roller had registered 40 and 38 degrees below zero, respec- 
tively. All these readings were Fahrenheit. 

Since these instances of extreme cold have been recorded, 
it is proper to say that such weather is very unusual in Rock- 
ingham. Zero weather is unusual. It is not often that ther- 
mometers in this section of the State fall below 10 degrees 
or 8 degrees above zero. 

In May, 1899, it was ordered that certain experimental 
free delivery mail routes be established in Rockingham; and 
in June the free delivery service was inaugurated. 

The census of 1900 showed a gain of 2228 in ten years in 
the population of the county, and the increase of property 
values shown by the assessment of the same year indicated 
an era of material growth. The next year the tax rate v/as 
reduced from $1.25 to $1.10. 

In 1902 the first automobile owned in Harrisonburg, —the 
property of J. L. Baugher, — attracted much attention. At 
this writing, — ten years later, — the number of machines in 
the same town is said to be over 40. 

Monday, January 8, 1904, marked the opening of the last 
term, in Rockingham, of the old county court, which has given 
place to the circuit court under the present constitution. 

Three notable events in 1911 marked gratifying progress 
in educational and benevolent work: The opening of the 
Waterman School, the building of the Rockingham Memorial 
Hospital, and the adoption of the law for compulsory school 
attendance in Harrisonburg and Rockingham County; all of 
which are noticed in more detail elsewhere in this volume. 

Inasmuch as some notice has been given to unusual 
weather conditions in preceding years, it^may be of interest 
to record that a few days of extreme cold weather were ex- 
perienced in Rockingham, as well as in many"" other places, 
early in January, 1912, the mercury time falling 25 de- 
grees below zero. The present summer (1912) has been re- 
markably cool and agreeable.^ 

5. For the loan of periodicals falling within the time limits of this 




Rockingham County, like every other great county, is too 
big to be seen all at once, and too many-sided to be appreciated 
fully from any single view-point. The chapters that follow 
present some of its manifold phases, each in its particular 
significance, and thus make possible a more definite estimate 
upon an analytical basis; all that is attempted here is a col- 
lection of a few more or less general statements, in the nature 
of a suggestive, though incomplete, summary. 

Rockingham to-day has 35,000 people (34,903 by the 
census of 1910) ; no millionaires, very few paupers, and $1000 
on the average for every man, woman, and child, white and 
black; 3528 farmers, and a farm for each of them; 363,042 
acres of land in these farms, and 560,640 acres of land alto- 
gether; 26,435 cattle; 11,704 horses; 19,754 swine; 25,199 
sheep; 2314 colonies of bees; and 236,812 head of poultry. 
It also has one of the two largest hatcheries in the State. 
There are seed farms for the planters, thoroughbred flocks 
and herds for the stockman, and nurseries for the fruit 
grower; there are hundreds of growing orchards, from which 
about 1000 carloads of apples are produced every year, not to 
speak of peaches, pears, cherries, plums, — or watermelons. 

There are in the county three noted summer resorts, 
three splendid caves, and three famous battlefields; there are 
abundant mineral deposits, of various kinds, including iron 
and coal; there are numerous spring- fed streams, affording 
moisture for plants and unexcelled water power; there are 40 

chapter, grateful acknowledgement is made to Mr, Garnett C. Sites, of 
Staunton, Bishop L. J. Heatwole, of Dale Enterprise, and Mr. C. L. 
Matthews, of Harrisonburg. 


flouring mills, * two large tanneries, brick kilns and lime kilns, 
plow factories, wood-working factories, creameries, canneries, 
9 banks, and a wool mill whose products are recognized as of 
superior excellence at home and abroad. 

In Rockingham to-day 16 religious denominations are 
represented, and more than 140 Sunday-schools are operated; 
the churches are served by about 80 preachers and pastors, 
and the people at large by 34 physicians and surgeons, several 
of them specialists ; there are 14 dentists, 27 lawyers, and about 
290 educators and teachers; there is a ministers' union, a 
medical society, a teachers' association, a ladies' memorial 
society, a boys' corn club, a horticultural society, a fair for 
the school children, an annual horse show, a fair for mechanics 
and farmers, a Sundayschool association, a women's Christian 
temperance union, and an anti- saloon league; there are 
farmers' and stockmen's organizations, missionary societies, 
insurance companies, and benevolent, fraternal, and patriotic 
societies almost without number. 

There is a modern hospital, with hundreds of women 
working for it; an orphans' home, and an old folks' home; 
there are two public almshouses, one for the county, one for 
the county-seat, and two court houses, one for the county, 
one for the nation. There are 10 incorporated towns, several 
of which are lighted with electricity, and more than 30 towns 
and villages altogether; the rural districts, as well as the 
towns, are supplied with excellent telephone systems, and 
daily mail delivery; there are about 80 miles of railroad track, 
operated by four different companies, about 70 miles of 
macadamized road, with a growing movement for more; 
dozens of strong bridges spanning streams large and small, 
37 postoffices, and 20 regular railroad stations. 

Rockingham has to-day a weekly newspaper 90 years old. 

1- For information on this point I acknowledge special obligation to 
Messrs. John G. Yancey and W. J. Dingledine, of Harrisonburg. Mr. 
Dingledine has recently published an attractive booklet giving many 
interesting statistics concerning Rockingham County and the town of 



five printing and publishing establishments, three daily- 
papers, and a monthly music journal that is probably the 
oldest in the United States; there are five or six bands and 
orchestras in the county, and probably more people, old and 
young, who can sing, and who love music, than in any other 
section with the same population in America. There are 142 
school buildings, including 11 high-schools, in the pubhc 
school system; and besides these there are three institutions 
for higher education, whose combined annual enrollment 
reaches about 1000 students representing nearly every county 
in Virginia and many States outside of Virginia. 

Rockingham County to-day (1912) has the follov/ing 
staff of county and district officials: 

Circuit Judge— T. N. Haas. 

Clerk of Court— D. H. Lee Martz; deputies — C. H. Brunk, 
J. F. Blackburn. 

Sheriff— E. J. Carickhoff; deputies — D. E. Croushorn, 
John Adams, Otho Miller, Chas. Meyerhoeffer, Lurty Koontz, 
R. E. Pugh, J. J. Branner, Chas. R. Fawley, W. H. Yankey, 
T. A. Carickhoff. 

Commonwealth's Attorney — Chas. D. Harrison. 

Treasurer — Peter W. Reherd; deputy— Harry Way. 

Superintendent of Schools— Geo. H. Hulvey. 

Surveyor — Jos. G. Myers. 

Coroner— J. M. Biedler. 

County Supervisors. 
D. N. Washington, from Ashby District. 
Brock T. White, from Central District. 
J. Newton Swank, from Linville District. 
A. M. Turner, from Plains District. 
M. H. Harrison, from Stonewall District. 

Ashby District. 

Justices of the Peace— J. W. Keiter, J. P. Rauhof, Homer 
M. Hill. 

Constable— I. N. Jones. 

Road Commissioner— A. S. Heatwole. 



Assessor — C. H. Funkhouser. 
Overseer of Poor— J. H. Simmers. 
School Trustees-D. C. Graham, C. T. Callender, J. S. 

Central District. 

Justices of the Peace— D, Wampler Earman, F. J. Argen- 
bright, P. I. Derrer. 

Constable — G. R. Black. 

Road Commissioner — J. W. Sheets. 

Assessor— Frank A. Heatwole. 

Overseer of Poor— J. W. Minnich. 

School Trustees — E. J. Suter, Frank Ralston, C. A. Cren- 

Linville District. 

Justices of the Peace— J. C. Cooper, J. P. Howver, Joel 

Constable— A. A. Frank. 

Road Commissioner — C. W. Dove. 

Assessor — B. F. Myers. 

Overseer of Poor — W. H. Shaver. 

School Trustees— John S. Funk, A. A. Howard, S. R. 

Plains District. 

Justices of the Peace — J. W. Pickering, Geo. A. Neff, 
L. P. Souder. 

Constable— T. A. Fansler. 

Road Commissioner — E. P. Myers. 

Assessor— M. Harvey Zirkle. 

Overseer of Poor— C. F. Evans. 

School Trustees— E. P. Myers, H. H. Aldhizer, J. Luther 

Stonewall District. 

Justices of the Peace — John W. May, J. A. S. Kyger, 
John I. Wood. 



Constable— G. W. Baugher. 
Road Commissioner— C. W. Baugher. 
Assessor — E. L. Lambert 
Overseer of Poor — J. F. Life. 

School Trustees— A. S. Bader, A. S. Kemper, J. T. 

Representatives in General Assembly. 

Senate— John Paul. 

House of Delegates— C. H. Ralston, G. N. Earman. 



It appears from the 'American Gazetteer" that in 1798 
there was only one postofFice in Rockingham County. This 
one was at Harrisonburg, which was put down as ' 'Rock- 
ingham Court House. "^ The old postoffice, just west of Har- 
risonburg, noticed more particularly in the next chapter, had 
probably been absorbed by the one at the court house by 
1798. In 1813 there were only three postoffices in the county: 
Harrisonburg, or Rockingham C. H., Henry Tutwiller, P. 
M. ; MGaheystown, Tobias R. MGahey, P. M. ; Kites Mill, 
Jacob Kite, P. M.- In Martin's Gazetteer of Virginia, edi- 
tion 1835, the following towns are put down as in Rocking- 
ham County: Bowman's Mill, P. 0., Brock's Gap, P. 0., 
Conrad's Store, P. 0., Cross Keys, P. 0., Harrisonburg, 
Kite's Mills, P. 0., Linville Creek, P. 0., McGaheysville, P.O., 
Mount Crawford, Port Republic, and Smith's Creek, P. 0.^ 
Harrisonburg, Mt. Crawford, and Port Republic are fol- 
lowed by the letters "P.V.," which supposedly stand for 
"postal village." The population of these three villages is 
given (1835) as 1,000, 180, and 160, respectively. In 1845, or 
thereabouts, Henry Hov/e visited Harrisonburg, Mt. Craw- 
ford, Port Republic, Deaton (Dayton), and Edom Mills. He 
says Mt. Crawford then had a church and about 30 dwellings; 
Port Repubhc, a church, and about 35 dwellings; Deaton and 
Edom Mills he calls "small places." Harrisonburg is cred- 

1- A copy of the American Gazetteer, abridged edition of 1798, was 
loaned by Mr. E. M. Whitesel, Pleasant Valley, per Mr. Q. G. Kaylor. 

3. For these items I am indebted to the researches of Mr. Milo Custer, 
Bloomington, 111. Kite's Mill was probably on the river below Elkton. 

3. I am indebted to Hon. Geo. E. Sipefor the loan of Martin's Virginia 
Gazetteer for 1835. 


ited (1845) with 8 stores, 2 newspaper offices, a market, 
1 Methodist church, 2 Presbyterian churches, and about 
1100 people. < 

It is quite probable that one of the oldest centers of trade 
in what is now Rockingham v/as at Peale's Cross Roads, the 
point 5 miles southeast of Harrisonburg, where the roads 
from Swift Run Gap and Brown's Gap come around the end 
of Peaked Mountain and cress the Keezletown Road. Felix 
Gilbert had a store at or near this point in 1774, and likely 
had been located there for a number of years preceding. A 
tanyard and other productive establishments marked the 
place later. 

With these statements as introductory, let us take up the 
several towns in m.ore detail. 

Harrisonburg, laid out upon 50 acres of land belong- 
ing to Thomas Harrison, w^as legally established in May, 
1780, by the same Act that gave recognition to the town of 
Louisville, in the county of Kentucky.^ The place in early 
days was often called Rocktow^n; for example, Bishop Asbury 
designates it by that name in his journal, in 1795; and as late 
as 1818, perhaps later, the name Rocktown was frequently 
used. It is said that German Street was originally the main 
street, and what is now Main Street was then called Irish 
Street or Irish Alley. 

In 1797 the town was enlarged by an addition of 23J 
acres, laid off in lots and streets, from the lands of Robert 
and Reuben Harrison; and Thomas Scott, JohnKoontz, Asher 
Waterman, Frederick Spangler, and Saml. McWilliams were 
made trustees. In 1808 an Act was passed enabling the free- 
holders and housekeepers resident in the town to elect five 
trustees annually; and by the same Act the trustees were 
authorized to raise $1000 by taxation for the purchase of a fire 
engine, hocks, and ladders. All the men of the town were 
to constitute the Harrisonburg Fire Company. 

i- Howe's Historical Collections of Virginia, 1852 Edition, pp. 460, 

s. Hening's Statutes, Vol. X, pp. 293-295. 



In the Rockingham Register of October 5, 1876, appeared 
a long article entitled, "Harrisonburg Fifty Years Ago," 
from which we quote the following paragraphs. They pre- 
sent a graphic account of certain interesting conditions in 
1826, and thereabouts. 

Jos. Cline occupied the Wm. Ott house, s and carried on the tanyard 
now owned by Lowenbach. The house on the corner was built by James 
Hall, lawyer, fifty years ago. The stone house attached was the first 
house built in Harrisonburg. It was built by Thomas Harrison. After 
that house was put up, Mr. Harrison offered Maj. Richard Ragan (the 
father of 'Aunt Polly Van Pelt'), who was a blacksmith, ten acres of 
land around the 'big spring' if he would bind himself to put up a shop near 
the spring. But the Major could not be fooled into any such a specula- 
tion, and he declined. At that time the ground around the spring was 
covered with rocks, many of the cliffs being so tall that a horse could 
hide behind them. There were but two practical paths to the spring, one 
running along by Dr. Waterman's house and the other down by the house 
in which A. M. Effinger lives. Subsequently the rocks and thorn bushes 
and other undergrowth was cleaned away, and the spring was made 
a resort of the ladies of the town, who used to do their washing by the 
spring. Clothes lines made of grape vines were provided along the branch, 
and after the clothes were dried they were carried home to iron. Subse- 
quently the trustees of the town passed an ordinance forbidding women to 
do their washing at the 'spring. ' 

Fifty years ago there were no railroads in all this country. Our mer- 
chants went 'below' twice a year only. It required from four to six 
weeks to go 'below,' lay in goods and return. The goods for Harrison- 
burg were sent to Fredericksburg by water, and from there brought over 
in wagons. It took two weeks to make the trip. The wagoners charged 
from $1 to $1. 25 a hundred for hauling. Some goods were brought up the 
Valley, by way of the 'Keezletown road,' that being at that time the 
principal thoroughfare of the Valley. 

Fifty years ago the mails were carried from Winchester to Har- 
risonburg in Bockett's two-horse coaches. The mail came once a week, 
except when the river at Mt. Jackson would be swollen by the rains, or 
when the roads were very bad, when the mail would not come oftener 
than semi-monthly. In the course of time the business of the Valley be- 
came so important, that the mail route was changed to a semi-weekly one. 
It was hard work, but Bockett actually ran from Winchester to Staun- 
ton in three days. 

6. The Ewing building, opposite Newman Avenue, occupies the site of 
the Ott house. The stone house built by Th. Harrison is now Gen. Roller's 
law office. 



Fifty years ago there were but two churches in town, the old Meth- 
odist Church, which stood on the hill above the Catholic Church, and the 
Presbyterian Church.7 

Fifty-five years ago there was no paper published in Harrisonburg. 
At that time Ananias Davisson, had a small office in which he printed 
the Kentucky Harmony and other musical works. Shortly after that 
Lawrence Wartmann commenced the publication of the 'Rockingham 
Weekly Register, ' with 86 subscribers. The Register list now reaches 

On March 31, 1838, Samuel Shacklett, Isaac Hardesty, 
Jacob Rohr, Jr., Nelson Sprinkel, and Samuel Liggett were 
elected trustees of Harrisonburg for the ensuing year. All 
these gentlemen were well known residents of the town for 
many years, Hardesty and Shacklett being very successful 
merchants. Before me is an old account book used by Mr. 
Shacklett, containing entries made from 1851 to 1874. On 
one of the leaves is a carefully prepared table, of four columns, 

Merchants that have done business in Harrisonburg and quit, classed 

as follows to Wit 

Broke | Neither made | Made under | Made over 
I or Lost I $10,000 | $10,000 

In the column under "Broke" are written the names of 
36 individuals and firms; under the next head, "Neither made 
nor Lost," are 30 names; three men, A. E. Heneberger, M. 
Hite Effinger, and Geo. Cline, are put down as having made 
under $10,000; while in the fourth column are eight names: 
Thos. Scott, John Graham, Jerry Kyle, Jno. F. Effinger, 
Isc. Hardesty, S. Henry, M. H. Effinger, and "S. S."^ 

By an Act of March 16, 1849, the boundaries of Harrison- 
burg were defined as follows: 

Beginning at a point on the old Valley road, beyond the gate leading 

'•■ "The old Methodist church on the hill" stood where the church of 
the Brethren now stands; the Catholic church referred to stood (1876) 
opposite the passenger station, on the site now occupied by the large 
Snell building; the Presbyterian church in 1826 was on E. Market Street. 

8. This old book was placed at my disposal through the courtesy of 
Messrs. Sipe & Harris, Harrisonburg. 



to Mr. A. C. Bryan's farm, and in a line with the land of J. Hardesty 
and others; thence westwardly, on a line with the said land, to the head 
of a lane which intersects with the road leading to Antioch; thence from 
the head of said lane, in a southern direction, in a line parallel with the 
present western limits of said town, to a point in the Warm Springs Pike, 
at or near the old brewery, and on a line with the lands of Mrs. P. Kyle 
Liggett and others; thence east, in aline with said lands, to a point in the 
lots of Mrs. E. Stevens; thence northwardly, in a straight line, to the be- 
ginning, shall be and continue to constitute the area of the town hereto- 
fore known as the town of Harrisonburg, in the County of Rockingham. 

The boundaries of the town have been rearranged at var- 
ious times since the above date; for example, in 1868, 1877, 
1894, etc. On February 14 and 15, 1868, J. H. Ralston, county 
surveyor, made a survey which was defined in the next issue 
of the Register as follows : 

The survey commenced at a point near Swanson's residence, about 1 
mile East of the Court House. It ran thence in a Northern direction, 
passing east of Hilltop, R. A. Gray's property, to a point in the line 
between Gray & P. Liggett, thence in a North-western direction, 
crossing the Valley Turnpike to the North of David Yeakel's lane, 
on the Kratzer road. Thence with the Kratzer road, crossing the 
0., Alexandria and Manassas Gap Railroad, to a point near Capt. D. S. 
Jones' pond, thence crossing the lands of D. S. Jones to a point West of 
the Waterman house, thence passing West of Jackson Miller's house, to 
a'spring in Kyle's field. West of the brick dwelling house, thence cross- 
ing the H. & W. S. pike to the Toll-gate on the Valley pike, thence with 
the Port Republic road, to a white oak tree on the top of the hill, (not 
far from where Gen. Ashby was killed,) thence in a Northeastern direc- 
tion to the beginning. 

The Woodbine Cemetery Company was chartered by the 
legislature in March, 1850, John Kinney, Ab. Smith, and 
fourteen others being named in the Act, and given the right 
to purchase and hold, in or near the town, not more than 15 
acres of ground for the purposes specified. 

In 1868 the amount of taxes levied in Harrisonburg on 
personal property was $1659.57, and on real estate, $2885.82; 
on both, $4545.39. In 1911 the total amount, on real and 
personal property, at a rate of 65 cents on the $100, was 
$22,083.80. In 1870 the population of the town was stated as 
2828; at present (1912) it is, almost exactly, 5000. 



The "boom" period was marked by dedded "plants" 
and prophecies in Harrisonburg, not all of which grew or 
came true; but, as already indicated, the town has had a con- 
stant and healthy growth. It is noted as the best horse 
market in the Valley. In 1899 Harrisonburg voting precinct 
was divided into East Harrisonburg and West Harrisonburg. 
In August, 1873, Judge James Kenney wrote in his diary: 
"The necessity of pure water is now felt in our tov/n"; and 
the question of a good water supply was agitated for a num- 
ber of years following. In 1883 the city fathers put in a 
water system, on a small scale, apparently for protection 
against fire. In 1886 the artesian well which was to supply 
the town had been put down 455 feet. In 1889 the well of 
J. P. Houck had been bored to a depth of 600 feet. The 
same year a system of water works was completed and ac- 
cepted by the council. In 1890 the town had a water supply 
from an artesian well 600 feet deep (presumably Mr. Houck's) ; 
and the Houck Tanning Company was putting in an electric 
light plant. On December 22 (1890) the electric lights were 
turned on for the first time. In 1895 the town took up a 
proposition for a better water supply, and in 1898 the present 
splendid system, bringing an abundant supply by gravity 
from Riven Rock, near Rawley Springs, was installed under 
the direction of N. Wilson Davis, engineer. In 1904 the 
town issued $60,000 in bonds for the construction of a muni- 
cipal light and power plant, which has been in successful 
operation for a number of years past. 

On Christmas day, 1870, about 4 o'clock in the morning, 
fire broke out on the south side of the public square, and 
burned all the buildings over to the old stone Waterman 
house. The loss totaled $50,000 or $60,000. 

In 1875 the first town clock for Harrisonburg was put in 
the court house tower. 

In 1887, and thereabout, Harrisonburg had no saloons. 

In 1902 the Big Spring, so long a landmark of the town, 
was covered over. 

Among the historic houses of the town are the Harrison 



house, now Gen. John E. Roller's office; the Waterman house, 
south side of the public square; and Collicello, west of the 
freight station, 

Collicello was built about 1812 by the eminent lav/yer, 
Robert Gray; and there his 3 children, one of whom became 
the distinguished Col. Algernon Gray, were born. 

The Waterman house, a low stone structure with dormer 
windov/s, was the residence of Dr. Asher Waterman, who 
built it prior to 1799. Later, it was the home of Sen. Isaac 
S. Penny backer (born 1805, died 1847). In 1854 it was the 
original home of the Bank of Rockingham, the first bank in 
the county. From 1860 to 1905 it was the residence of Hon. 
D. M. Switzer. When Mr. Switzer came to Harrisonburg in 
1843 this house was occupied by the Rev. Henry Brown, 
pastor of the Presbyterian church. At that time there was 
but one pavement in the town: that one was of stone, and 
lay on the north and east sides of the Waterman house, which 
then, and until the fire of 1870, stood more than 20 feet in 
advance of the other buildings on the south side of the public 

The Harrison house is mentioned in this volume in so 
many connections that no special sketch is deemed necessary 

Harrisonburg has had an organized military company 
throughout many years of its history; and, as already indi- 
cated, the beginning of its fire companies must be dated 
more than a century ago. The Harrisonburg fire companies 
in recent years have been conspicuous in the State conventions 
and contests, winning notable honors at Staunton in 1893, at 
Portsmouth in 1894, at Roanoke in 1912, and at other places 
at other times. They are doing a fine service in Harrison- 
burg, and occasionally in neighboring towms. 

In July, 1897, shortly after the fire laddies of Harrison- 
burg had distinguished themselves at Winchester, the follow- 
ing lines by M. J. McGinty, of New York, appeared in the 


The Chinkapin Tree 
IPajre t(i6] 

Old Town Hall. Miid.tjt'watiT 
It'anelitHl I'lioto by Furry 

Fertile Farm I.aiirls on f'ook s ("reek 


All hail to the laddies, those knights of the reel, 

The quick-sprinting victors, with hearts true as steel; 

All hail to the firemen, victorious and brave, 

Slaves only to duty— their mission to save. 


All hail to the champions! Our hats off to you; 
O, here's to the invincible wing-footed crew! 
We drink to your health! may your record remain 
As a shaft for all time to your worth and your fame. 

The present municipal officers of Harrisonburg are: 

Mayor — John H. Downing. 

Recorder— John G. Yancey, Jr. 

Assessor — R. Lee Woodson. 

Treasurer — Henry A. Sprinkel. 

Sergeant— J. E. Altaffer. 

Councilmen— J. S. Bradley, A. M. Loewner, T. E. Se- 
brell, R. Lee Allen, T. N. Thompson, D. C. Devier, V. R. 
Slater, F. F. Nicholas, J. M. Snell. 

Keezletown, or, as it was first written, Keisell's-Town, 
was laid off on 100 acres of land belonging to George Keisell, 
and established by law under an Act of Assembly passed 
December 7, 1791. Seven gentlemen, George Houston, 
George Carpinter, Martin Earhart, Peter Nicholass, John 
Snapp, John Swisher, and John Pierce, were made trustees.^ 
It is said that a good deal of rivalry had developed between 
Thomas Harrison and Mr. Keisell in the effort to locate per- 
manently the county-seat, the former championing Harrison- 
burg, the latter Keisell's-Town. In fact, a rather entertain- 
ing story is told of how, on one occasion, the two gentlemen 
ran (more exactly, rode) a race to Richmond in the interests 
of their respective enterprises, in which, by the merest 
chance, Mr. Keisell was outdistanced by his rival. 

In 1844 Houck, Hosier & Co. were advertising the open- 
ing of a general store at "Huffman's Tavern establishment 
in Keezletown." Shepp's spring, near the village, is said to 

9. Hening's Statutes, Vol. 13, page 297. 




supply fine mineral water. The people of the community are 
intelligent and enterprising, and give good support to their 
schools and churches. The population of Keezletown is about 

The following interesting account of McGaheysville and 
the man for whom it was named has been supplied, upon 
special request, by Mr. Richard Mauzy. 

McGaheysville is located eleven miles east of Harrisonburg on the 
Stanardsville turnpike, and on "Stony Run," appropriately named, which 
has its source between the main longitudinal ranges of the Massanutten 
mountain, locally called "The Kettle," and flows through the center of 
the village, and, two miles below, empties into the Shenandoah River. 

This village is, as the Irishman said of his pig, "Little, but ould. " 

Its name dates from 1801 when the first postoffice was established 
there with Tobias Randolph McGahey as Postmaster, for whom the village 
was named. 

Among the first, if not the first to settle there, was Thos. Mauzy, 
(the eldest son of Henry Mauzy of Fauquier Co. , Va. , by his second 
marriage,) who settled there in the latter part of the 18th century, and 
owned the property which he sold in 1805 to his youngest brother Joseph, 
where the latter did business and reared his family and lived till his 
death in December, 1863, and where his son Richard now resides, having 
been owned by the Mauzys for 115 years consecutively. 

Thos. Mauzy also owned the farm and mill on the Shenandoah River 
where the Harrisonburg Electric plant is now located, which he sold in 

Though the population has increased slowly with time, the number 
and variety of industries have decreased, owing to the combination of 
capital and to the establishment of factories which made private enter- 
prises unprofitable. 

About 75 years ago there were in the village several tailor shops, 
shoemaker shops, cabinet and carpenter shops, hatter shops, wheel- 
wright-shop, blacksmith shops, a tannery, and one store of general 

The following are the names of some of the citizens who lived there 
about that time: 

Dr. Darwin Bashaw, Dr. Hitt, Joseph Mauzy, Christopher Wetzel, 
Peter Bolinger, A. J. O. Bader, Philip Rimel, John Garrett, John and 
Jacob Leap, Solomon and Jacob Pirkey, John and Augustus Shumate, 
Zebulon and David Gilmore, David Irick, Allison Breeden, Jacob Fultz, 
and Geo. Brill. 

The following with reference to the man for whom the village was 



named, furnished by his granddaughter, Miss Alice McGahey, will be of 

Tobias Randolph McGahey was born in Dover, Delaware, March 24, 
1765. He came to this valley with a Scotch-Irish colony when a young 
man. In 1801, when a postoffice was established there, he was appointed 
postmaster, and the office was called McGaheysville. In 1802 he married 
Mrs. Eva Conrad, a wealthy widow of one of the first settlers in the 
Valley, and a resident of McGaheysville. They remained 19 years at this 
place, when his wife died. 

His occupation, when he first came to the Valley, was surveying. He 
also built flouring mills in Shenandoah, Page, Rockingham, and Augusta 
counties, and afterwards, in 1827, engaged in the mercantile business at 
Bonny Brook, on a farm he owned there, one mile northeast of McGa- 

His mother (Mrs. Barnes) was a notable character in the village. 
She taught school, and not only taught the girls to read, write, and 
cipher, but to sew, knit, and paint. She lived to an old age and did much 
good in her journey of life. 

During his first wife's time, Mr. McGahey lived where A. S. Bader 
now resides, and reared three nieces and two nephews. 

It is said that McGaheysville was first called "Ursulas- 
burg," in honor of a Mrs. Long, a native of Switzerland, who 
lived near.^o The present population of the village is about 
350. It has one of the best schools in the county. 

Port Republic is one of the oldest towns in Rockingham, 
and in the 20's and 30's, after the South Shenandoah had been 
made navigable for floatboats, was, in the happy phrase of 
Mr. Richard Mauzy, a place of great expectations. The fol- 
lowing paragraph, from an Act of Assembly passed January 
14, 1802, gets us back to formal beginnings: 

Be it enacted by the general assembly. That twenty-three acres of 
land, the property of John McCarthrey, junior, lying between the north 
and south branches of the south fork of Shenandoah river in the county 
of Rockingham, shall be, and they are hereby vested in George Gilmer, 
Benjamin Lewis, Matthias Aman, John Givens, and Henry Perkey, gen- 
tlemen trustees, to be by them, or a majority of them, laid off into lots 
of half an acre each, with convenient streets, and established a town by 
the name of Port Republic. 

Lots were to be sold at auction, the purchaser in each 

10. See Rockingham Register, May 13, 1898. 



case being required, upon forfeit, tc erect "a dwelling house 
sixteen feet square at least, with a brick or stone chimney 
to be finished fit for habitation within ten years from the day 
of sale." 

January 26, 1866, an Act was passed incorporating Port 
Republic, and on March 31, following, the first election under 
the new charter was held. John Harper was chosen mayor, 
and Tobias M. Grove sergeant. 

In olden days "Port" was noted for its fights — personal 
encounters — but in latter times it is as peaceable and law- 
abiding as other places. 

The bridges at Port Republic, specially those across the 
North River, have had an interesting history. The first one, 
or one of the first, was burned in June, 1862, by Stonewall 
Jackson, to prevent Fremont from following him across the 
river. The next one was built in 1866, by citizens of the com- 
munity, at a cost of about $3000. This washed away in the 
great flood of 1870. In January, 1874, the county court ap- 
propriated $600 to aid in rebuilding this bridge. The next 
bridge was washed away in 1877, and was not rebuilt for two 
or three years. The present bridge is a single-track iron 

Mr. Richard Mauzy says that Holbrook, a citizen of Port, 
is entitled to the credit of making the original McCormick 
reaper a success, by devising the sickle as it has since been 
generally adopted on all reapers. 

The population of Port Republic is about 200. 

In January, 1804, an Act of Assembly was passed estab- 
lishing the town of Newhaven on the land of Gideon Morgan 
and William Lewis, and appointing Edwin Nicholas, Asher 
Waterman, George Huston, George Gilmore, Mathias Amon, 
Benj. Lewis, Henry Perkey, and Henry J. Gambillas trustees. 
The site of New Haven is on the north side of the rivers, op- 
posite or a little below Port Republic. It will be observed 
that the two places had several trustees in common, and their 
names indicate the importance that was attached to their lo- 
cation upon navigable water. We can readily imagine them 



upon a "boom" in 1804, and thereabouts, but New Haven 
seems never to have reached the actual proportions of a town. 
The name is by this time remembered by only a few persons. 

One of the most progressive towns of East Rockingham 
is Elkton, known until 1881 as Conrad's Store. Near the 
town stood until recently Elk Run church, one of the oldest 
churches in the county; and the town is built where Elk Run 
flows into the Shenandoah River. The origin of the name 
Elkton, therefore, is obvious. Conrad's old store building 
still remains as one of the landmarks. Another place of 
historic interest is the old Kite homestead, where Stonewall 
Jackson had his headquarters in 1862. 

In 1867 the postoffice at Conrad's Store was moved out a 
mile or two to Geo. W. San ford's shoemaker shop, and named 
Roadside, In 1881 Elkton postoffice was established, with 
Jas. H. Shipp as postmaster. One of the promoters of Elk- 
ton in "boom" times (1889-90) was Dr. S. P. H. Miller (1835- 
1895). In March, 1908, the town was incorporated, and J. A. 
S, Kyger was chosen mayor. The councilmen were J. R. 
Cover, J. T. Heard, J. E Leebrick, V. C. Miller, W. A. Gor- 
don, and I. L. Flory. Since 1881, when the Norfolk & West- 
ern Railway was opened, and especially since 1896, when the 
Chesapeake- Western was completed to Bridgewater, Elkton 
has been a railroad center of growing importance. 

The river bridges at Conrad's Store and Elkton, like those 
at Port, have had an interesting, though expensive, history. 
On June 3, 1862, the Conrad's Store bridge was burned by 
Co. D, 7th Va. Cavalry, S. B. Coyner, captain, to keep the 
Federal general Shields from coming across to join Fremont 
against Jackson. In June, 1868, proposals were solicited by 
J. H. Kite, president of board, for building the island bridges 
across the Shenandoah, near Conrad's Store. The bridges 
were carried away by the flood of 1870. In 1872 a bridge 200 feet 
long, across the river, and one 100 feet long, across the race, 
were built by John W. Woods. These probably corresponded 
to the "island bridges" of 1868. The Conrad's Store bridge 
fell again in the flood of 1877; was rebuilt in 1878-9 (by John 



Woods) and again washed away in September, 1896. In May, 
1897, part of the new iron bridge that was being erected was 
washed down. 

The population of Elkton at present (1912) is about 1000, 
and the town officers are the following: 

Mayor— J. A. S. Kyger. 

Treasurer — W. H. McVeigh. 

Sergeant — W. E. Lucas. 

Councilmen — R. B. Wilson, J. F. Taylor, J. R. Cover, 
J. T. Heard, L. F. Yeager, W. E. Deal. 

Dayton is likely one of the oldest "inland" towns in the 
county. Probably the first house was the one built of stone 
by the Harrisons, and still standing in fine condition at the 
northeast end of the town, on the west side of the Warm 
Springs and Harrisonburg Pike. It is now occupied by the 
Burtner family. Capt. John A. Herring, whose ancestors 
were some of the first settlers of the community, says: 

It was once surrounded by palisades, and in times of Indian invasion 
the people around went there with their families for protection. There 
is a tradition that there was an underground passage dug to the creek 
[Cook's Creek] nearby, for water, in case of a siege. 

A writer in the Rockingham Register of January 5, 1894, 
says that this old house was sold early in the 19th century by 
Dr. Peachy Harrison to Maj. John Allebaugh. 

Prior to the Revolution there was an Episcopal chapel in 
what is now the north section of the Dayton cemetery; and 
up the creek a short distance, on the ground now covered by 
Silver Lake, was "Old Erection" of the Presbyterians. 
In March, 1833, Dayton was established by law. Rif eville and 
Rifetown were earlier names. In 1854 John Stinespring was 
proprietor of Dayton Hotel. Dayton's stirring experiences in 
1864 are narrated elsewhere. In 1903 and 1911 the town was 
visited by destructive fires, but the enterprising spirit of her 
people seems akin to the phenix essence. Dayton is probably 
the largest town south of Mason and Dixon's line without a 
single colored citizen; and likely has the largest business car- 
ried on through its postoffice of any town of its size in the 



A u a U S T A 


country. The latter condition is due to its publishing houses 
and schools, referred to elsewhere. 

The present (1912) population of Dayton is about 600, and 
its municipal officers are the following: 

Mayor -J. W. Keiter. 

Clerk — Henry Beery. 

Assessor — J. H. S. Good. 

Sergeant— J. A. Shifflett. 

Councilmen— P. X. Heatwole, J. W. Heatwole, J. H. 
Rhodes, J. W. Rhodes, J. N. Shrum, J. A. Stone, G. P. Arey. 

The beautiful town on the North River, three miles 
southwest of Dayton, was first called Dinkletown, after one 
of the first families in the community, then Bridgeport, be- 
cause it was a flatboat port at a bridge, and finally Bridge- 
water, because, doubtless, the bridge continued to be a neces- 
sity although the place ceased to be a port. 

According to Mr. S. G. Dinkle, John Dinkle about 1810 
put up a carding machine, a sawmill, and a grist mill on the 
north side of the river, about a quarter of a mile below the 
bridge. The grist mill was replaced by a flouring mill about 
1835. According to Mr. Dinkle and Mr. S. H. W. Byrd, this 
flouring mill burned in 1855, and was replaced immediately 
by the mill now standing there. On February 7, 1835, the 
town was established by law, on 20 acres of land belonging 
to John and Jacob Dinkle. The trustees were Jacob Dinkle, 
Michael Wise, Jesse Hoover, John Dinkle, Sr., and John Du- 
more. Quoting from the Act: "Liberty st. shall be laid off 
& established 20 ft; Main st. 55 ft. wide: Grove st. 20 ft. 
wide & Center alley 12 ft. wide." The old town hall, stand- 
ing on the west side of Main Street, below the intersection of 
Commerce Street, is said to have been formerly a church. 
Mr. S. H. W. Byrd calls attention to the fact that Bridge- 
water was established by law the same year as Milwaukee, 
Wis. In 1892 Capt. Philander Herring testified that the town 
had had no barroom or liquor saloon of any kind since 1854. It 
has had none since 1892. In 1868 a company was formed and 
chartered to build an observatory on Round Hill, just west of 



town; but this splendid project seems to have failed. In 1873, 
the period of railroad fevers, Bridgewater and vicinity were 
on a "boom." In the Register of May 9 (1873) it was re- 
ported that no less than 33 flouring mills, 2 wool mills, and a 
number of sawmills were to be found within a radius of five 
miles of the place. On February 23, 1880, a considerable sec- 
tion of the town was laid waste by fire. In 1904 the corpor- 
ate limits of the town were extended to their present ample 

Now, a word concerning the Bridgewater bridges. For 
most of this acknowledgement is made to Mr. S. H. W. 
Byrd. First, there was an old bridge on posts, low, near the 
water. In 1853 another bridge was built by Abram S. Wil- 
liams. This was burned by the Confederates in 1862. The 
third bridge was erected in 1866 — completed in October — by 
John W. Woods. It had a support in the middle. On Sep- 
tember 29, 1870, the northern half of this bridge was swept 
away by the great flood. The fourth bridge was completed 
in December, 1870, by Col. Wm. F. Pifer. This, too, had a 
center support. It was washed away November 24, 1877. 
The present bridge was finished by Wm. H. Grove in April, 
1878. It crosses at a single colossal leap of 240 feet or more, and 
is said to be the longest single-span wooden bridge in the world. 

The population of Bridgewater (1912) is about 1000. The 
town officers are the following: 

Mayor— H. C. Hale. 

Recorder— S. H. W. Byrd. 

Treasurer — 0. W. Miller. 

Assessor — E. A. Dinkle. 

Sergeant — J. W. Walters. 

Councilmen— J. H. Wine, W. H. Miller, C. B. Riser, L. 
V. Miller, 0. W. Wine, B. H. Beydler. 

When the above officers were elected, June 11, 1912, the 
town voted a bond issue of $25,000 for a water and sewer 

It is said that Mt. Crawford was established by law in 
1825. In 1835 an Act of Assembly was passed incorporating 



the Mt. Crawford Water Company. In earlier days the place 
was known as Mt. Pleasant, and perhaps also as Mt. Stevens. 
In the Rockingham Register of October 5, 1822, Dr. Wm. 
Frey respectfully acquainted his friends and the public gen- 
erally that he had removed from his former residence to the 
house of Fred. Hoffman in the village of Mt. Pleasant on the 
Staunton road, 17 miles from the latter place and 8 miles 
from Harrisonburg. In Martin's Gazetteer of Virginia, for 
1835, this is said concerning Mt. Crawford: 

It contains 25 dwelling houses, 1 house of public worship free for all 
denominations, 2 common schools, 2 taverns, 3 mercantile stores, 2 tailors, 
2 saddlers, 2 boot and shoe factories, 1 smith shop, 1 tin plate worker, 
1 cabinet maker, 1 wheelwright, 1 cooper, 1 pottery, 2 milliner and man- 
tua makers, 1 gun smith, 1 wagon maker, 1 manufacturing flour mill, and 
1 saw mill. The North river is navigable for flat boats about three 
miles above this village. 

The bridges at Mt. Crawford suffered by the war and by 
the floods of 1870 and 1877, and their history would make an 
interesting chapter. In 1895 the town received its present 
charter. The population (1912) is about 400, with the fol- 
lowing municipal officers: 

Mayor — 0, A. Layman. 

Councilmen— J. H. Funkhouser, F. H. Lago, A. M. Pifer, 
J. C. Wise, M. Dean, W. F. Moyerhoeffer. 

Among the various things to the credit of Mt. Crawford, 
not the least is the reputation it has won for enforcing law— 
particularly against reckless joy-riders. 

The city of Sparta (Spartapolis) is ancient and honorable, 
whether in Laconia or in Rockingham. In 1831 our Sparta 
was established by law; it was a city 8 years later; that is to 
say, by an Act of the Assembly in 1839 its name was ex- 
panded to Spartapolis. In 1842, perhaps earlier, it was one 
of the county voting places. In the years leading up to and 
into the civil war it was frequently a place of muster. The 
present name is Mauzy, and the population is put down 
as 12. 

A mile or two southwest of Mauzy, on the Valley Pike, is 
the village of Lacey Spring. Mrs. Maria Graham Carr says 



that her grandfather, John Koontz, built a house at Lacey 
Spring, in 1815, that was afterwards occupied by the Lincoln 
family: that he had a tanyard, operated by Isaac Hite; and 
that he also had a sawmill, not far from his house. The great 
spring that gushes out from the rocky hillside would certainly 
have afforded an abundant water supply for such establish- 
ments. Mrs. Carr also mentions a house of entertainment, 
first occupied by a Mrs. Patten, later in the hands of the 
Lincolns. In February, 1898, an old two-story log house at 
Lacey burned, which, according to the report then published, 
had been erected in colonial times, and had been kept by 
David Lincoln as an inn during the early part of the last cen- 
tury. The 100 people who live at Lacey Spring are among 
the most intelligent and enterprising in the county. 

The statements regarding the beginnings of TimbervUIe 
are somewhat complicated. In 1814, when John Zigler located 
there, a log house, then old, stood on the west bank of the 
river. In the year mentioned Mr. Zigler opened a tannery, 
which, at his death in 1856, was said to be the largest in the 
county. He started a pottery in 1830, and also operated a 
hemp mill. It is said that Tobias Shull opened a blacksmith 
shop in 1830 at B. F. Grist's present stand, and that a Mr. 
Carnes started a mill in 1831. Early in the century, per- 
haps before 1820, Abraham Williamson, a brother of Dr. J. 
D. Williamson of Hardscrabble (above New Market), opened 
the first store, and the place was known as Williamsport. 
This name would indicate that the river was being utilized for 
transportation. Another tradition says that Wm. G. Thomp- 
son founded Timberville. He was a prominent resident of 
the community as early as 1833, when he, John Zigler, and 
others were trying to get a free bridge across the river. The 
place was then called Thompson's Store. It is said that 
Thompson, in 1837, built the house now or recently owned by 
C. Fahrney. About 1850 the place was known as Riddle's 
Tavern. For many years, however, Timberville has been the 
accepted name, and the town was thus incorporated in 1884, 



with Jacob Garber, Chas. E. Fahrney, Wm. A. Pierce, John 
A. Roller, and Saml, C. Smucker as trustees. 

It is said that one day in early times, a four-horse team 
and wagon broke down the bridge, at Timberville, with more 
serious results to the bridge than to the team. The third 
bridge, erected in 1840, washed away in 1842 or 1843. Then 
the river was forded till 1884, when the present bridge was 

The population of Timberville (1912) is about 400. C. J. 
Smucker is mayor; Milton Whitener, clerk; B. F. Zirkle, 
treasurer; S. A. Henkel, sergeant; with J. A. Garber, W. B. 
Fahrney, D. S. Wampler, F. M. Bowman, F. H. Driver, and 
R. S. Bowers, councilmen. 

May 22, 1909, the Harrisonburg Daily News printed an 
elegant illustrated supplement on Timberville. 

The town of Broadway, at the junction of Linville Creek 
with the North Shenandoah River, and at the mouth of 
Brock's Gap, occupies a strategic point for trade. The be- 
ginnings of settlement and industry were probably made on 
the point of land between the creek and the river, at or near 
the Winfield residence. As early as 1808 the Custers had a 
mill there, and they were probably at the same time operating 
the store that for many years was kept in the old stone 
building adjacent to the Winfield house. The mill that Sher- 
idan burned in 1864 was stone, and was likely the original 
one. During the period of Reconstruction the brick buildings, 
now occupying the site, were erected for machine shops. 

According to tradition, the name Broadway was adopted 
from the habit of the merry daredevils, who were accustomed 
to assemble at the place for carousals, of referring to them- 
selves as on the "broad way." 

In March, 1880, Broadway was incorporated with Saml. 
C. Williams, P. W. Pugh, J. W. Basore, Michael Zigler, and 
M. B. E. Cline as trustees. Various changes in the charter 
and boundaries have been made since. The present (1912) 
population is about 700, and the town officers are the follow- 



Mayor— J. H. Nave. 

Clerk— C. R. Whitmore. 

Sergeant— G. W. Beaver. 

Councilmen— C. R. Winfield, G. S. Fultz, Claude Knupp, 
W. N. Williams, C. E. Miller, Oscar Orebaugh. 

Cootes' Store stands above Broadway, at the actual mouth 
of Brock's Gap. The place bears its name from Mr. Samuel 
Cootes (1792-1882), for many years a prominent citizen of 
the county. In 1858 the place was made a voting precinct. 
For many years past it has been a postoffice. The population 
is about 30. 

A short distance southwest of Cootes' Store is the village 
of Turleytown, said to have been founded by Giles Turley, 
who stopped there on his way to Kentucky — and remained 
there. In 1903 Dr. John S. Flory, of Bridgewater, published 
an interesting description of the old Turleytown blockhouse, 
which was erected in early times. The Turleytown Baptist 
church also has an interesting history. The population is 
about 40. 

In 1860 a postoffice was established at Mountain Valley, 
and the name was changed to Singer's Glen. Mountain Val- 
ley had already become famous as the home of Joseph Funk, 
father of song in Northern Virginia, as the place of his 
school, and as the place where he and his sons printed and 
bound the music books and other publications that were being 
sent all over the country. The appropriateness of the pres- 
ent name has been proved by both the nature of the work that 
Joseph Funk & Sons kept up there till the later 70' s, and the 
character of the people who still live there. In March, 1894, 
Singer's Glen was incorporated, with B. H. Franklin mayor; 
and S. H. Swank, G. W. Shaffer, Jos. R. Funk, S. W. Brewer, 
D. M. Hollar, and C. F. Shank, councilmen. The present 
(1912) population is about 180, and the town officers are: B. 
H. Franklin, mayor; J. F. Moubray, sergeant; S. H. Swank, 
P. H. Donovan, W. C. Funk, G. W. Hedrick, D. S. VanPelt, 
and D. M. Hollar, councilmen. 

The name of Edom appears as early as 1844, perhaps 



earlier. In 1835 Joseph Martin, in his Gazetteer of Virginia, 
mentions Linville Creek P. 0., which may be identical with 
Edom. Henry Howe, a decade or more later, speaks of Edom 
Mills. The population of this beautiful village is about 140. 

Another Rockingham village, similar in situation to Edom, 
built upon a never-failing stream and surrounded by sloping 
hillsides, is Mt. Clinton. According to an article printed in 
the Register, October 11, 1883, this place got its name about 
1833, by a vote of the people of the community registered at 
the store of Bowman & Devier. Several names were under 
consideration, but a certain gentleman authorized Bowman & 
Devier to give a horn of apple-jack to every man who said 
"Mt. Clinton." And so Mt. Clinton it came to be. Before 
this the place was referred to as Muddy Creek, and was al- 
ready the site of a mill, a tilt hammer, a cooper shop, etc. 
The meeting-house nearby was known as Gospel Hill. Hen- 
ton &' Burkholder were general merchants at Mt. Clinton 
as early as 1833, perhaps earlier. About 1895 the village 
came into prominence as the seat of West Central Academy, 
mentioned in Chapter XV. The population is (1912) about 

Cross Keys is an ancient village, being mentioned by 
Martin in 1835 as a postoffice. There have been a church and 
a store at Cross Keys for several generations, and the place 
was made famous by the battle fought there June 8, 1862, be- 
tween Fremont and Ewell. The population is about 50. 

Spring Creek is a village of about 200 people, situated in 
a prosperous farming section of western Rockingham. It 
maintains various local enterprises, and should be remem- 
bered as the place where Bridgewater College had its begin- 
nings in 1880. 

Ottobine, or Paul's Mill, on Beaver Creek, the site of a 
mill, a church, a postoffice, etc., has been well known for 
many years. For example, as early as 1838, possibly before, 
it was a place of muster. The population is about 60. 

Another village of western Rockingham, surrounded by 
beautiful farms, is Clover Hill, with a population of about 70. 



Rushville, at the confluence of Muddy Creek and Dry- 
River, with a population of about 60, has been well known in 
the county for many years. 

Stemphleytown, between Dayton and Bridgewater, has 
borne its name since the 40's or 50's from David Stemphley, 
the first resident. The population is about 40. 

In December, 1866, Jacob Funkhouser, C. E., was laying 
off a town at Kratzer's Spring, on the Middle Road. This 
was evidently the village now called Linville, located a short 
distance south of Linville Depot. About 1870 the name Etna 
was applied to a certain part of Linville. The present popu- 
lation (1912) is about 250. 

River Bank, near McGaheysville, should receive special 
notice, in addition to other things, for the mere fact of its ex- 
istence, since it has probably been washed away of tener than 
any other place in the county. The bridge built at River 
Bank soon after the war was swept away in 1870. In 1873 a 
mill was erected and plans perfected for the rebuilding of the 
bridge. The leaders of River Bank industry at that time 
were J. H. Larkins, W. B. Yancey, R. A. Gibbons, and Henry 
E. Sipe. In January, 1874, three spans of the new bridge 
were swept away by a freshet; and in the big flood of 1877 
not only the bridge, but also the grist mill and saw mill, went 
down in the waters. In 1874 a postoffice was established at 
River Bank, with E. L. Lambert, postmaster. 

Grottoes, whilom Shendun, owes its meteoric phases to 
the "booms" of 1890, its permanent character to the fertility 
in the soils, the caves in the hills, and the ores in the moun- 
tains about it. Mt. Vernon Forge had marked the place of 
old. In March, 1891, it was alive with industries. Males 
430, with females 279, made a total population of 709, show- 
ing an increase of 100^^ in about five months. In February, 
1892, an Act of Assembly was passed incorporating the town 
of Shendun; W. I. Harnsberger was elected mayor, R. T. 
Miller, E. R. Armentrout, J. W. Rumple, J. G. Hall, J. M. 
Pirkey, L. D. Patterson councilmen. In March, 1893, re- 
ceivers were appointed for the Grottoes Company, at Shen- 



dun. This year (1912) another Act was passed changing the 
name of the town from Shendun to Grottoes. The present 
population is about 400. C. D. Harnsberger is mayor; J. E. 
Graves, assessor; R. D. Melhorn, treasurer; S. F. Newman, 
sergeant; J. M. Pirkey, J. W. Lemon, M. D. Eutsler, W. I. 
Harnsberger, J. M. Bell, and J. L. Leeth, councilmen. 

In 1893 street cars were running in Shendun. This, so 
far as is known, gives the place a unique distinction among 
the towns of Rockingham. In the Rockingham Register of 
January 30, 1891, the following item of interest appeared: 

"The first child born in Shendun was a daughter to Mr. 
and Mrs. W. I. Harnsberger, and granddaughter of Hon. H. 
B. Harnsberger, of Port Republic. It was named Shendun 
Bell, the latter name in compliment of Maj. H. M. Bell, of 
Staunton, one of the principal promoters of Shendun." 

In the following table are given the names of villages, 
postoffices, etc., of Rockingham not already mentioned, 
grouped by districts. In column (1) are names that appeared 
in Lake's atlas of 1885; in column (2) are the names that now 
appear in Rand McNally's map of Virginia; in column (3) 
are given figures of present population, as nearly as these 
can be approximated; in column (4) are given the years in 
which postoffices were established at some of these places; 
and in column (5) the names of first postmasters. 

Ashby District 



(3) (4) 


j Meyerhoef- 

j Meyerhoef- 

( fers Store 

( fers Store 


Goods Mill 

Goods Mill 

25 1871 

Saml. Good 

Scotts Ford 

Scotts Ford 


North River 

North River 

25 1874 

J. J. Roller 




J Pleasant 
1 Valley 

j Pleasant 

( Valley 

80 LRockinghamP.O. 













W. H. Sipe 

j Spring Creek 
( Station 



Central District 






Peach Grove 


Dale Enterprise D. Enterprise 



C. H. Brunk 








W. E. Long 


Penn Laird 


Chestnut Ridge 


John Miller 


Pleasant Hill 











Mt. Tabor 





R. Arnientrout 

Cherry Grove 

Ch. Grove 








Ft. Hoover" 







11- Ft. Hoover, a small structure mainly of stone, used in later times 
(and likely in earlier times also) as a dwelling, stood at the west foot of 
Green Hill, on the north bank of Joe's Creek, a mile below Singer's Glen. 
A low mound, with a few scattered bits of stone, now marks the place. 


Elk ton Hotel 

Mountain Valle.\ — SinRers Glen. An Artist's Dream -Home of the "Harnnnia Sacra" 

I,oe Hmisc in C. titer. I'iisi I'ostollu'e in Rockineliam (Paire I'l'.' i 

Stonewall Jack.sons nea<iiiuarters at Klkton- Blue Riilvre Mountains in Hai-k)fr<uinil 

(F'atre I'.i?) 


Plains District 




(4) (5) 










Tenth Legion 

Tenth Legion 






Bakers Mill 

Bakers Mill 


Fulks Run 

Fulks Run 



G. W. Fawley 






W. R. Crider 









Stonewall District. 




(4) (5) 

Swift Run 

Swift Run 










W. H. Marshall 




C. W. Shepp 









C. M. Killian 





A. L. Wagner 


1872 S.B. McCommon 


Island Ford 











In addition to the foregoing, the following notes may be 
of interest. 

In 1840 Nicholas' Tavern was a well known place in East 

In 1842 there was a place, evidently in Rockingham, 
called Libertyville. 

In 1863 Burke's Mill was a postofRce in Rockingham. 

In 1870 a postofRce was established at Mt. Vernon Forge, 
D. F. Haynes, P. M. 

In 1873 a postoffice was established at Belton, Rocking- 
ham County. 

The postoffice at Melrose was re-established in 1873. 

In 1879 there was a place in northwest Rockingham 
called "Yankeetown," 

In 1890 Mt. Hermon P. 0. was established, with J. M. 
Lam postmaster. 

In 1891 Amberly P. 0. was established, with J. W. Tate 

In 1893 a postoffice was established at Bear Lithia, J. T. 
Taylor, P. M.'^ 

13. In addition to those already named, Mrs. Thos. Kille of Harrison- 
burg, Mr. J. A. Garber of Timberville, MissiPaulinalWinfield of Broad- 
way, and Mr. J. R. Shipman of Bridgewater have given aid on this chap- 
ter, and to them grateful acknowledgement is made. 


Nothing is of more importance in the economic history 
of any county or country than the development of faciUties 
for travel, transportation, and communication. In this chap- 
ter an attempt is made to chronicle some of the more impor- 
tant steps in the building and supervision of roads and rail- 
roads in Rockingham County, together with certain particulars 
regarding telegraphs and telephones. 

In February, 1744, Peter Scholl and others living on 
Smith's Creek petitioned the court (of Augusta County) for 
a road. They said they had to v^^ork on a road 30 miles dis- 
tant from their plantations. This sounds as if there were no 
legally established roads in this part of the Valley at that 
time. A year later James Patton and John Buchanan re- 
ported that they had viewed a way from the Frederick 
County line, and the court ordered it established as a public 
road. ' Whether this road was east or west of the Massa- 
nutten Mountain cannot, perhaps, be determined, but it must 
in either case have been much nearer than 30 miles to Smith's 

In 1753 when the Moravian Brethren came up the Valley 
with a wagon there were some passable roads west of the 
Massanutten, along by the places where New Market, Lacey 
Springs, and Harrisonburg now are; but these roads were 
not in good order. It is possible that the main thoroughfare 
at this time and for some years afterward passed, not by 
Harrisonburg, but by Keezletown. There is an old ford 
across Middle River, about four miles above Port Republic, 
known as Pennsylvania Ford. This seems to indicate that 
travelers and immigrants from Pennsylvania crossed at that 

1. Waddell's Annals of Augusta, pp. 47, 48. 


point; and it may be that this ford was on the main road up 
the Valley in very early times. 

Bishop L. J. Heatwole tells me that there was a very old 
trail from the Old Fields, in Hardy County, W. Va., to Wil- 
liamsburg, that came through Brock's Gap, past Joe's Spring 
at Singer's Glen, past Greenmount, and past the Big Spring 
at Harrisonburg, and so on across the Valley just above the 
Peaked Mountain, crossing the Blue Ridge by Brown's Gap.^ 
In March, 1910, or thereabout, Mr. Heatwole contributed an 
interesting article to the Harrisonburg Daily News on the 
first postoffice in Rockingham County, in which he made 
reference to this old trail. The postoffice, which was likely 
such only by common agreement of residents, messengers, 
and travelers, was at the Liskey farm, a mile and a half 
northwest of Harrisonburg, probably in the old log house still 
standing over the spring. It stood by or near the old Wil- 
liamsburg trail. 

At a court held for Rockingham County on Tuesday, 
May 26, 1778, and continued from the preceding day, the fol- 
lowing road overseers were appointed: 

Henry Lung of the road "from the big hill to the Line of 
Shanandoe County"; 

George Huffman of the road ' 'from the big hill to Henry 

Henry Miller of the road "from his own house to the 
Top of the Mountain over Swift Run Gap"; 

Paul Ingle of the road "from the fork of the road lead- 
ing to Swift Run Gap to Casper Haines Shop"; 

Casper Haines of the road "from his Shop to the main 
road leading from Staunton to Winchester"; 

Stephen Conrad of the road "in the room of Frederick 

2. Brown's Gap was formerly known as Madison's Gap. The stream 
flowing out of it is still called Madison Run. The Madisons, it will be re- 
called, lived just above Port Republic. 



John Frazier of the road "from the Augusta Line to 
John Stephensons run"; 

Jacob Perkie of the road "from Stephensons run to John 
Keplingers place formerly Samples"; 

David Harnett of the road * 'from John Keplingers form- 
erly Samples to Zeb Harrisons ford on Smiths Creek"; 

John Philips of the road "from Zebulon Harrisons ford 
to the Line of Shanandoe"; 

Jacob Woodley of the road "from the ford on this side of 

Sebastian Marts to Reuben Harrisons"; 

Jeremiah Harrison of the road "from Reuben Harrisons 
toDanl. Smiths Gent"; 

Jeremiah Reagan of the road "from Danl. Smiths to the 
run that comes from Geo. Seawrights field"; 

Joseph Dictam of the road "from the run that comes 
from Geo. Seawrights field to the line of Augusta"; 

John Pence of the road * 'from the ford of the river at 
Gabl. Jones's to Felix Gilbert's"; 

Robt. Elliot of the road "from Felix Gilberts to Danl. 
Smiths house"; 

Joseph Lear of the road "from Danl. Smiths to the ford 
of Lin veils Creek at Thos. Brian's"; 

Marten Gum of the road "from the ford of Lin veils 
Creek at Thoms. Bryans to the fork of the Road on this Side 
of Jno. Thomas's mill"; 

John Ruddell of the road "from Chas. Daillys Ford to 
the upper Ford of Michael Baker"; 

Paul Gustard of the road "from Michael Bakers upper 
ford to the County Line on Cacapon"; 

Marten Witsel of the road "from the fork of the Cacapon 
road to the top of the mountain by Weatherholts"; 

John Bear of the road "from Daillys ford down the River 
to the Line of Shanandoe County"; 

Andrew Andes of the road "from Chas. Daillys ford 
under the No. Mountain to the line of Shanandoe"; 



Rees Thomas of the road "from Daillys ford to Thos. 

Thomas Fulton of the road "from Thos. Gordons to the 
Line of Augusta"; 

Thomas Bowen of the road "from the fork of the road 
above Thomas's Mill to the Pine Tree between Francis Greens 
&Thos. Campbells"; 

John Herdman of the road "from the sd. pine tree to 
Harrisons Mill pond"; 

William Herring of the road "from Harrison's Mill pond 
to the forks of the road below Jno. Fowlers"; 

Gawin Hamilton of the road ' 'from Rices Cabin in dry 
river Gap to Ben j. Harrisons." 

In each case above it was provided that ' 'the usual tith- 
ables work thereon. ' ' The minutes of subsequent courts show 
that numerous changes were made from time to time in the 
personnel of the road masters. 

At a court held November 24, 1778, ' 'On the petition of 
Sundry Inhabitants in the forest for turning the road leading 
from Brocks Gap to Massenutting, Ordered that Maths. 
Reader, Jno. More & Nicolas Cairn do view the Conveniencies 
& Inconveniencies attending turning the road as prayed by 
the petitioners & report the same." 

March 23, 1779. 

Benj. Harrison, Joseph Dictam, Danl. Smith, and Jere- 
miah Reagen were appointed to view a road from Danl. 
Smith's plantation to James Magill's ford on the North River, 
and report pro and con on the same. 

Christopher Our was appointed overseer of the road from 
Danl. Smith's to the dry fork in place of Jeremiah Harrison. 

William Chesnut was appointed overseer of the road from 
Thos. Gordon's to Dry River, the tithables within 3 miles of 
the said road to work thereon. 

G. Hamilton and Jno. Rice were appointed to view the 
Brock's Gap Road that crosses Dry River and make report. 



Saml. Skidmore was appointed overseer of the road from 
Hampshire Line to Joseph Skidmore's. 

April 27, 1779. 
On favorable report of viewers previously appointed, the 
court ordered a road opened from Danl. Smith's to the ford of 
the North River, by James McGill's; Richd. Reagan was ap- 
pointed overseer of the same from Smith's to where the new 
road would cross the Butler Road; Nehemiah Harrison, from 
the Butler Road to Coll. Benja. Harrison's; William McGill, 
from Harrison's to the ford of the river: all the tithables 
within 3 miles to work on their respective portions. 

May 25, 1779. 

James McVey was appointed overseer of the road from 
Archd. Hopkins' milP to Nehemiah Harrison's. 

November 23, 1779. 

Robt. Rutherford, Michl. Warren, and James Reagan were 
appointed to view and mark the nearest and best ground for 
a road from mill at the plains to the courthouse at Thos. Har- 

Joseph Dictam, Ezekiel Harrison, and John Huston were 
appointed to view and mark the nearest and best ground for 
a road from the courthouse to George Huston's. 

Nehemiah Harrison, John Rice, and Gawen Hamilton were 
appointed to view and mark roads from Briary Branch Gap 
and Dry River Gap to the courthouse. 

Joseph Smith was made overseer of the road from Benj. 
Harrison's to Gawen Hamilton's, and John Rice of the road 
from Gawen Hamilton's to the feeding trough in the moun- 

March 27, 1780. 

Archbd. Hopkins, John Hopkins, and John Harrison were 
appointed to view the route for a road petitioned for from 
Hopkins' Mill to the courthouse. 

3. This mill was likely the one on Muddy Creek, atChrisman, now oper- 
ated by H. L. Burtner. 



March 28, 1780. 

Ab. Hankie, George Teter, and Robt. Minnis were ap- 
pointed to view and mark a road from the Augusta Hne to the 
line of Hampshire, down the No. Fork. 

Jo. Dictam, Saml. Hemphill, and William Cravens were 
appointed to view and mark a road from Ezekiel Harrison's 
to the Walnut Bottom— "the nearest and best Way." 

April 24, 1780. 

William Campbell was made overseer of the Rockfish road, 
from James Bairet's to Jacob Whitmore's, the tithables within 
two miles on each side of the road to work thereon. 

It was ordered that the tithables within four miles on each 
side of the road from the run at Robt. Rutherford's to the 
Plains Mill work under Ezekiel Harrison, overseer thereof. 

Aug. 29, 1780. 

Upon report of the viewers, it was ordered that the roads 
from Briery Branch and Dry River gaps be opened. Joseph 
Hinton was appointed overseer from the Briery Branch road 
in Collo. Smith's land to where it crosses the first fork of the 
Mole Hill draught; Alex. Miller, Jr., from the said fork to 
the courthouse. 

March 26, 1781. 

John Hopkens, Jesse Harrison [?], and Rees Thomas were 
appointed to view a road from Geo. Baxters, leading to Brock's 
Gap, to the lower end of Josiah Davison's land. 

May 28, 1781. 
On its being represented to the Court that the Court of hampshire 
have order'd persons to view the Ground from Leonard Stumps to the 
deviding Line between that County & this for a Road to lead from the 
Courtho of sd County to the Seat of Government, & praymg this Court 
to appoint viewers from this County Line to the foot of the Mountain on 
this Side in order to effect such a necessary Design, it is ordered that 
Jno Fitzwater Conrod Humble Martin Witsell & Henry Witsell or any 
three of them being first sworn do view the Ground from the County 
Line to the foot of the Mountain leading to the head waters of Cacapon or 
the Gap Waters as the Ground will best Suit and report the Conveniences 



& Inconveniences attending the making of the sd Road & in particular 
what Labour & Expense may attend the Digging bridging &c of the 

August 27, 1781. 

On the petition of the Inhabitants of Brocks that a convenient Road 
may be opened to the Courtho O that John Thomas Rees Thomas Peter 
Hog & George Spiers or any three being first sworn do view the nearest 
& best Way from the Gap to the road at Michl. Warens. 

November 27, 1781. 

Capt. James Magill was appointed overseer of the road 
from Capt. Ben. Harrison's to the county Hne, "leading to 
the Iron Works." 

O that the Tiths. from the picked Mountain on one side & two miles 
on the other side of the road work under Jacob Woodly overseer of the 
road from the forks to the big Spring. 

April 1, 1782. 

Ordered that Nicholas Karn be appointed overseer of the 
road in. the room of Ezekiel Harrison "from the Plain Mills to 
opposite Val. Seveyors old House in the Long Meadow includ- 
ing the Branch or Creek." 

May 28, 1782. 

It was ordered that Felix Gilbert, John Harrison, and 
Henry Ewin, being first sworn, should view "the Nearest and 
Best Way from the Courthouse [to] The ford of Cub run By 
Wm. Young and Mark ye Same and Make Return of their 
proceedings To Next Crt" 

May 27, 1783. 

Robt. Dunlap was appointed overseer of the road in place 
of Henry Ewin, the tithables "This Side of Gap Road" to 
work thereon ' 'As far as a Crooked Locust where Blain's Road 
Crosses the sd. Road"; and David Bery was appointed over- 
seer from Hopkins' Mill to the said locust on the said road. 

James Devier was appointed overseer to open the road 
from Harrisonburg "To Where the sd. Road Will fall Into the 
path Crossing the big Hill and That all Tithables within three 



miles on each side Work thereon"; and Felix Gilbert was 
made overseer from Cub Run to the said place on the hill. 

In June, 1784, a petition was presented to the court by 
sundry inhabitants of the county for a road from the county 
line, by Plain Mills, to Harrisonburg. Brewer Reeves, Ezekiel 
Harrison, Jeremiah Ragan, and Robert Rutherford, or any 
three of them, were appointed to view the proposed road and 
make report. At the next court, July 26, Reeves, Harrison, 
and Ragan reported that they had laid off the road as follows: 

Beginning at the county line, running thence near by 
George Ruddel's, thence near to John Moor's, thence crossing 
the river opposite Moor's house, thence to Michael Holsinger's, 
thence into the former road near John Reeves's, it was to 
continue thence with the said former road to Harrisonburg. 
Nicolas Carn was appointed overseer of the new road from the 
county line to Cam's (or Carr's) Spring. Jacob Lincoln was 
to be overseer from the said spring to Michael Warrin's, and 
Benj. Smith from Warrin's to Harrisonburg. 

At the August court, 1784, Joseph Dictum, William Fow- 
ler, and George Snodding reported that they had laid off a 
road from Harrisonburg to the line of Augusta, toward 
Staunton, as follows: 

Keeping the old [road] past Edwd. Shanklins and from thence Cross- 
ing the North River below Fowlers Still house from thence past Hugh 
Campbell and past the three Springs leads to a place called the read Banks 
near the County line. 

In an old almanac, for the year 1788, published at Phila- 
delphia or Baltimore, is found the following table of dis- 
tances on the road from Philadelphia to the Falls of the Ohio^ 


Winchester 20 miles 

Newtown 8 ' ' 

Stover's town 10 " 




Woodstock 12 miles 

Shanandoah river 15 " 

North branch 29 " 

Stanton 15 " 

North fork J. riv. 15 " 

James river 18 " 

Botetort C. H. 12 " 

A corresponding table of distances, from Winchester to 
the Falls of the Ohio, is found in "The Virginia and Farm- 
er's Almanac" for 1792, printed and published at Winchester 
by Richard Bowen. The name "Stephensburg" appears in 
Bowen's table in place of "Newtown." Bowen styles him- 
self "The North Mountain Philosopher." 

In Benjamin Banneker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land, and Virginia Almanac for 1794, printed at Baltimore, is 
a table of places and distances on the road from Baltimore to 
Knoxville, containing the following: 

Harper's Ferry to Charles-Town 12 

to Stone's Tavern 


to Winchester 


to New-Town 


to Stover's-Town 


to Woodstock 


to Newmarket 


to Harnet's 


to Keesletown 


to Ten-Mile Stage 


to Staunton 





to Miller's 12 

to Steel's Mill 6^ 

It will be observed that the route indicated in the table 
just above goes east of Harrisonburg, past Keezletown, to 
Staunton and places further on. "Harnet" was probably 
David Harnet, who is frequently mentioned in the old records 
of the county. Evidently he lived two or three miles east or 
northeast of Harrisonburg. 

As early as 1789 an Act of Assembly was passed for re- 
pairing the Swift Run Gap road. In 1809-10 an Act was 
passed to incorporate it. 

The late Capt. J. S. Harnsberger informed me that one 
of the first roads built into Rockingham County came down 
from Staunton to Port Republic, and passed thence on the 
east side of the river down to Swift Run Gap. 

Mr. Geo. F. Compton, in his chapters on the early history 
of Rockingham, says; 

From 1790 to 1800 about $3,000 was appropriated to putting the 
Swift Run Gap Road in order, and this was at that time the main road of 
the county. 

The road to which Mr. Compton refers was doubtless the 
one going eastward from Harrisonburg, through Swift Run 

A map of the Waterman lands, made in 1795 (and amended 
in 1811) shows an old "Road from Frankline to Winchester." 
It came across the Shenandoah Mountain between Tomahawk 
Mountain and Brush Ridge, and, after coming on eastward to 
or toward Little North Mountain, went down on the west 
side of Little North Mountain, through or past Brock's 
Gap. 5 

4- I am indebted to the kindness of Hon. Geo. N. Conrad, of Harris- 
burg, for the loan of the above almanacs. 

5. At the time referred to Dr. Asher Waterman of Harrisonburg 
owned 93,000 acres in what is now West Rockingham and Pendleton. I 
was allowed to examine the old map above mentioned through the kind- 
ness of Mr. A. G. Waterman, of New York, and Mr. Ed. C. Martz of 



In the Rockingham Register of October 5, 1876, I find a 
statement that in 1826, and thereabouts, the Keezletown 
Road was the principal thoroughfare of this part of the 

In 1827-8 and in 1836-7 Acts were passed by the Assembly 
authorizing the Rockingham County court to make contracts 
for repairing the Dry River Gap road. 

In 1829-30 an Act was passed to incorporate the Warm 
Springs and Harrisonburg Turnpike Company; the next year 
the Harrisonburg and Thornton's Gap Turnpike Company 
was incorporated; and in 1832-3 the powers of the court were 
enlarged for the purpose of opening roads from Harrison- 
burg to Charlottesville. 

In March, 1834. an Act was passed providing for the con- 
struction of a road from Skidmore's Fork, in Rockingham, to 
South Fork, in Pendleton. 

In the same month and year the Act was passed author- 
izing the construction of the Valley Turnpike, from Winches- 
ter to Harrisonburg; and about two years later another Act 
was passed granting a charter for the Harrisonburg and 
Staunton Turnpike. These two roads, which soon became 
one, have since become celebrated, and for two or three gen- 
erations have constituted the main highway of the Valley. 
Trotter's stages, Jackson's Foot Cavalry, and Miss Mary 
Johnston's "Long Roll," as well as the pathfinders of the 
national automobile highway, have found it good and have 
left it more famous. ^ 

In 1849 an Act of Assembly authorized the spending of 
a sum of money, not to exceed $333, for the purpose of fin- 
ishing and improving the mountain part of the road from 
Harrisonburg, through Brock's Gap, to Moorefield. 

In 1850 the Rockingham Turnpike Company was author- 
ized to build a macadamized road from some point at or 
near Stanardsville, via Swift Run Gap, to some point on the 
Valley Turnpike. The point chosen was Harrisonburg, and 

6. For more particulars concerning this road see Wayland's "German 
Element," pp. 209-212. 



the road has been an important highway across the eastern 
part of the Valley ever since. It has been out of private 
control for a number of years. 

In March, 1851, the Harrisonburg and Franklin Turnpike 
Company was incorporated. 

January 15, 1867, an act was passed authorizing the 
Warm Springs and Harrisonburg Turnpike Company to charge 
a toll of three cents on all persons walking over the bridge 
at Bridgewater. The writer well remembers the first infor- 
mation he had of this provision. It was received about 
nineteen years ago, this month or next, shortly after he had 
become a citizen of Rockingham and a resident of Bridge- 
water. But he has a shrewd suspicion that some of the older 
residents of the town have not known of it until this day. 

In the Rockingham Register of January 9, 1868, the fol- 
lowing notice appeared concerning the stage lines on the 
Valley Pike: 

The old and well-known stage line of Trotter & Bro. , in the Shenan- 
doah Valley, is now making its regular trips between Staunton and 

Winchester, twice daily, (Sundays excepted) the stages leave 

Staunton and Winchester in the morning as well as in the evening. . . . 

Jos. Andrews, Agt. 

Trotter & Bro. co-operated at Staunton with Col. M. G. 
Harman, who was also a famous master of travel. 

In February, 1868, it was announced that Trotter & Co.'s 
daylight line between Staunton and Winchester had been 
taken off, owing to a decrease in travel; and that the night 
line had been quickened. In 1870, after the railroad had 
come in from Strasburg to Harrisonburg, the Trotters were 
still operating their stages as connecting links between 
Staunton and Harrisonburg, at one end, and between Stras- 
burg and Winchester, at the other. 

In March, 1868, the editor of the Register, evidently 
having in prospect the completion of the railroad to Harrison- 
burg, advocated a wagon road from Harrisonburg to Frank- 
Hn. He says: 

We once had a charter for a road from this place to Franklin, but 



through the neglect of those interested and squabbles about routes, the 
whole thing went down, and we are yet without this necessary and 
important highway. 

At the June court, following, Peter Paul was appointed 
to confer with the authorities of Pendleton regarding the 
repairs of a road leading across the Shenandoah Mountain, 
into Pendleton, and to make report. From time to time the 
road between the two county-seats (Harrisonburg and Frank- 
lin) has been improved, and Harrisonburg has been the chief 
depot on the railroad for the citizens of Pendleton for many 
years. About 1907 the road across the mountain, for a 
distance of four miles, — from Dry River to the top of the 
Shenandoah Mountain,— was made better than ever before. 
Joseph G. Myers was surveyor. Hoover & Andes were the 
contractors. The road from bottom to top was put on a 
grade of 3| degrees; the old road at some points had a grade 
of 9 degrees. 

Attention has already been called to the fact, in Chapter 
Vni, that the great material revival in Rockingham in the 
half dozen or more years following 1865 consisted in large 
measure in the building of roads — opening new ones and im- 
proving old ones. Generally, this road-making may be ac- 
counted for as part and parcel of economic reconstruction; 
particularly, it is explained by the completion of the railroad 
to Harrisonburg in the winter of 1868-9. The coming of the 
railroad stimulated the building and improving of wagon 

In September, 1868, a new road from Port Republic to 
Harrisonburg was surveyed by Harnsberger & Kemper, who 
thus reduced the distance to 10^ miles, — Ih miles less than 
by any old road. An incident of the enterprise was the send- 
ing up of rockets one night at Harrisonburg, to enable the 
engineers to get the exact bearings of the course. But let 
no one innocently suppose that this road was or is straight. 
The Valley Pike, the Keezletown Road, the Middle Road (pass- 
ing Linville, Timberville, etc.), and other roads that run up 
and down the Valley, parallel with the ranges of mountains 



and the ridges of hills, follow courses generally direct, and 
are quite straight for considerable stretches; but the roads 
that cross the Valley, either at right angles or obliquely, are 
not straight, and cannot easily be made so. 

In July, 1869, Bonds & Mauzy began to advertise a new- 
stage line, running from Harrisonburg to Shenandoah Iron 
Works on a tri-weekly schedule. This line was opened largely 
as a result, no doubt, of the completion of the railroad to 

January 22, 1870, the Harrisonburg and Rawley Springs 
Turnpike Company organized, making Wm. H. Hamrick presi- 
dent, and David A. Heatwole'^ secretary and treasurer. The 
directors were Abram Andes, Reuben Swope, Hugh Svvope, 
John Brunk, and Maj. Thos. Shumate. The same day a road 
meeting was held at Mt. Clinton, looking toward the con- 
struction of a turnpike. The pike now connecting Mt. Clin- 
ton with Harrisonburg is a much-used road. 

In February, 1871, Robert S. Jones began building (or 
rebuilding) the bridge across North River, on the Valley Pike 
above Mt. Crawford. The flood of the preceding autumn had 
destroyed nearly all the bridges in the county. The rebuild- 
ing of others is chronicled in other connections. 

In 1871 the Virginia legislature granted a charter for a 
graded road from Rawley Springs to Bridge water; but one of 
the commissioners, writing in 1873, intimated that his board 
had failed to carry out the project for the reason, as he said, 
that they could not decide where to locate the bridges over 

7. David A. Heatwole was born in Rockingham, March 9, 1827. He 
was a man of influence and enlightened public spirit. He served a term 
as county supervisor for Central District, and frequently as assessor of 
real estate. For 25 years he was president of the West Rockingham 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company (organized 1872), and for about the same 
period was president of the Rawley Springs Turnpike Company. He en- 
couraged the young men of his community in educational and literary 
work, and was himself a writer and investigator of no mean ability. For 
further particulars see Heatwole Family History, page 200, and Hardesty's 
Encyclopedia, Rockingham edition, pp. 409, 410. He died at his home 
near Dale Enterprise, March 29, 1911. 


Ccncial \iew of Hai ris(inljur>>: (Lookintr North) 

Mr. I{. Mauzy at site of halyards' Sch< 
(Patre -.'xii) 

?infrers Glen High School 

Orphans' Home, Timbervile 
(Patjes :<!.(. .Ai) 

Ol-l I- Ik Run Church (Patre 2i;ti. 
Phiiti) hy Hammers 

^ ^i^ 



r ii 



' iff^ ""^ 


•'^•-.^'■•A ♦, 



* ■-/ 

The Blosser Hatchery, Dayton (I'm^e :!r ■.') 


Dry River. He declared that the river so often changed its 
channel that the commissioners were fearful lest any bridge 
they might erect should in time be left on dry land. 

In February, 1872, Acts of Assembly were passed incor- 
porating the Bridgewater and Mt. Crawford Turnpike Com- 
pany and the Bridgewater and Rawley Springs Turnpike Com- 
pany. Among the directors of these companies were J. W. 
F. Allemong, G. W. Berlin, and Dr. J. G. Minor. Neither of 
the turnpikes contemplated in these Acts were constructed. 

It was announced in May, 1873, that "a new and com- 
fortable coach called the Mountain Rover" had been put upon 
the stage route from Harrisonburg to Shenandoah Iron Works. 
This line of stages was still in operation the following Au- 
gust. Whether it survived the financial crash of September 
or not is not known. In July, 1874, Jos. B. Moyers was ad- 
vertising a new stage line, on a tri-weekly schedule, from 
Harrisonburg to Roadside and Newman's Cave, at the base 
of the Blue Ridge, in East Rockingham, 

One of the well-known roads of Rockingham is the "Law- 
yer Road," so called after Gabriel Jones, the famous lawyer. 
He had it cut through the woods, it is said, as a "near cut" 
to the county-seat at Harrisonburg. It begins at Bogota, the 
Jones homestead, on the river near Lynnwood, and comes 
out on the Rockingham Turnpike at Roudabush's Mill, on Cub 
Run.^ Crossing the Shenandoah Mountain, from the Feed 
Stone on Dry River, above Skidmore's Fork, is an old trail 
known as the Lawyers' Path. This is probably so called 
because the lawyers crossing from Harrisonburg to Franklin, 
and vice versa, used it. 

In June, 1878, the bridge on the Valley Pike, across North 
River above Mt. Crawford, was again being rebuilt. It, with 
a number of other bridges in the county, had been carried 
away in the great flood of the preceding November. 

In 1877-8 Judge O'Ferrall issued orders in the Rocking- 
ham County court directing the road boards of Stonewall and 

8. For interesting sketches of the Lawyer Road, see Rockingham Reg- 
ister, January 23, 1874, and May 3, 1888. 




Central districts to take charge of, repair, and keep in order 
the Rockingham Turnpike, the said road evidently having 
been abandoned by the company. 

In 1891 a bridge was being erected over the Shenandoah 
River at Island Ford, East Rockingham. 

In 1911 or 1912 that part of the Harrisonburg and Warm 
Springs Turnpike lying in Rockingham was taken over by the 

One of the unmistakable signs of progress at the present 
is to be found in the construction of fine macadamized roads, 
by co-operation of local and State forces, in various parts of 
the county. It costs money to build good roads, in Rocking- 
ham as well as elsewhere; but we are learning that they are 
a good paying investment, worth as much here as anywhere 

Referring now to the railroads in Rockingham County, 
we shall take up first those that have actually been con- 
structed, namely, (1) the one coming up the Valley on the 
west side of the Massanutten, and passing through Strasburg, 
Woodstock, Broadway, Harrisonburg, and Staunton; (2) the 
one coming up the Valley on the east side of the Massanutten, 
and passing through Shenandoah City, Elkton, Grottoes, and 
Basic City; (3) the one crossing the Valley from Elkton, 
through Harrisonburg, Dayton, and Bridgewater. Having 
spoken of these, we shall next present a few facts regarding 
certain railroads that have been projected, but not constructed, 
as yet. 

(1) "Under an Act of the Virginia Legislature, passed 
March 9, 1850, which provided for the organization of a cor- 
poration under the style of Manassas Gap Railroad Company, 
'for the purpose of making a railroad from some convenient 
point on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, through 
Manassas Gap, passing near the town of Strasburg, to the 
town of Harrisonburg, in the county of Rockingham, ' and 
subsequent Acts, construction was begun at a connection 
with the Orange & Alexandria at Manassas, and the line was 
opened from Manassas to Strasburg in 1854. As indicated 



above, the original charter of the Manassas Gap required the 
company, after crossing the mountains, to extend its hne 
down the Valley of Virginia to Harrisonburg, but the line in 
the direction of Harrisonburg was not destined to be opened 
until after the war. ' ' 

In 1858 the Manassas Gap road had already been sur- 
veyed past Broadway, to Harrisonburg; and another railroad 
had been surveyed through Brock's Gap, to connect Broad- 
way with a proposed line of the B. & 0. on the South Branch 
of the Potomac. In February, 1861, an Act of Assembly was 
passed authorizing the county of Rockingham to issue bonds 
for a sum not exceeding $100, 000, to be loaned to the Manassas 
Gap company for the purpose of completing the road to Har- 

"During the Civil War the Manassas Gap Railroad was 
entirely wrecked, its rails and rolling stock being carried 
away for use in other parts of Virginia, where they could 
better facilitate military movements. The Orange & Alex- 
andria, while it did not suffer the same fate, was, however, 
left in a condition which demanded a practical reconstruction. 
It was accordingly proposed that the two properties should be 
consolidated the better to carry out their common purpose, 
and an Act passed February 14, 1867, which recited an 
agreement negotiated between the Manassas Gap Railroad 
Company and the Orange & Alexandria Railroad Company 
for consolidation, upon condition that the Orange & Alexan- 
dria Railroad Company should reconstruct the Manassas Gap 
Railroad within two years from February 14, 1867, and 
should assume the debts of the Manassas Gap Railroad Com- 
pany, authorized such consolidation under the style of Orange, 
Alexandria & Manassas Railroad Company." 

Rockingham County took $150,000 worth of stock in the 
Manassas Gap company, which was turned into the consoli- 
dation of the 0. & A. and M. G. railroads in 1867.-' 

On December 11, 1868, the first passenger train ran into 

9- The Rockingham Register, February 28, 1867. 



Harrisonburg. 1" From that date, or shortly afterward, regu- 
lar travel and traffic began. According to a schedule of the 
0., A. & M. railroad, between Harrisonburg and Alexandria, 
advertised in the Register of October 14, 1869, passengers 
could leave Harrisonburg at 9:45 a. m., daily, except Sunday. 
Samuel Ruth was superintendent of transportation; J. B. 
Gentry, general ticket agent. 

"Under date August 20, 1873, the Washington City, Vir- 
ginia Midland & the Great Southern Railroad Company leased 
to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company the line between 
Strasburg and Harrisonburg, and the Baltimore & Ohio con- 
tinued in possession of this line under the lease referred to 
until after the reversionary interest therein had passed to 
the Southern Railway Company, when on March 1, 1896, de- 
fault was made in the payment of rental; and subsequently 
on November 30, 1896, the receivers of the Baltimore & Ohio 
surrendered the line to the Southern Railway Company, the 
successor of the Virginia Midland Railway Company which 
had acquired the property of the Washington City, Virginia 
Midland & Great Southern Railroad Company."^' 

April 4, 1866, a great meeting was held in Staunton, com- 
posed of delegates from Roanoke, Botetourt, Rockbridge, 
Augusta, Rockingham, Shenandoah, Berkeley, and Alleghany 
counties and Richmond City, to organize the Valley Railroad 
Company. Col. M. G. Harman was elected president, with 
eleven directors. ^^ 

The Valley Railroad Company was chartered in 1868, to 
construct a railroad from Harrisonburg to Salem (in Roanoke 
County ).^^ In 1872 that part of the road between Harrison- 

10. The Old Commonwealth, December 16, 1868. 

11. The paragraphs quoted are from a letter written to the author, 
October 14, 1911, by Pres. W. W. Finley, of the Southern Railway Com- 

12. Rockingham Register, April 13, 1866. 

13. From letter of Sept. 2, 1911, by C. W. Woolford, secretary, Balti- 
more, Md. 



burg and Staunton was under construction. On March 3, 
1874, the cars went from Harrisonburg to Staunton for the 
first time. '4 For short periods in 1876 and 1877 traffic was 
suspended owing to the lapsing of leases, etc. 

The present status of the road (or roads) under consid- 
eration is this: The part from Harrisonburg down the Valley, 
past Woodstock and Strasburg, is in the hands of the Southern 
Railway Company; the part from Harrisonburg up the 
Valley through Staunton, to Lexington, is in the hands of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railway Company. 

(2) In the later 60's there was in evidence much organ- 
ized agitation for the construction of a railroad through Page 
County and East Rockingham. In 1870 Hon. William Milnes 
subscribed $60,000 to the project. 

The Shenandoah Valley Railroad Company was chartered 
February 23, 1867, and the work of construction was com- 
menced during the year 1870, but was suspended in 1873, af- 
ter a considerable amount of grading had been done. 

Work was not resumed until the spring of 1879, when the 
construction of the line from Shepherdstown to Waynesboro 
was commenced. The progress was such that on December 
15th, 1879, the contractors having the work in hand were able 
to run trains from Shepherdstown to the Shenandoah River, 
a distance of 42 miles, when track laying was suspended to 
await the completion of the bridge at Riverton. The North- 
ern Division, then known as the Maryland Division, from 
Hagerstown to Shepherdstown, including the Potomac River 
Bridge, was commenced in February, 1880, and finished in 
August of 1880. In May, 1880, work was begun at Waynes- 
boro also, and track-laying was pushed northward from that 
point until the junction of the rails was effected near Luray 
in the spring of 1881. 

In tabular form the progress is indicated as follows: — 

!<• Diary of Judge James Kenney. 



Date of Schedule 



Dec. 15, 1879 

Shenandoah River. 

May 10, 1880 



August 19, 1880 



Sep. 6, 1880 


Milford— 76 miles. 

Dec. 20. 1880 



The road was accepted from the contractors in March, 
1881, and on April 18th, 1881, the first through schedule of 
trains between Hagerstown and Waynesboro was put into 

The Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad was purchased 
on February 10, 1881, and reorganized as the Norfolk and 
Western Railroad Company, by parties having a large finan- 
cial interest in the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. The exten- 
sion from Waynesboro to Roanoke was undertaken in June, 
1881, and prosecuted with such vigor that the first through 
schedule of trains between Hagerstown and Roanoke was put 
into effect on June 19th, 1882. 

The promoters of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, also 
of the Norfolk and Western Railroad, were mainly gentle- 
men of Philadelphia and Boston. Mr. Upton L. Boyce, of 
Boyce, Va., was instrumental in bringing this project to the 
attention of capitalists, and had much to do with furthering 
the construction of the road. The chief engineer during the 
construction was Mr. W. W. Coe.^^ 

(3) As early as February, 1870, perhaps earlier, a rail- 
road west from Harrisonburg, past Dayton, Bridgewater, and 
other places in that course was being agitated. In October, 
1872, the people of Harrisonburg voted a corporation sub- 
scription of $25,000 to the narrow gauge road proposed — vote 
222 for, 19 against. In June, 1873, this subscription was in- 
creased to $50,000— vote 171 for, 29 against. R. B. Osberne 
was chief engineer; P. B. Borst of Luray was president. 

15. For most of the above particulars I am indebted to the kindness of 
Supt. E. A. Blake, of the Norfolk & Western Railway Company. 


November 3, 1873, Judge Kenney wrote in his diary: 

Cloudy and warm this morning. Yesterday I walked out to where 
they have commenced work on the narrow gauge railroad. This road has 
a sounding name, the Washington, Cincinnatti & St. Louis Railroad. They 
are working about ten hands and two carts. All the capital they have is 
the subscription of $50,000 by the town of Harrisonburg. 

In August, 1874, the Register reported work on the nar- 
row gauge "entirely suspended." In November following 
it was stated through the same paper that the grading from 
Harrisonburg to Bridgewater had been completed, and that 
the whole line from Harrisonburg to Sangerville was ready 
for the ties and iron. For the next ten years the work was 
in the main suspended, except for hopeful talk on the part of 
a few individuals, and occasional digging here and there. In 
1892 the project was revived with new vigor. In 1895 the 
old narrow gauge interests were transferred to the standard 
gauge Chesapeake & Western, and on June 7 work was begun 
again at or near the point, south of Harrisonburg, where the 
Chesapeake-Western now crosses the B. & 0. The first rail 
was laid July 1. The old narrow-gauge grade, properly 
widened, was utilized at some places. 

From January to March, 1895, the sum of $150,000 was 
subscribed, mainly in Rockingham, conditioned upon the com- 
pletion of the road from Elkton to Bridgewater. Among the 
chief promoters were E. C. Machen, W. H. Rickard, J. M. 
Snell, Jacob Meserole, W. H. Ritenour, and P. W. Reherd. 
0. H. P. Cornell was chief engineer. On March 23, 1896, 
track-laying was completed between Elkton and Bridgewater; 
and on April 28 following the road was opened to traffic 
between those towns. In 1901 the contract was awarded for 
the extension of the road from Bridgewater to North River 
Gap. Its present western terminus is Stokesville, Augusta 
County. C. A. Jewett is traffic manager; C. B. Williamson 
is superintendent. These gentlemen have their offices at 

Now, a few words concerning the railroad projects that 
have not yet materialized. 



It will be recalled that in 1858 a road had been surveyed 
from Broadway, through Brock's Gap, to the South Branch. 
In 1873 a company that evidently intended to follow the same 
route in general was chartered: B. Chrisman, president; Dr. 
Cootes, Dr. Winfield, and Dr. Williams, directors. The road 
proposed (through Brock's Gap) was to have connections and 
extensions reaching from the Atlantic to the Great Lakes, 
and was to be known in its entirety as the Norfolk, Massa- 
netta, & Toledo Railway. '"^ In Feburary, 1883, John Q. Win- 
field and P. W. Pugh, of Broadway, with A. W. Kercheval 
of Romney, and others, were promoting the Toledo, Massa- 
nutta, & Petersburg Railway. 

One of the most interesting projects of the early seventies 
was the one set on foot by the North River Railroad Company, 
chartered March 21, 1872, and organized at Bridgewater Jan- 
uary 9, 1873. J. W. F. Allemong^^ was made president; D. 
A. Plecker, vice-president; R. N. Pool, general superinten- 
dent; John W. Jacobs, secretary; Dr. Harvey Kyle, treasurer. 
The directors were G. W. Berlin, J. G. Minor, T. M. Hite, 
D. A. Plecker, G. H. Dinges, J. W. F. Allemong, R. N. Pool, 
Harvey Kyle, and J. W. Jacobs. The road was to extend 
from Bridgewater to Port Republic. The charter required 
that the part from Bridgewater to Berlinton be put under 
contract within 90 days. In April the enterprise was pur- 
chased by Henry M. Clay of Kentucky, who was reported to 

16- Rockingham Register, September 19, 1873. 

7. John W. F. Allemong, born at Stephens City, Va., Sept. 5, 1828, 
son of Rev. John and Hannah Payne Allemong; married Sarah C. Hail- 
man, June 7, 1857; moved to Bridgewater, 1863, and until 1889 was one of 
the most prominent and enterprising citizens of Rockingham, being a 
merchant, bank president, director in the Bridgewater Wool Mills, Bridge- 
water Carriage Works, etc. In October, 1889, he moved to Salem, Va., 
where he took his accustomed place, as a captain of industry, till his 
death, Oct. 29, 1904. He was a member of the Methodist Church, and 
served in various responsible offices therein. He was the father of six 
children, two of whom survive him: Mrs. Ella V. Strayer, of Harrison- 
burg, and Mr. John Edwin Allemong, a prominent attorney and business 
man of Roanoke City. 



be ready and able to push it. The narrow gauge, with the 
long name, was also being boomed at Bridgewater at the 
same time. 

June 18, 1873, ground was broken at Bridgewater for the 
construction of the N. River R. R. A speech was made by 
Rev. J. S. Loose; the first shovelful of dirt was thrown by 
Adam Rader, the oldest resident of the town. In July the 
second mile was let for construction to Wm. H. Kiracofe. 
H. M. Clay, general superintendent, had bought 7 acres of 
land at the northeast end of the town, on the turnpike, and 
had laid out grounds for depot, car shed, machine shops, 
round house, etc. In August it was announced that the road 
was to extend westward to the Ohio River, But in Septem- 
ber came Black Friday. 

In March, 1872, the Harrisonburg, Bridgewater, and W. 
Augusta R. R. Co. was incorporated. The road was to begin 
at or near McGaheysville, pass thence via Harrisonburg to 
Rawley Springs, thence through or near Bridgewater to some 
convenient point on the C. & 0. Ry. 

In 1874-5 D. A. Flecker was proposing to build a narrow 
gauge railway from Mt. Crawford depot to Bridgewater. In 
1876 a bill was passed the Virginia legislature incorporating 
the Harrisonburg & Orange C. H. Ry. Co. In 1890 a railroad 
was proposed through Shendun Pass (Brown's Gap) ; a plan 
was being considered by business men of Elkton and Har- 
risonburg for connecting those towns with a railroad; a street 
railway for Harrisonburg was being considered; and the 
Harrisonburg & Western Ry. Co. was organized at Har- 
risonburg, Messrs. J. P. Houck, C. A. Sprinkel, T. A. Long, 
and Jacob Meserole being the chief promoters. 

In 1891 a railroad from Shenandoah City to Harrisonburg 
was projected; another, from Shendun to Weyer's Cave station 
(on the B. & 0.), was projected and surveyed. In 1892 
(February 16) an Act was passed incorporating the Harrison- 
burg & Bridgewater Electric Ry. Co. In 1895 a charter was 
issued to the Basic City, Bridgewater, & Western Electric 
Ry. Co. In 1901 an Act was passed incorporating the Central 



Railroad of Virginia, Messrs. Wm. H. Rickard, P. W. 
Reherd, D. C. Reherd, Herman Wise, John B. Peale, H. B. 
Miller, and A. A. Chapman being named as incorporators. 

It is of interest to notice that three periods of conspicuous 
activity in promoting and building railroads in Rockingham 
(as elsewhere) coincided with or shortly preceded the years 
1857, 1873, and 1893: years of notable economic crises. In 
1873, no less than five different roads were being projected 
or actually constructed: (1) The one from Harrisonburg to 
Staunton, opened in 1874; (2) the one through Page and East 
Rockingham, opened in 1881 (now the Norfolk & Western) ; 
(3) the narrow-gauge westward, past Bridgewater, opened 
as a standard-gauge in 1896; (4) the one from Bridgewater 
to Port Republic, still in possibility; (5) the one through 
Brock's Gap, also a possibility only, as yet. 

Just when the first telegraph line was put up in Rocking- 
ham County is not definitely knov/n; but there was one run- 
ning into Harrisonburg as early as 1863— perhaps earlier. 
N. M. Burkholder was in charge of the Harrisonburg office 
from 1863 to 1865, as appears from an original schedule before 
me. Additional lines were being constructed, or earlier lines 
were being restored or repaired, in 1872-3. In 1884 the 
Bridgewater Journal said: "If we cannot get a railroad we 
must have a telephone or telegraph connection with Harrison- 
burg. A telegraph line will cost $300. " The next year a 
telegraph line was completed between Harrisonburg and 
Bridgewater. It is needless to say that at present telegraph 
lines are maintained by all the railroads; and there is a 
Western Union office in Harrisonburg. 

No material improvement has had a more rapid develop- 
ment in Rockingham, or has done more to dissipate provin- 
cialism in the county, than the telephone systems. In Feb- 
ruary, 1893, the Valley Telephone and Telegraph Company 
was chartered by J. W. Click, C. Driver, N. W. Berry, and 
others. This company succeeded to the possession of the 
Rosenberger & Shirley lines, but was soon in competition 
with the Virginia & West Virginia Telephone Company. In. 



August, 1895, the Valley Telephone Company, centering in 
Harrisonburg, had nearly 150 'phones in operation. In 1899 
a gentleman from Illinois, widely traveled, who spent a 
couple of weeks in Rockingham, said there were more 'phones 
here than in any other section he knew. 

In 1897 the Rockingham mutual telephone system was 
organized. The same year connection by telephone was 
■established between Rockingham and Pendleton, from county- 
seat to county-seat. January 25, 1898, an Act was passed 
incorporating the Rockingham Mutual Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, naming D. B. Showalter, Chas. H. Ralston, 
J. N. Fries, C. H. Brunk, J. R. Bowman, W. J. Lineweaver, 
C. N. Strickler, C. D. Wenger, M. A. Layman, J. E. Shaver, 
J. H. Shirkey, and W. C. Switzer. In April, 1899, the Rock- 
ingham Mutual and the Valley Company were consolidated. 

In 1901 a long distance line between Harrisonburg and 
Staunton was completed. In March, 1902, an Act was passed 
incorporating the Harrisonburg Mutual Telephone Company, 
naming W. C. Switzer, John A. Switzer, S. B. Switzer, G. R. 
Eastham, and J. P. Mauzy. 

At present there are in the county the following telephone 
companies: (1) Harrisonburg Mutual, with exchanges at 
Harrisonburg, Bridgewater, and Weyer's Cave; (2) Rocking- 
ham Mutual, with exchanges at Dayton, Timberville, Mc- 
Gaheysville, and Goods Mill; (3) Plains District, with exchange 
at Broadway; (4) Swift Run, with exchange at Elkton; (5) 
Mayland, with exchange at Mayland. 



Five years ago the conclusion was reached, after an 
analytical study of numerous facts and figures, that at least 
70 per cent, of the people of Rockingham County are of 
German descent, and bear German names. ^ This conclusion 
has had rather striking confirmation in an additional experi- 
ment just carried through. Lake's Atlas of Rockingham 
County, published in 1885, contains the names of practically 
all the heads of families outside of the larger towns, then 
living in the county, geographically distributed on the 
large-scale maps of the five districts. By inspection of these 
names, and by actual count, the following tables have been 
prepared; and while no absolute accuracy can be claimed for 
the results, they are believed to be generally reliable. The 
striking coincidence is to be found in the fact that these 
figures show a German element in Rockingham of almost 
exactly 70 per cent. Moreover, if we may be certain of any- 
thing in the case it is this, that the number of people of Ger- 
man stock has not been put too high. One is constantly con- 
fronted with instances in which names originally German 
have been changed into forms that are not now recognized 
as German. For example, the county records contain entries 
in which Zimmerman is changed to Carpenter; Yager to 
Hunter; Swartz to Black; etc. In an inspection of names 
Carpenter, Hunter, and Black would not usually be counted 
as German; and many similar cases may be cited; hence the 
probability that one is apt to underestimate the number of 
German families, rather than overestimate it, from an 
inspection of the names in their present forms, 

1 See the "German Element of the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia," 
pp. 94, 95, etc. 



Races { 


By Districts. 






























































By Districts. 















































Explanation: * indicates plus; t indicates minus. 


The first table above shows the numbers of names of the 
different races or nationahties found in the different magis- 
terial districts of the county; the second table shows a corre- 
sponding distribution, stated in percentages. 

It is probable that Shenandoah County is even more largely 
of German stock than Rockingham; and it will be observed 
from the tables that the largest percentage of German names 
in Rockingham has been found in Plains District, the district 
adjacent to Shenandoah County. The strongest Irish ele- 
ment seems to be resident in Linville District; while Stone- 
wall District, lying next to Eastern Virginia, has, as one would 
naturally expect, the largest infusion of English names. 

Practically all the families and family names now found 
in Rockingham have been here for several generations, and 
most of them since the 18th century. This is particularly true 
of the German names and families. Most of these came up 
the Valley from Pennsylvania and Maryland prior to 1800. 
Very few of the recent immigrants from Germany have come 
to the Valley of Virginia. Most of the Germans that have 
located in Rockingham in recent years have been the Jews, 
who now make up an important class of tradesmen in Harri- 
sonburg. So far as known, all of these have come to the 

county since 1850. 

Incidental references, from various sources, show that 

most, if not all, the nationalities named in the above tables 
have been represented in Rockingham from early times. In 
1749 a Hollander was living in East Rockingham (see page 
47). Mrs. Carrsays that the Scherdhns, who had a vineyard 
on the hill east of Harrisonburg a century ago, were natives 
of France; Valentine Sevier, who came to Rockingham prior 
to 1750, was of French stock; and the Mauzys, who have been 
in the county more than a hundred years, are also French. 
In August, 1781, Evan Evans and Jona. Evans, with William 
Morriss, were appointed to appraise the estate of Philip Con- 
rod. The Evanses lived in East Rockingham, and evidently 
were Welsh. One of the earhest Scotch names preserved is 
that of Hugh Douglas, who received a patent for 175 acres of 


land just west of Round Hill, above Bridgewater, in 1750. 
In 1774-5 John Craig, Wm. McGill, John Eadie, Wm. Camp- 
bell, John Murry, Saml. Curry, Alex. Curry, James Laird, and 
LacHan Campbell were residents of this section, and they 
were all evidently Scotch, The name Laird is preserved 
geog-^aphically in Laird's Knob, east of Harrisonburg, and in 
the village of Penn Laird. William Ewing, a native of Glas- 
gow, father of Henry Ewing, who was many years county 
clerk came from Pennsylvania in 1742 and purchased 300 
acres of land three miles northwest of Harrisonburg. - 

As to the Irish, it might be sufficient to call attention to 
the fact that two of the original justices of Rockingham, 
Johr Grattan and John Fitzwater, were likely of Irish lineage. 
Capcains Frazier and Ragan of Revolutionary days were evi- 
dencly Irish, as were James Gillilan, Thomas Doolin, Patrick 
Guin, John Guin, Daniel Guin, Darby Ragon, and Hugh Duna- 
hoe, of the same period. In Felix Gilbert's old day-book of 
1774-5, "Irish" is written after the name of Robt. Hook. A 
good many Irishmen came into the Valley about 1857 to 1869, 
as workers on the railroads. In 1866 Michael Flinn was living 
in Harrisonburg. The schoolmaster, Hugh Tagart, had died 
there about 1840. Patrick Kelly, carder and fuller, was in 
the county in 1844. On July 12, 1894, died, at the age of 78, 
Patrick Flahavan, who had been an employee of the Valley 
Railroad ever since its construction, and had been watchman 
at the bluff south of Mt. Crawford station for nearly 20 years. 
Main Street of Harrisonburg used to be called Irish Alley. 
On February 11, 1879, Judge James Kenney wrote in his diary: 

E. J. Sullivan, Post Master at this place, died this morning in the 
B5th year of his age. He was born in Ireland. He has been postmaster 
here ever since the close of the war in 1865. 

Robert Gray, the famous lawyer, who located at Harri- 
sonburg in 1805, was a son of Erin, as were likely the Bryans, 
or O'Brians, distinguished in both earlier and latter days. 

No special catalogue of Englishmen and Germans is 

2. Memoirs of Virginia Clerks, page 346. 



attempted here. They must speak for themselves, and are 
obviously numerous enough to make themselves heard. It 
may be a matter of interest in this connection, however, to 
know that along in the later 60's and early 70's there was a 
Turn-Verein at Harrisonburg. It was organized about March 
1, 1867, with Wm. Loeb president, Jonas Loewenback treas- 
urer, and Adolph Shockman secretary. The qualifications 
for membership were good moral character and German 
extraction. Meetings were held weekly, and all proceedings 
were conducted in the German language. 

A few people in Rockingham can still speak traditional 
German — a dialect of the "Pennsylvania-Dutch"; but the 
number is becoming smaller every year. German has not 
been much used for the past fifty years, except in the home 
talk of certain families. 

In October, 1822, the Harrisonburg postmaster advertised 
a list of letters for 82 persons named. Of these, 30 had 
names that were unmistakably German; 14 were probably 
Scotch or Scotch-Irish; 3 were apparently Irish; 5 or 6 were 
likely English ; 2 or 3 were apparently Welsh ; the rest were 
of uncertain character. 

The negro race is, of course, largely represented in Rock- 
ingham County, though the proportion of negroes here is 
much smaller than in the adjacent counties east of the Blue 
Ridge. For example, the number of slaves in Rockingham in 
1840 was 1899, in a total population of 17, 344, or only about 
11 per cent. , while at the same time the number of slaves in 
che four counties of Albemarle, Orange, Madison, and Cul- 
peper made up about 57 per cent, of the whole population. 
In 1880 the total population of Rockingham was given as 
29,567. Of these, 29,368 were classed as natives, while only 
199 were classed as foreign-born. At the same time the 
whites numbered 26,137; the blacks, only 3430. 

At the November court for Rockingham County, in 1880, 
James Cochran, colored, was a member of the grand jury. 
In 1874-5 Harrisonburg had a colored policeman, Joseph T. 
Williams by name, who was also a barber. Williams had 


Tutwiler Rust. University of \'iininia Library 
I'hoto Ijy J. S. I 'at ton 


been born free, but had served four years in the Confederate 
army, as a faithful servant. He is said to be at present a 
well-to-do property owner in Washington City. 

Rockingham families are proverbially large. Many of 
them number their members by the hundred, and some by 
the thousand, if we extend the circle beyond the county into 
the States and countries whither they have gone. Looking 
through the telephone directory of the county, it appears 
that the Armentrouts, Bowmans, Clines (Klines), Garbers, 
Goods, Heatwoles, Holsingers, Longs, Millers, Myerses, 
Rhodeses, and Showalters, are most numerous. The Millers 
seem to outnumber all the rest. Family histories have been 
published by the Funks, the Kageys, the Funkhousers, the 
Heatwoles, the Shueys, the Beerys, the Wengers, the Kem- 
pers, the Koiners, and others; and genealogies of the Fences, 
Kaylors, and other families are known to be in preparation. 
In an old ledger of the Rockingham Register, covering 
the years 1857-1868, there are under the M's 118 names; and, 
of these, 34 are Millers, 8 are Myerses or Moyerses, 6 are 
Martzes. Under the N's are 20 names, 6 being Niswander 
and 4 Nicholas. There are 138 names that begin with H, 
9 being Huffman, 6 Heatwole, 6 Hopkins, and 5 Harnsberger. 
And there are 186 names that begin with S, among which 
are 14 of the Smiths, 11 of the Showalters, 9 of the Shavers, 
7 of the Sengers, and 5 of the Stricklers. 

John Detrick, who lived near Greenmount in the early 
part of the last century, had 13 children. They all grew up, 
all married, and all had grandchildren before they died. 
Thirteen may be an unlucky number in some places, but not 
in Rockingham. 

In conclusion, a few words about the longevity of Rock- 
ingham people. In February, 1841, died Henry Hammer, 
aged 88, who had been a soldier in the Indian wars and in 
the Revolution. In 1868, at Fort Lynne near Harrisonburg, 
died Martin Burkholder, aged 91; at the same place, in 1898, 
his son John Burkholder died, at the age of 89. In June, 
1874, Mrs. Katie Shepp, living in the Massanutten Mountain 



near Keezletown, reached the age of 120. Her husband had 
been a wagoner in the Revolutionary war. She, at the age of 
20, had married him in 1774. ^ In 1885 Wm. G. Thompson died 
at Timberville, aged 86 years and 7 months. February 
17, 1894, George Kiser died at Mt. Crawford, aged over 92. 
He had been born in Mt. Crawford in 1801, and had been a 
merchant, a miller, and a tanner. June 8, 1895, Elizabeth 
Funk (nee Meliza), a native of Rockingham, died in Har- 
rison County, Mo., aged 92 years, 8 months, and 14 days. 
In 1897 John R. Funk died in Harrison Co., Mo., aged nearly 
89. He had been born near Turleytown, Rockingham Co., 
Va., in 1808. 

In June, 1898, Mrs. Margaret D. Effinger, of Staunton, a 
daughter of Judge Daniel Smith, of Rockingham, revisited 
Harrisonburg, at the age of 89. In 1898 Mr. John C. Wetzel, 
who was born in McGaheysville in 1802, was still living in 
that village. One of the present hale citizens of McGaheys- 
ville is Mr. Richard Mauzy, aged 88. He was a pupil in Jos- 
eph Salyards' McGaheysville school in the later 30's. At 
Frankfort, Indiana, lives Capt. Wm. N. Jordan, a native of 
Rockingham, at the age of 92. On July 25, 1912, at the re- 
union of the Funk family in Singer's Glen, Messrs. Samuel 
Funk of Tennessee and John Funk of Virginia, two hale sons 
of Rockingham, were present; the latter aged 90, the former 
aged 93. 

3. The Old Commonwealth, July 16, 1874. 


In the following pages a sketch, largely in tabular form, 
is given of each denomination in the county. The several 
sketches are arranged in alphabetical order, according to the 
respective headings. 

Baptist Church. 

Baptist Churches in Rockingham (1912), 

1. Bridgewater: Constituted 1873; Sundayschool organ- 
ized 1878. 

2. Broadway: Constituted 1892. 

3. Harrisonburg: Constituted 1869; present church 
erected 1886. 

4. Mt. Crawford: Constituted 1841. The church origi- 
nally stood on the east side of the Valley Pike, just at the 
north end of town; the present church is located near Mt. 
Crawford Station (North River). 

5. Riverview: Near Cootes' Store; constituted 1908. 

6. Singer's Glen: Constituted 1876; present church dedi- 
cated 1888. 

7. Turleytown: Constituted 1859; present church dedi- 
cated July 12, 1885. 

The following paragraphs are copied from a valuable 
paper recently prepared by Dr. C. S. Dodd, who for several 
years past has been a zealous worker in the Baptist churches 
of northern Rockingham. 

As early as 1743 the English settlers had established a 
Baptist church at Mill Creek (now Page County), and on 
August 6, 1756, Linville and Smith Creek churches in Rock- 
ingham County were constituted. 

Linville Creek was disturbed by the Indians in 1757, and 


received such cruel treatment that many of the members fled 
to Eastern Virginia for safety; so some time elapsed before 
the remnant had service again. 

Foremost of these Baptists who came to Rockingham as 
missionaries was Elder John Koontz, whose brother had pre- 
ceded him to Rockingham a few years. He and Elder John 
Alderson, Sr., were preaching here about the same time. 
This being a new doctrine, it met with opposition from many 
quarters. Mr. Koontz was severely beaten on several occa- 
sions for preaching this faith. 

Another co-laborer was Elder Andrew Moffett, who also 
suffered for this cause as a malefactor and was committed to 
jail; nor was he the last of his family to be persecuted for 
his convictions; for Rev. John Moffitt, who fell by the hand 
of an assassin in 1892, because of his stand against the saloon 
in the city of Danville, was a relative. 

Linville Creek ordained Elder John Alderson, Jr., in 1775, 
and for two years he served the church as pastor. He then 
moved to Greenbrier County (now in W. Va, ), where he was 
destined to do a work that few men accomplished. 

Conspicuous among the Rockingham Baptists stood the 
Hfe of Elder John Ireland for being maltreated by the Estab- 
lished Church. He was sent to Culpeper Jail for preaching 
without a permit. In prison there he suffered many things. 
From. 1838 to 1842 the Baptist church throughout the South 
was torn asunder over missions. One wing, self-styled Old 
School, or Primitive Baptist, was and still is anti-missionary 
in spirit; protests against Sunday school as being without 
scriptural support, does not have any salaried ministers, etc. 
This body now separated from the church, causing much con- 
fusion and contention over church property. The other body 
was afterwards known as Regular, or Missionary, Baptists. 

When the division was made (about 1840) the Old, or 
Primitive, Baptists had churches located in this county as 
follows: one near Dayton; Linville Creek; Mt. Pleasant; and 
Runions Creek; the latter two being in Brock's Gap. At the 
time of this writing the Runion Creek Church, in Brock's 



Gap, which has a small membership, with Elder Reuben 
Strickler of Page County as pastor, is the only surviving 
church of this faith in this county. 

Rev. John E. Massie and Rev. V. L. Settle were the first 
Missionary Baptists to visit this county, and they awakened 
the missionary spirit in the remnant; and then soon Mt. 
Crawford, Linville Creek, and Turleytown churches were 
organized as Regular Baptist churches. Mr. Massie moved 
the old Linville Creek Church from near Green Hill to a far 
more convenient site, where it now stands, and for this he 
was sued in the Rockingham Court by one of the trustees. 
Mr. Massie plead his own case, and Mr. Jacob Myers, who 
was present, quotes him as saying: "I admit I moved the 
building, but I beg to state that I placed it in a more con- 
venient place where more people can and will attend services. " 
He won his case. 

Turley Town may truly be called the mother church, 
since Singers' Glen, Broadway, Cootes' Store (River View), 
also North Mill Creek and South Mill Creek, of Grant County, 
W. Va., are her offspring, and many churches in the far west 
now have in their membership those who joined Turley Town 
before leaving this state. The first fruits of the evangelical 
work of these missionaries were Timothy, Solomon, Benjamin, 
and John Funk, sons of Joseph Funk, a Mennonite layman of 
Singers' Glen. All except John were called to the ministry 
of the churches, and for many years they preached in the 
county and elsewhere. They were lovers of music and taught 
it as well as preached the Gospel. Rev. Timothy Funk for 
more than 50 years taught music and preached, going as far 
east as Orange County, Va. 

Mr. Joe K. Ruebush of Dayton has located the site of 
the Primitive Baptist Church at that place. It stood just 
out of town, toward the southwest, near the point where the 
railroad now crosses the Warm Springs Pike. 

Silas Hart, a native of Pennsylvania, high sheriff of 


Augusta in 1764, and senior justice of Rockingham in 1778, 
was a Baptist. ' 

The regular Baptist churches in Rockingham now have 
a. total membership of about 600; while there are in the 
county about 60 primitive Baptists. 

Brethren Church. 

Since about 1882 there has been an organization of the 
Brethren Church (Progressive Bunkers) in Rockingham. 
They at present have four houses of worship: One in Dayton; 
Bethlehem, a mile and a half southwest of Harrisonburg; 
Mt. Olive, near McGaheysville, and one at Arkton, east of 
Tenth Legion. 

Bethlehem was dedicated in February, 1894, by Eld. E. 
B. Shaver; John Thompson, Lee Hammer, and J. H. Hall 
being the building committee. 

Among the pioneers of this church in Rockingham were 
Eld. E. B. Shaver, of Maurertown, Va., and S. H. Bashor. 
A history of the denomination at large was published in 
1901 by Eld. H. R. Holsinger, of Lathrop, Cal. The member- 
ship in Rockingham is about 350. 

Christian Church. 

Christian Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Antioch: A mile and a half south of Greenmount; 
organized by Rev. L N. Walter about 1832; present house 
erected in 1880. 

2. Bethlehem: At Tenth Legion; admitted to confer- 
ence in 1851; original deed dated Sept. 21, 1844. 

3. Linville: Organized June 10, 1871, by Rev. D. A. 
Long; dedicated 3d Sunday of January, 1873. 

4. Concord: Organized in 1891 by Rev. E. T. Iseley; 
house built in 1893. Located 3 miles north of Tenth Legion. 

5. New Hope: Three miles southeast of Harrisonburg; 
organized in 1895 by Rev. E. T. Iseley; house built in 1896. 

1. See Waddell's Annals of Augusta, pp. 204, 238; Semple's History of 
Virginia Baptists, 1810 edition, p. 192. 



6. Bethel: Four miles northwest of Elkton; organized 
August 25, 1898, by Rev. J. W. Dofflemyre; house built in 1899. 

7. Beulah: Five miles southeast of Harrisonburg; 
organized in 1898 by Rev. W. T. Herndon; house built in 1899. 

8. Mayland: Organized in 1899 by Rev. W. T. Hern- 
don; house built in 1900. 

9. Mt. Olivet. Two miles southwest of McGaheysville; 
organized in 1899 by Rev. W. T. Herndon; house built in 1900. 

10. Island Ford: House built in 1905. 

For most of the facts embodied in the foregoing state- 
ments regarding the Christian Church in Rockingham, I am 
under obligation to Rev. A. W. Andes, of Harrisonburg. He 
has also supplied a list of ministers, which will be found in 
the Directory at the end of the volume. 

Mr. C. 0. Henton of Harrisonburg has loaned the deed 
made in 1833 at Antioch. This deed is before me. It bears 
date of May 4, 1833, and is signed by Martin Croomer, who 
made his mark. It conveys a lot containing 10,848 square feet 
of land to John Kratzer, Sr., John Higgens, Peter Paul, Mar- 
tin Burkholder, and Jacob Burkholder, Jr., trustees, for the 
use of the Christian Church and all other religious denomina- 
tions that might obtain consent of the trustees to preach 
there. The lot was bounded as follows: Beginning on the 
lands of the said Martin Croomer, near the residence of Mar- 
tin Burkholder, at a stone where there was formerly a white 
oak, corner made for the school house lot, by the said Martin 
Croomer and Molly his wife, in the year 1810, thence with 
the patent line S. 10 degrees W. 113 feet to a walnut, thence 
S. 80 degrees E. 96 feet, crossing the big road to a white 
oak, thence N. 10 degrees E. 113 feet to intersect the line of 
the school house lot, thence with the said line N. 80 degrees 
W. 96 feet to the beginning. 

The consideration was one dollar; and a building was 
already erected on the land. Daniel Bowman, Jacob Burk- 
holder, Jr., and David Lawman signed as witnesses. 

From the published minutes of the Valley Christian Con- 


ference, held in Edinburg, Shenandoah County, and Antioch, 
Rockingham County, in August, 1869, it appears that Antioch 
and Bethlehem in Rockingham were represented. 

The following items have been gleaned from the files of 
the Rockingham Register: 

In June, 1866,' a new Christian church was dedicated at 
Cedar Grove, 2h miles from Harrisonburg. This must have 
been in the vicinity of the present New Hope Christian 

In August, 1868, the Valley Christian Conference met at 
Bethlehem. John Burkholder presided; and the following 
Rockingham churches were represented: Antioch, Bethle- 
hem, and Cedar Green (Grove) . 

At the organization of the Linville Church in 1871, Rev. 
D. A Long presiding, DeWitt C. Beery was secretary, H. C. 
Beery was treasurer, and A. R. Rhinehart, John C. Williams, 
and H. C. Beery were deacons. The building committee was 
composed of Col. E. Sipe, Isaac Stone, John C. Williams, 
Harvey Simmers, John Fridley, and D. C. Rhinehart. 

In November, 1874, Eld. Benj. Seever, of the Christian 
Church, "who used to preach in this part of Rockingham 
from 1843 to 1849," visited Harrisonburg. 

On April 3, 1877, died David Ralston, aged 74, who had 
been ' 'for more than thirty years a member of the Christian 
Church at Antioch." 

On January 24, 1897, the Christian Church east of Har- 
risonburg, at Mt. Vernon school house, E. T. Iseley, pastor, 
was dedicated. This evidently refers to New Hope. 

The membership of the Christian Church in Rockingham 
at the present is about 700. 

Church of the Brethren. 

Church of the Brethren (Dunker) Church Houses in 
Rockingham (1912). 

1. Garber's: "The Old Meeting House"; two miles 
west of Harrisonburg; built about 1820; rebuilt recently. 

—248— • 


2. Linville Creek: One mile east of Broadway; house 
built in 1828 or 1830. 

3. Beaver Creek: First minister, John Brower; Martin 
Miller made elder April 5, 1855; house burned June 13, 1869; 
new church used for communion meeting Nov. 13, 1869. 

4. Mill Creek: Congregation organized in 1840, Isaac 
Long (1815-1895) and Daniel Yount being present; new house 
erected in 1860. 

5. Greenmount: Built in 1859; rebuilt 1898. In 1872 at 
Greenmount died Benj. Bowman, aged 87 years, who had 
been a minister for 50 years. 

6. Pine Grove: Two miles northeast of Linville; built 
about 1850. 

7. Plains: A union house, the Brethren having prece- 
dence on fourth Sundays; a schoolhouse as early as 1827; pres- 
ent building erected 1857. 

8. Bridge water: Built in 1878. In September, 1892, 
Eld. Solomon Garber died near Bridgewater, aged over 80. 

9. Dayton: House built in 1851 by the Lutherans, and 
used by them, the Methodists, and the United Brethren prior 
to 1861. 

10. Timberville: House completed in 1879. The first 
Dunker meetings in Timberville began about 1820 in John Zig- 
ler's barn; his brick house, built in 1832, was arranged for 

11. Mt. Ohvet: Three miles northeast of Cootes' Store. 
On Lake's map (1885) a Dunker church is shown at this point. 

12. Montezuma: Old schoolhouse, used as a church for 
a number of years. 

13. Fairview: Two miles north of Mt. Clinton. 

14. Fairview: Two miles northeast of Tenth Legion. 

15. Newdale: One mile north of Tenth Legion. 

16. Bethel: At Mayland. 

17. Cedar Run: Two miles west of Broadway. 

18. Brock's Gap: Organized in 1895. 

19. Oak Grove: Three miles west of Cootes' Store. 

20. Mt. Zion: Two miles northeast of Singer's Glen. 



21. Melrose. 

22. Mt. Pleasant: Near Peale's Cross Roads. 

23. Harrisonburg: Mission opened by Eld. P. S. Thomas 
and others about 1900; church built in 1907. 

24. Hinton Grove: Formerly Trinity; present church 
built at Hinton about 1900. 

25. Rawley Springs. 

26. Briery Branch. 

27. Bridge water College Chapel: In use since 1884. 

28. Pleasant Run: Near Pleasant Valley. 

29. Sunnyside: Two miles west of Port Republic. 

The Brush Meeting House was erected in 1843, west of 
Broadway, and an old church used to stand near Ft. Hoover. 

On May 10, 1798, Martin Carver, certifying a marriage 
he had performed, subscribed himself as "Minister of the 
Duch Babtist Susiety." 

In 1875 it was stated in the Register that there were at 
that time 35 Dunker ministers in Rockingham County. 

Among the leaders of the church in Rockingham, not 
already named, may be mentioned Peter Nead (1795-1877), 
John Kline (1800-1864), Samuel H. Myers (1832-1897), and 
Daniel Hays (1839). 

The anti-slavery and anti-war principles of the Dunkers 
are well known, and they, with the Mennonites, suffered not 
a little in Rockingham during the civil war by arrest, im- 
prisonment, etc. 

The establishment of a school in 1880, now well known as 
Bridgewater College, has done much to give efficiency and 
distinction to the work of the Brethren in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia and adjacent sections. The membership of the church 
in Rockingham totals about 2500. ^ 

3. For more particulars regarding the Church of the Brethren, the 
reader is referred to the following publications: Howard Miller's Record 
of the Faithful; Wayland and Garber's Bridgewater College, Past and 
Present; Hays and Sanger's Olive Branch; D. H. Zigler's History of the 
Brethren in Virginia; Two Centuries of the Church of the Brethren, 
Chapter II. 



Church of Christ. 

There are two church houses of the Church of Christ in 
Rockingham, one on E. Market Street, in Harrisonburg, the 
other in Dayton. 

In July, 1871, a Christian church was organized 'in Day- 
ton, with 16 members, by Rev. D. A. Long. What the con- 
nection is between this organization and the present Church 
of Christ in Dayton is not known. The present church was 
dedicated July 15, 1883. '^ 

The church in Harrisonburg has been opened more re- 
cently. The pastor of both churches is Rev. Geo. C. Minor, 
who lives in Harrisonburg, and who is an active worker in all 
departments of religious activity. One of the pioneer work- 
ers in Rockingham, as well as in Shenandoah and other coun- 
ties in Virginia, was Rev. J. D. Hamaker, who is still an active 
leader. His home is in Strasburg. 

There are members of the Church of Christ at Lacey 
Springs, Keezletown, Elkton, and other places in the county, 
as well as in Harrisonburg and Dayton, the total number 
being about 150. 

Episcopal Church. 

Rockingham Parish in Virginia was organized some years 
prior to the breaking out of the American Revolution in 1776; 
the exact year is not known, and up to that time was under 
the charge of the Rev. Mr. Balmaine, with two houses of 
worship, one at Dayton, and the other close to the present 
Union Church near Cross Keys. 

During the long weary years of that memorable struggle 
for American independence the parish seems to have declined, 
and after the close of the war both of the above mentioned 
houses of worship were neglected and allowed to go to ruin, 
and for more than sixty years there is no record of any reg- 
ularly organized religious work being done in the parish by 

3- It is assumed that the church dedicated in Dayton, July 15, 1883, 
by the Disciples of Christ was the same as that now known as the Church 
of Christ. 



Episcopalians, although it is very probable that occasional 
services were held at or near Port Republic. 

In 1850 an effort was made to revive the parish, and the 
Rev. James B. Goodwyn was placed in charge as minister; and 
after him the Rev. John C. Wheat, Vice-Principal of the Vir- 
ginia Female Institute at Staunton, Va., preached regularly 
in the parish at great cost of labor and inconvenience to 

In 1865, after the close of the Civil War, the parish was 
re-organized at Port Republic, Va., with the Rev. John C. 
Wheat still serving as minister, and on March 8, 1866, a meet- 
ing of the members of the parish and other contributors was 
held in Harrisonburg with Mr. John F. Lewis, one of the old 
vestry of Rockingham parish, presiding; when the following 
named gentlemen were elected as vestrymen; General Sam- 
uel H. Lewis, John F. Lewis, Samuel H. Lewis, Jr., Andrew 
Lewis, John R. Jones, Wm. H. Effinger, Frank Boylan, 
Joshua Wilton, Foxhall A. Dangerfield, Algernon S. Gray, 
Dr. George W. Kemper, Jr., and Edward H. Stevens. John 
F. Lewis of Port Republic and Andrew Lewis of Harrison- 
burg were elected wardens, and Wm. H. Effinger secretary 
and treasurer. At this meeting the resignation of Rev. John 
C. Wheat was accepted, and a resolution of thanks for his 
untiring efforts and Christian zeal in behalf of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church here was passed and directed to be com- 
municated by the secretary to Mr. Wheat. The next busi- 
ness in order being the choice of a rector, the Rev. Henry A. 
Wise (son of Henry A. Wise, ex-governor of Virginia) was 
called, and a notice in due form, signed by the wardens, was 
directed to be sent to the Bishop of the Diocese. Mr. Wise 
accepted the call and was duly installed as rector, holding 
services on alternate Sundays in Harrisonburg and Port 
Republic, the services in Harrisonburg being held in the 
second story of a frane building on Main Street just north of 
what was then known as the Old School Presbyterian Church. 
This frame building was then owned by Mr. Samuel Shack- 
lett, the lower floor being used as a wareroom. The upper 



story was called Shacklett's Hall, where services were held 
once a month on Sunday afternoons by the Old School 

In May, 1867, Mr. Wise resigned to become rector of 
Christ's Church, Baltimore, and the following October the 
Rev. Thomas Underwood Dudley, Jr. Deacon, afterwards 
Bishop of Kentucky, was sent by the Right Rev. John Johns, 
Bishop of the Diocese of Virginia, to minister during his 
diaconate. From October 1 to December 1, 1867, services 
were held on alternate Sundays by Mr. Dudley at the points 
where Mr. Wise, his predecessor, had previously officiated, 
till, owing to the severity of the weather, the services at 
Port Republic were discontinued and then held twice each 
Sunday at Harrisonburg, the vestry having in the meantime 
rented at $15.00 per month the brick church on North Main 
street formerly owned and used by the New School Presby- 
terians -(Rev. T. D. Bell, Pastor). This church stood on the 
ground now occupied by the Post Office and U. S. Court 

In March, 1868, a vacant lot on the northeast corner of 
Main and Bruce streets was purchased from Dr. Geo. K. 
Gilmer for one thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting 
thereon Emmanuel Protestant Episcopal Church. 

In February, 1868, Rev. Dudley, at the request of the 
vestry, started on a tour through some of the Northern States 
soliciting funds for the new church building, and succeeded 
in procuring about $3500. At the same time subscription 
papers were circulated in the town and throughout the parish, 
by which means about $1500 was promised, and the ladies of 
the parish, ever ready and at all times doing their part and 
doing it well, had already raised some eight hundred dollars. 
With these several sums of money in hand and promised, the 
rector and vestry undertook to build the church, and on the 
24th of June, 1868, the corner stone was laid with appropriate 
Masonic ceremonies by Rockingham Union Lodge No. 27 A. 
F. and A. M., Mr. Joseph T. Logan acting as Grand Master, 
on which occasion an appropriate and eloquent address was 



delivered by the Rev. James D. McCabe, D.D. On the same 
day the ladies of the congregation held a dinner and fair in 
the basement of the Methodist church on German Street, 
from which they realized the handsome sum of six hundred 

Mr. Dudley having tendered his resignation, preached his 
last sermon on the last Sunday night in December, 1868, 
using the same text from which his first sermon was taken, 
viz: "Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish"; and to 
the very great regret of his people removed to Baltimore, 
where he assumed charge as rector of Christ's Church in that 
city, as the successor to Rev. Henry A. Wise, deceased. 

On the first Sunday in 1869, the Rev. John Cosby, having 
accepted the call of the vestry, preached his first sermon in 
the New School Presbyterian Church, and on February 7, 
1869, he began to hold regular services in the basement of the 
new church and continued to use that room as a chapel until 
August 1, 1869, when the first service was held upstairs in 
the church proper. 

The foregoing paragraphs have been copied from a valu- 
able paper, recently prepared, on the Episcopal Church in 
Rockingham, by Mr. J. Wilton, of Harrisonburg. The rec- 
tors at Harrisonburg since 1869, as recorded by Mr. Wilton, 
are the following: 

Alexander W. Waddell, 1870-1875. 

David Barr, 1875-1879. 

T. Jervis Edwards, 1879-1881. 

0. S. Bunting, 1881-1889. 

W. T. Roberts, 1889-1892. 

0. M. Yerger, 1893-1899. 

W. J. Morton, 1900-1902. 

Robert U. Brooking, 1903-1908. 

Dallas Tucker, 1908-1909. 

John L. Jackson, 1910 — 

Mr. Wilton refers to the old chapel at Dayton. On May 
6, 1911, Mr. Joe K. Ruebush pointed out to me the site form- 
erly occupied by this chapel, agreeing with the following, 



copied from a letter written September 10, 1912, by Capt. J. 
A. Herring: 

"My grandmother and grand-aunt told me a great deal 
about the history and people of the early days. [The Herrings 
were among the pioneers in the Dayton section.] There was 
an Episcopal chapel near the north end of the graveyard 
[north side of Dayton]. Under the English rule it was the 
established church. Parson Bellmain ministered to the people 
there. When the war of the Revolution came on he went as 
a chaplain to the army, and never returned. The old people 
said there was never any Episcopal service there after he 
left. I can remember the old building, but it was removed 
long ago." 

In East Rockingham at present there are at least four 
Episcopal churches or chapels: Sandy Bottom, St. Stephens, 
Rocky Bar, and Grace Memorial. These are in charge of the 
Rev. J. R. Ellis, who is also doing a splendid work in the 
adjacent sections of the Blue Ridge in connection with mis- 
sion schools. Mr. Ellis informs me that the services of the 
church in this section of the county have been kept up con- 
nectedly since colonial times. 

A short distance southwest of Port Republic, on a beauti- 
ful situation overlooking the river plain and valley bordered 
with mountains, is Madison Hall, the birthplace of James 
Madison, first Episcopal bishop of Virginia. His father was 
John Madison, cousin of President Madison, and first clerk of 
Augusta County. His mother was a Miss Strother, whose 
sisters married Thomas Lewis and Gabriel Jones. He was 
born August 27, 1749, at Port Republic, and died March 5, 
1812, at Williamsburg. He graduated at William and Mary 
in 1772; studied law; was admitted to the bar, but soon turned 
to theology and teaching. From 1777 to 1812— for 35 years- 
he was president of William and Mary College. He had at 
least three brothers, Thomas, Rowland, and George. 
Thomas, born in 1746, was a captain, and married Susanna, 



youngest sister of Patrick Henry. George was a governor 
of Kentucky.^ 

The membership of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
Rockingham in 1906 was reported as 163. 

Jewish Church. 

The first Jewish famihes that settled permanently in 
Rockingham County emigrated from Austria in 1859. Among 
them were Messrs, Leopold Wise and Herman Heller, who 
settled in Harrisonburg; Samuel Loewner, who settled in 
Dayton; and Jonas Heller, who located in Mt. Crawford. 

There may have been Jewish settlers previous to those 
mentioned above, as the early court records of Rockingham 
County disclose a certain transaction in which it is expressly 
mentioned that one of the parties thereto was a Jew; but as 
to when and where they may have settled, we have no 

When the civil war broke out, Messrs. Albert and Her- 
man Wise, Emanuel Lowner and Jonas Heller enlisted in the 
Confederate army, serving under General Jackson. After 
the close of the civil war the Jewish community was increased 
by a number of emigrants from Germany and Austria, among 
whom were Messrs. B. Ney and Joseph Ney, Simon Oes- 
treicher, and William Loeb. 

These few families met from time to time at the resi- 
dence of Leopold Wise on W. Market Street for divine 
services, which were conducted by Samuel Lowner, Adolph 
Wise, and Simon Oestreicher in accordance with the orthodox 
ritual. Later the Jewish community organized itself under 
the name of the Hebrew Friendship Congregation of Harri- 
sonburg, bought ground for a cemetery, and rented a room 
in the Liskey building, on W. Market Street, which was used 

4- On Bishop Madison, Madison Hall, etc., see: Appleton's Cyclopedia 
of American Biography, Vol. 4; Tyler's Williamsburg; Waddell's Annals 
of Augusta, pp. 112, 113; Cartmell's Shenandoah Valley Pioneers, p. 446; 
Thwaites and Kellogg's Dunmore's War, p. 280; Virginia Magazine of 
History and Biography, Vol. 13, p. 360. 


Bishop James Madison (Page 255) 

From oil portrait in rooms of Virginia Historical Society, 

Photo by Cook 


for a temporary place of worship as well as a Sunday school 
for the young. 

As the Congregation grew in numbers and became more 
prosperous, more desirable quarters were secured in the 
Sibert building on Main Street, the ladies began to take an 
active interest in the congregation by organizing themselves 
into an Auxiliary Society, and helping to establish a perma- 
nent choir, with the result that the services became more 
impressive and modern in spirit. The first class was con- 
firmed by Major Hart of Staunton, in the new place of wor- 

Thus were continued the activities of the Congregation 
for two decades, Messrs. Samuel Loewner, Adolph Wise, 
and Simon Oestreicher devoting their time and energy to 
promote the spiritual welfare of the Congregation. 

In 1890 the Congregation began devising w^ays and means 
to erect a permanent House of Worship, and with that end 
in view, a lot was purchased on North Main Street, and a 
building committee was appointed, with Mr. B. Ney as 

The members were enthusiastic over the new undertak- 
ing, and through the indefatigable labors of the building 
committee, in conjunction with all the members of the con- 
gregation, and the Ladies' Auxiliary Society, funds were re- 
alized from the proceeds of a fair given in Harrisonburg, to 
which the people of the different denominations responded 
liberally. Additional funds were raised by soliciting some of 
the prominent Jewish congregations of the East for contribu- 
tions to the worthy cause. When, in 1892, the Temple was 
dedicated by Dr. Shoanfarber of Baltimore, it was free and 
clear of debt. It was a gala occasion for the Jewish com- 
munity of Harrisonburg; the dedicatory services were at- 
tended by the Jewish people of Staunton and Charlottesville, 
and many of the prominent people of Harrisonburg partici- 
pated in the festivities. 

The new Temple stimulated a keener interest in congre- 
gational life, yet the community was not large enough to be 




able to procure the services of a Rabbi; so Messrs. Adolph 
Wise and Simon Oestreicher continued to minister to the 
spiritual needs of the congregation, and it is principally due 
to the untiring efforts of these two gentlemen that the con- 
gregation continued its spiritual activities. 

In 1910 the congregation deemed it advisable to procure 
the services of a Rabbi; accordingly Rev. J. Schvanenfeld of 
Baltimore was unanimously elected, and since then the congre- 
gation has started on its new career. 

The religious status of the congregation had remained 
unchanged during four decades, from the time of its organ- 
ization; but in pursuance of the Rabbi's advice, the ritual 
used by all modern American Hebrew congregations was in- 
troduced; a new constitution and by-laws, similar to those in 
vogue in the prominent American congregations, were 
adopted. The entire congregational machinery was reorgan- 
ized with the result that the religious life of the congregation 
has been reawakened. The congregation is conducted by a 
Board of Managers consisting of Messrs. Adolph Wise, Presi- 
dent; Simon Oestreicher, Vice-President; Joseph Ney, Treas- 
urer; V. R. Slater, Secretary; B. Ney, Bernard Bloom, Abra- 
ham Miller, Charles Loewener, and Herman Wise, The 
President appoints the various committees to look after the 
material welfare of the congregation; the Rabbi looks after 
the spiritual welfare of the congregation by conducting 
services on Sabbaths and hohdays; preaching to the old, and 
teaching the young. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary Society is also active in com- 
mendable work by having a standing committee to look after 
the poor and the stranger, to whom financial aid and advice 
are given irrespective of race or creed. The Auxiliary also 
proves its usefulness in decorating the Temple on special 
occasions and providing the Sunday school children with en- 

The foregoing excellent account of the Jews in Rocking- 
ham was prepared for this work by Rabbi J. Schvanenfeld. 

In 1877-8 Rabbi Sterne was with the congregation in 

—258 - 


Harrisonburg; and in 1883 Rabbi M. Strauss was called to 
conduct weekly services and teach a school. Neither of these 
remained long. 

In 1906 the U. S. Census Bureau reported 20 Jews, heads 
of families, in Rockingham; and in 1910 a religious census of 
Harrisonburg showed a membership of 87 in the Jewish 

Lutheran Church. 

Lutheran Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Rader's: Near Timberville; organized, by Lutherans 
and Reformed, as early as 1762; log house replaced in 1806; 
present church built in 1878-9; in hands of Lutherans since 

On May 20, 1765, Adam Reider and Alex. Painter deeded 
3 acres of land for a church to Peter Scholl, in behalf of the 
Presbyterian church, and to Michael Neice, in behalf of the 
Lutheran church. Abram Bird was witness. "Presbyterian" 
in this case is doubtless "Reformed." In 1872 an Act of 
Assembly was passed making the above deed valid to the 
Lutherans and Reformed. 

2. Friedens: Organized perhaps as early as 1748; still 
held jointly by the Lutherans and Reformed; the Dinkles, 
Shanks, Wises, and Hoffmans were among the organizers. 

3. McGaheysville: Peaked Mountain Church, built in 
1769, and held jointly by the Lutherans and Reformed, stood 
at or near the site now occupied by the old union church. 
The latter is said to have been built about 1800 by Nicholas 
Leap, and to have been dedicated May 25, 1804, by Christian 
Streit and John Brown; used only by the Lutherans since 

4. St. Peter's: Four miles north of Elkton; perhaps 
called in early times Lower Peaked Mountian Church; dedi- 
cated in June, 1777; remodeled in 1910. 

5. Spader's: Near Pleasant Valley; an old church. 

6. St. John's: Near Singer's Glen; present house dedi- 
cated in 1887. 



7. Harrisonburg: Built before the civil war; used as 
hospital, barracks, etc., during the war; rededicated in 1868: 
services conducted by Rev. J. I. Miller, assisted by Revs. 
Snyder, Holland, McClanahan, and Keller, of the Lutheran 
Church; A. P. Boude, of the Methodist Churh; and S. Funk, 
of the Baptist Church: Rev. G. W. Holland installed as 

8. Bridge water: Dates back to 1866 or before; present 
house dedicated in 1881. 

9. Trinity: East of Melrose. 

10. Edom: In 1871, a new church, replacing an old one, 
was dedicated at Edom for the use of the Lutherans, South- 
ern Methodists, and Presbyterians. 

11. St. Paul: Two miles north of Tenth Legion. 

In 1851 the Lutherans built the church in Dayton now 
owned by the Church of the Brethren. In Lake's Atlas (1885) 
a Lutheran church is located on the Back Road, three miles 
northeast of Cootes' Store. In the same atlas an "Old Dutch 
Church" is located at Paulington. This may have been 

In 1891 Rev. J. P. Stirewalt organized a Lutheran con- 
gregation, 37 communicants, near Hupp P. 0. This is identi- 
fied with St. Paul. 

Many of the oldest settlers of Rockingham were Luther- 
ans or Reformed, and a number of the first churches were 
held jointly by these two denominations. 

Rev. Geo. S. Klug (see pp. 46, 47) was perhaps the first 
Lutheran preacher to labor in vv^hat is now Rockingham 
County. Rev. Paul Henkel (1754-1825) doubtless did much 
work in Rockingham. The Henkel (Lutheran) Press, estab- 
lished at New Market, so near to Rockingham, in 1806, has 
had a potent and wide influence. 

The eminent Joseph A. Seiss, born in Maryland, preached 
for a year or so in Rockingham about 1842. Two young men 
who heard him at Friedens and Cross Keys (Union Church) 
were Peter and Joseph I. Miller, vv^ho were born near Mt. 
Crawford Depot (as nov/ named), the former September 18, 



1828, the latter June 2, 1831. Both, having conquered hard 
fortune in securing an education, entered the ministry in 
1858. Both became distinguished as educators and preachers. 
Rev. J, I. Miller served churches in Clear Spring, Md., Shep- 
herdstown, W. Va., Staunton, and elsewhere. He was the 
pioneer in the field of higher education for women in the 
Lutheran Church in the South; founded and conducted schools 
for women at Staunton, Luray, and Buena Vista. He died 
February 26, 1912, full of years and honors. His brother, 
Rev. Peter Miller, having been a teacher and preacher for 
more than fifty years, is still about his Father's business 
among his people at Rio, W. Va. 

The eminent Dr. C. Armand Miller, now of Charleston, 
S. C, is a son of Rev. J. I. Miller. 

The Lutherans in Rockingham number between 600 and 

Mennonite Church. 

Mennonite Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Trissel's: Four miles west of Broadway; first house 
built in 1822; first ministers, Henry Rhodes, Henry Funk, 
Henry Shank. 

2. Pike: First known as Moyers's; located two miles 
east of Dayton; house built in 1825; first ministers, Fred. 
Rhodes and Abram Nisewander. 

3. Brenneman's: Two miles west of Edom; built 1826; 
first ministers, Michael Kaufl'man and Samuel Shank. 

4. Weaver's: Two miles west of Harrisonburg; built 
in 1827; first called Burkholder's; first ministers, Peter Burk- 
holder, Martin Burkholder, and Samuel Cotfman. 

5. Bank: One mile north of Rushville; first ministers, 
David Rhodes and John Weaver. 

5. In February and March. 1895. and February and March, 1897, ar- 
ticles appeared in the Rockingham Register dealing with the early history 
of Friedens Church. The published address of Gen. J. E. Roller, made 
October 25, 1897, at Hagerstown, Md., also presents interesting matter 
concerning it. The Shenandoah Valley, New Market, Vti. , of January 
2. 1908, gives an account of St. John's Lutheran Church. 



6. Mt. Clinton: One mile west of Mt. Clinton; house 
built in 1874; first ministers, David Showalter, Jacob Driver, 
Jos. N. Driver. 

7. Zion: Near Daphna Station; house built in 1885; 
first minister, Samuel Shank. 

8. Lindale: Near Edom; house built in 1899; first min- 
ister, Henry Wenger. 

9. White Hall: House built in 1875. 

Services are also conducted at Newdale, Dry River, 
Peak Schoolhouse, and Gospel Hill. The total membership 
in the county is about 600. 

There were probably three Mennonites at Massanutten 
as early as 1730 (see pp. 36, 37). One of the three, Michael 
Kauff man, is likely the man who, as a minister of that name^ 
settled later on Linville Creek, In 1748 the Moravian mis- 
sionaries found a number of Mennonites at Massanutten (see 
page 47). The Mennonites were among the earliest settlers, 
therefore, in what are now Rockingham and Page counties. 

Up to about 1840 the Mennonite preaching and singing 
were exclusively in the German language. In or about 1816 
Joseph Funk, of Mountain Valley (now Singer's Glen), a 
Mennonite, published a music book in German, entitled, 
"Choral-Music." It was printed in Harrisonburg, and 
was doubtless one of the first music books printed in Virginia. 
In 1832 Funk sent out the first edition of "Genuine Church 
Music," later famous under the title "Harmonia Sacra." In 
1847 he opened at Mountain Valley what is said to have been 
the first Mennonite printing house in America. Ten years 
earlier he, with Peter Burkholder, had published a large 
volume on Mennonite history and doctrine. 

Although not many of the early Mennonites in Rocking- 
ham favored higher education, it is an interesting fact that 
provision was made from the beginning at Brenneman's and 
Weaver's for the erection of a schoolhouse on the church lot. 

In the Mennonite Church, as in all other churches, there 
have been occasional differences of opinion that have resulted 
in separate organizations. In Rockingham, about ten years 



ago, a part of the Mennonite church perfected a separate 
organization, and erected a church a short distance southeast 
of Rushville. This church is called Pleasant View, and 
represents what may be termed the Old Order. The house 
was built in 1902-3, and the membership numbers 90 or 100." 

Methodist Church. 

Methodist Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Harrisonburg: Organized as early as 1788; church lot 
donated by Robert and Reuben Harrison in 1789; first church 
finished in 1794. The Methodist Mission at the north side of 
Harrisonburg was established in April, 1899. 

2. Bridgewater: Organized prior to 1866, since a Meth- 
odist church was in Bridgewater in that year. 

3. Dayton: Present church opened April, 1899; the or- 
ganization ante-dates the civil war. 

4. Clover Hill: Church dedicated in November, 1886. 

5. Spring Creek: Church dedicated June 14, 1885. 

6. Rushville: Present church dedicated in December, 
1896. The first church there was likely erected about 1858, 
since on March 3, 1858, an Act of Assembly was passed 
authorizing the trustees of Gospel Hill meeting house, on 
Muddy Creek (now Mt. Clinton), to sell the church for the 
benefit of the M. E. church to be erected within the Rushville 

Churches 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 constitute the Bridgewater 

7. Mt. Crawford: Date of organization unknown. There 
was a union (or free) church in Mt. Crawford as early as 1835. 

8. Fair view: Two miles southeast of Mt. Crawford. 
Churches 7 and 8 compose the Mt. Crawford Circuit. 

5. For more particulars concerning the Mennonites in Virginia and 
elsewhere, the reader is referred to the following: A History of the 
Mennonite Conference of Virginia and its Work, by L. J. Heatwole, C. 
H. Brunk, and Christian Good; Hartzler and Kauffman's Mennonite 
Church History; C. H. Smith's Mennonites of America; the Rockingham 
Register, June 14, 1895, etc. 



9. Keezletown: A new Methodist church was being 
erected at Keezletown in 1869. In November, 1883, a Meth- 
odist church, likely the present one, was dedicated. 

10. McGaheysville: It is said that a Mr. Bader built a 
Methodist church in McGaheysville in 1835. 

11. Fellowship: Three miles east of Linville. 

12. Linville: Church dedicated in September, 1890. 

13. Edom. 

Churches 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 make up the Rockingham 

14. Elkton: Said to date back to 1821, when Conrad 
Harnsberger and Col. Miller donated 4 acres of land for church 
site and cemetery, and Wm. Monger hewed the logs and built 
the church. This house was evidently the same as the famous 
old Elk Run Church, which stood until recently opposite (north 
of) Cover's tannery. 

15. Mt. Hermon: Two miles west of Elkton; corner 
stone laid September 22, 1893. 

16. Mt. Pleasant: Two miles east of Elkton. 
Churches 14, 15, and 16 form the Elkton Circuit. 

17. Port Repubhc: Date of organization unknown. As 
early as 1835 there was a union (free) church in Port Re- 

18. Grottoes. 

19. Timber Ridge: Three miles northwest of Port Re- 

Churches 17, 18, and 19 constitute the Port Republic 

20. Broadway: Church dedicated in October, 1881. 

21. Lacey Springs. 

22. Glass's Church. 

Churches 20, 21, and 22 belong to the New Market (Shen- 
andoah County) Circuit. 

23. Furnace: Four miles northeast of Elkton. 
Church 23 belongs to the Shenandoah City (Page County) 


In the Rockingham Register of January 5, 1866, appeared 



the statement that Long's school house, which stood on land 
in the southern part of Rockingham belonging to the heirs of 
Ephraim Whitmer, and which had been erected some 50 years 
before (to wit, about 1816), had been used in early days as a 
church by the Methodists; later, by the United Brethren. 

In 1872 the Baltimore Conference, M. E. Church, South, 
made appointments to the following charges in Rockingham 
County: Harrisonburg, Bridgewater, Rockingham, E. Rock- 
ingham, and Rockingham Mission. 

In the latest available census reports, the membership of 
the M. E, Church, South, in Rockingham County is given as 

The first Methodist church in Harrisonburg, which was 
also the first in the county, so far as known, stood on the hill 
west of the county court house, on the site nov/ occupied by 
the Church of the Brethren. In this house the school estab- 
lished in 1794 under the direction of Bishop Asbury, noticed 
more fully in Chapter XV, was conducted. The divisions, etc. , 
incident upon the civil war caused certain changes in organ- 
ization, and the natural course of circumstances has brought 
about various changes in the construction and location of 
church houses. At present the Harrisonburg Methodists are 
just completing a splendid brown-stone church on the west 
corner of Main and Bruce streets. When the cornerstone of 
this structure was laid, September 1, 1911, Rev. H. H. Sher- 
man, pastor, read an extended and interesting paper on the his- 
tory of Methodism in Harrisonburg, which paper was published 
in full at the time by the local press. 

On September 17, 1821, a meeting was held by the official 
members of the Methodist Church in the Rockingham Circuit, 
at which the following resolutions were passed: 

Resolved that it Shall be the farther duty of the Same Committee 
[Peachey Harrison, Joseph Cravens, Geo. W. Harrison, Reuben Har- 
rison, and Gerard Morgan] to prepare a petition to the next General As- 
sembly of this State praying that Body to pass a law for the better pro- 
tection of Camp meetings and that G. W. Harrison be the Chairman 
Jos. Cravens, LOUIS R. FECHTIG, 

Clerk. Presiding Elder. 



The campmeetings at Taylor's Springs and other places 
had been much disturbed by disorder, the sale of liquor, etc. 
On February 19, 1822, the committee reported to the quarterly 
conference that a memorial had been prepared and forwarded 
to the legislature. 

Says Mrs. Carr: 

The camp meeting was one of the great features at that time. It was 
looked forward to with even greater pleasure than general muster day. 
Everybody that could raise money enough to get materials for a tent was 
sure to be there with their families. A good many would go if they had 
to stint themselves for months. For many years it was held on Taylor 
Spring grounds. The water was so good and healthy that many people 
stayed there all summer to drink the water. George W. Harrison had 
a nice two-story frame house on the corner of the campground. Those 
that did not have a tent would go out in the morning to stay all day, and 
take their lunch along. 

From 1815 to 1820, as the old minute book shows, the 
quarterly conferences for Rockingham Circuit of the Meth- 
odist Church were concerned frequently with the question of 
slavery. According to the rules of the church and a prevail- 
ing sentiment, there were persistent efforts to secure the 
gradual emancipation of slaves belonging to members of the 
church; and there was evidently a marked disposition on the 
part of the Rockingham Methodists to make a test on this 
point with persons applying for membership. About 1816 
an elaborate memorial was draw up, addressed to the Gen- 
eral Conference in Baltimore, deploring the existence of 
slavery among members of the church, together with the 
fact that the General Conference had authorized the Annual 
Conferences "to make whatever regulations they Judged 
proper respecting the admission of persons to official stations 
in our Church!" The memorial concludes: 

Therefore we most ardently desire that the General Conference 
would adopt some plan that would enable us to look forward to the day 
when this great evil shall be removed and the Methodist Church shall 
become the Glory of all the Churches; If nothing better should be thought 
of. Permit us, to suggest the following plan; That no person shall be 
admitted to official stations in our Church, Who holds Slaves, without 
emancipating them when the Laws of the State shall admit of Emanci- 



pation, and in case they cannot Emancipate them in the State where 
they may live, to give the Slave the offer of liberty by going to some of 
the States that w^ill receive and protect free people of Colour, w^henever 
he or she may choose to go, — 

And that all persons coming forward to Join our societies, holding 
Slaves, shall be informed, that we will take them on trial for Twelve 
Months, and offer them every information in our power, on the Subject— 
And if they will submit to the same plan of Emancipation as in the case 
of Official Members, we will consider them Acceptable Members, of Our 
Church; But if not, they can have no place among us— 

And also that the General Conference, Strongly recommend to all 
our members, conscienciously to avoid Hiring Slaves, in all cases where 
it can be dispensed with, as this practice tends Indirectly to incourage 
that sin which we long to be delivered from. 

Another interesting incident connected with the history 
of Methodism in Rockingham was the formation of the 
Armenian Union Church, August 12, 13, 1847, at Dry River 
Church, by Benj. Denton, a minister of the M, E. Church, 
John L. Blakemore, formerly of the Lutheran Church, and 
others. Later, Denton and Blakemore seem to have separated ; 
and Denton, endeavoring to get things more to his notion, 
organized another synod at Dry River Church in 1849. The 
members of this body were Benj. Denton, ordained preacher; 
John D. Freed, licentiate preacher; Algernon E, Gilmer, 
Madison Tyler, and John Denton, delegates. A house was 
built at Dry River, near the old one, in 1850, and services 
kept up for some time. The old Dry River Church was 
originally Methodist. Denton published a little book on his 

Presbyterian Church. 

Presbyterian Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Cook's Creek: New Erection; organized in the 18th 
century; called "New Erection" because an older establish- 
ment was, or had been, at Dayton; second church at New 
Erection built in 1834; present one in 1912. 

7. I am under obligation to Dr. H. H. Sherman for the loan of old 
records of the Methodist Church, of books, etc., and for direct informa- 
tion; to Bishop L. J. Heatwole for access to a copy of Denton's booklet, 
etc., and to Rev. John W. Rosenberger for aid. 



2. Harrisonburg: First preaching by Presbyterians said 
to have been done about 1780; congregation organized in 1789; 
first church built (on E. Market St.) about 1793; present 
church erected (northeast side of Public Square) in 1907-8. 

3 Cross Keys: For many years a union church; present 
church erected about 1872. 

4. Broadway: Church dedicated June 5, 1870; Rev. T. 
D. Bell, D. D. , organizer and first pastor. 

5. Edom: A new church, replacing an old one, was ded- 
icated in 1871 for use of Lutherans, Methodists, and Presby- 

6. Massanutten: At Peale's Cross Roads; dedicated in 
November, 1874. 

7. Bridgewater: Congregation organized in June, 1878; 
church dedicated in December, 1889. 

8. Dayton: Replaces Old Erection. 

9. Mt Olive: On Rawley Pike, 9 miles west of Harri- 
sonburg; dedicated January 3, 1897. 

10. Elkton. 

11. Mabel Memorial Chapel: Two miles southeast of 
Harrisonburg; dedicated 1899. 

It is probable that Presbyterian ministers were sent into 
this part of Virginia from Pennsylvania prior to 1750. In 
1752 the congregations of North and South Mountain, Timber 
Grove, North River, and Cook's Creek are mentioned in the 
records of the Philadelphia Synod. In 1756 the Cook's Creek 
congregation made application to the synod that Rev. Alex. 
Miller might be sent them as pastor, and in 1757 he came. 
He was installed as pastor for Dayton (Old Erection) and 
Peaked Mountain (probably Cross Keys). 

The church at Dayton was finally abandoned, apparently 
for New Erection; and about 1780 the old church was torn 
down. Later, a dam was built across the creek below, and 
the waters backed up and spread out until the site of Old 
Erection, with the graves about it, was lost in Silver Lake. 

The following table will not only give interesting infor- 
mation regarding the history of one church, but will also 



show how "division and reunion" have been part and parcel 
of the experiences of Rockingham Presbyterians. 

Harrisonburg Pastors. 

1789-1808— Benjamin Erwin. 
1809-1814— A. B. Davidson. 
1818-1821— Daniel Baker, D. D. 
1822-1826— Joseph Smith. 
1827-1837— Abner Kilpatrick. 
1837-1839— J. W. Phillips. 

1839— Division. 

Old School V New School 

1840-1850— Henry Brown. 1837-1839-J. W. Phillips. 
1853-1856— J. H. Bocock, D.D. 1840-1841— A. H.H. Boyd, D.D. 
1858-1867— D. C. Irwin. 1842-1844— T. L. Hamner. 

1846-1867— T. D. Bell, D. D. 

1867— Reunion. 
1867-1884— John Rice Bowman, D. D. 
1885-1887— J. H. Smith. 
1887-1892— L. B. Johnson. 
1893-1904-E. P. Palmer, D. D. 
1905- —Benjamin Wilson, D. D. 

The following description of the little stone church on 
East Market Street, and of the services held in it, is copied 
from the manuscript of Mrs. Carr, whose account of Harri- 
sonburg in olden days is of such rare interest. 

Next comes the old stone Presbyterian church. The lot on which it 
was built was taken from Harriet Graham's part of her portion which 
her father gave her afterwards. John Graham's land furnished the land 
on which the church was built. The last ten feet on the W. side was 
where the principal entrance was; there was also a door on the E. and S. 
ends. My grandfather paid a great deal more than his share towards 
the erection of this church. 

There were four high pews in each corner of the building, each pew 
having one a foot or two below it. My grandfather's pew was in the N. 
W. corner, and Sam Henry had one under it. Mr. Scott had the S. W. 
corner; and I do not remember who had the pew below his, unless it was 



the Herrons. The S. E. corner was Dr. Waterman's, with Robert Gray's 
below his; the N. E. was Mr. Jerry Kyle's. The pulpit was very high, 
and half way between the E. and the W. on the N. side of the church. 
Under it, a little distance from the floor, was the enclosure of perhaps 
six or seven feet where the elders sat. In front of the pulpit stood a 
man who led the singing, giving out two lines of the hymn at a time, 
the congregation joining in the singing. The rest of the seats were on a 
level with the floor. The high pews were entered by doors. The upper 
part of the pews were of turned balustrades— two steps leading up to the 
high pews and one step to the low pews. 

The communion was administered twice a year; long high benches 
were placed in the aisles, in front of the pulpit, with clean white linen 
placed on them; then on either side were low benches for the communi- 
cants to sit on. Every communicant brought a small square piece of 
copper called a token, and when they were seated at the table laid it be- 
fore him. The elders came around and took them all up; then a solemn 
hymn was sung beginning, "On that dark and doleful night." The elders 
after the singing handed around the bread and wine. Afterwards an ad- 
dress was delivered by the preacher, and a few more verses were sung, 
when those at the table would retire and make room for others: there 
were usually four or five tables. It was certainly a more solemn cere- 
mony than at the present day. 

The Presbyterians in Rockingham at the present time 
number between 1000 and 1200.** 

Reformed Church. 

Reformed Churches in Rockingham County (1912). 

1. Friedens: Termed a mother church by Gen. J. E. 
Roller (Hagerstown address, 1897), and indentified with the 
''New German town" visited in 1748 by the eminent Michael 
Schlatter. Still held jointly by the Reformed and Lutherans. 
Repaired and rededicated in 1894. 

2. St. Michael's: Three miles south of Bridgewater; 

8- For aid in securing the foregoing information, I acknowledge special 
obligation to Mr. Milo Custer, Bloomington, 111., and Dr. B. F. Wilson 
and Judge George Grattan, of Harrisonburg. 

Reference is made to the following publications: Webster's History 
of the Presbyterian Church in America (Phila. , 1857); Custer's Alexander 
Miller and Descendants; Year Book of the Harrisonburg Presbyterian 
Church; and files of the Young Virginian, published in 1874-5, etc., by 
Rev. W. T. Price, pastor at New Erection. 



organized (as Lutheran or as Lutheran and Reformed) in 
1764; house had dirt floor; Rev. Benj. Henkel (Lutheran) 
said to have been buried under the chancel, about 1794; in 
1830 the old log house was remodeled; in 1876 it was torn 
down, and present brick church was built. 

3. Brown Memorial: At McGaheysville; build in 1885, 
after a separation of the old Reformed and Lutheran con- 

4. Mt. Crawford: Congregation organized and church 
built in 1842. » 

5. Timberville: Cornerstone laid in 1881; church dedi- 
cated June 1, 1884; built by the Reformed congregation that 
had previously worshiped at Rader's Church. 

6. Pleasant Valley. 

7. Harrisonburg: Congregation organized 1894-5 by 
Rev. J. S. Garrison; church built in 1897. 

The most famous leader of the Reformed Church in Vir- 
ginia was Rev. John Brown, preacher, organizer, author, 
reformer, born in Germany, 1771. Having come to America, 
he began the study of theology at Chambersburg, Pa., in 
1798; about the same time he visited the Reformed churches 
in the Valley of Virginia. In 1799 or 1800 he came to be 
pastor of the Rockingham churches— walking all the way 
from Pennsylvania. He labored at St. Michael's, Friedens, 
McGaheysville, and elsewhere. In 1818 he had a 400-page 
book printed in Harrisonburg (intended as a "Circular"), in 
which he advocated Bible societies, foreign missions, freedom, 
and peace. In 1850 he died at Bridgewater, having served 
his people 50 years. No wonder they called him Father 

Another beloved pastor was John C. Hensell, who died 
March 29, 1894, at Mt. Crawford, aged 85. For many years 
he had preached at Mt. Crawford, St. Michael's, Friedens, 
McGaheysville, and other neighboring places. 

9. I am indebted to Mr. S. H. W. Byrd, of Bridgewater, for the par- 
ticulars given regarding St. Michael's Church and Mt Crawford Church. 



The Reformed Church members in Rockingham number 
about 600. '0 j 

Roman Catholic Church. 

There have doubtless been some Roman CathoHcs in 
Rockingham from very early times. The present church 
organization seems to date from about 1865. In this year, 
perhaps earlier, the Catholics had a chapel in Harrisonburg. 
In July, 1866, their chapel was on German Street, — a school- 
house shortly before occupied by Miss Mary J. McQuaide. 
Father McGuire, of Maryland, and Father Joseph Bixio held 
occasional services in Harrisonburg in 1865 and 1866. In 
1867 a Sundayschool was conducted, and Father Weed of "^ 
Staunton held services each 4th Sunday. In November, 1867, 
Right-Rev. Bishop McGill of Richmond preached in Rev. 
Mr. Bell's (Presbyterian) church in Harrisonburg. Mass was 
celebrated in the Catholic chapel at 10 a. m., November 5. 
In the summer of 1873 Father Kane, of Washington or Balti- 
more, and Right-Rev. James Gibbons,^' of Richmond, visited 
Harrisonburg and stimulated the movement for building a 
church. The Rockingham Register of September 5 and Octo- 
ber 31 contains lists of names of those persons subscribing to 
the enterprise. In June, 1876, it was reported that the 
Catholics had purchased the church formerly belonging to 
the Methodists. In August following the church was dedi- 
cated. Bishop Gibbons preaching the sermon. In the evening 
Father O'Keefe preached. Special music was furnished by 
the St. Francis choir of Staunton. 

10. On Brown Memorial Church, see Our Assistant, May, 1899, pub- 
lished at Mt. Crawford; on Father Brown, Rockingham Register, March 
29, 1895, and March 12, 1897; on St. Michael's Church, the Register, April 
26, 1877; on Rader's Church, etc., the Harrisonburg Daily Neivs, May 22, 
1909, supplement, 

I acknowledge information received from Mr. S. H. W. Byrd con- 
cerning Father Brown. 

Rev. J. S. Garrison, of Harrisonburg, is preparing to publish a history 
of the Reformed Church in Virginia, 

11. Now Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore. 


BiK Spring-. Cuiirt Square, as in Olden 
Days Photo by Morrison 

Normal School tJirls al Ashhy's Monument ^ 
(PaRe IT'.K 

Waterman Kenny Catholic 

House House Church | Pajres i'i, -i?:?! 

Hi^h Hill at Left site of First Methodist Church fPaKes ie?, itKt] 

Ashury Chapel ( I'age "iHt) 

Gen. Roller's Library 
Oldest House in Harrisonburg 

Old St. Peter's Church, 
near Elkton 


The church purchased was the one erected about 1863 by 
the Northern Methodists. It stood on the bank opposite the B. 
& 0. passenger station, on the site now occupied by the large 
Snell building. For several years, about 1868 and following, 
it had been used as a place of worship by the Baptists. This 
church burned in April, 1905, and about a year later the 
present handsome Catholic church on Main Street was erected. 

The total number of Catholics in Rockingham is about 

United Brethren Church. 

United Brethren Churches in Rockingham (1912). 

1. Mt. Hebron: Formerly Whitesel's Church; oldest in 
the county; located a mile or so southeast of Pleasant Valley. 
Rededicated in February, 1876, by Bishop J. J. Glossbrenner. 

2. Pleasant Grove.- On the Valley Pike, two miles south 
of Mt. Crawford. 

3. Dayton Station: Dayton. Church dedications: June, 
1878; September, 1904. The congregation was organized prior 
to the civil war. In 1866 there was a United Brethren Church 
in Bridgewater, 3 miles south of Dayton. — See RocJcinghaTn 
Register, June 28, 1866. 

4. Ottobine: About 14 miles north of Spring Creek. 

5. Pleasant Valley. 

/' 6. Mt. Horeb: A short distance southwest of Hinton; 
(dedicated in August, 1875. 

7. Mt. Clinton. 

8. Harrisonburg: Lot on W. Market Street purchased in 
July, 1894; first service in new church, January 5, 1896. 

9. Cedar Grove: A mile and a half east of Harrisonburg. 
Church dedicated in November, 1886. 

10. Mt. Sinai: Three miles south of Harrisonburg. 

11. Keezletown. 

12. Singer's Glen: Donovan Memorial Church, dedi- 
cated in May, 1906. Salem, formerly located one mile north 
of Singer's Glen, was founded during the civil war, said to 
have been the only U. B. Church erected within the Confed- 
erate States during the war. 



13. Herwin : One mile east of Linville. 

14. Cherry Grove: Three miles northeast of Singer's- 

15. Lacey Springs. 

16. Mt. Bethel: On the Keezletown Road, four miles 
south of Lacey Springs. 

17. Mountain Valley: Two miles east of Lacey Springs. 

18. Broadway: Church dedicated in 1893. 

19. Cootes' Store: Union church. 

20. Mt. Carmel: Three miles west of Cootes' Store. 

21. Keplinger's Chapel: Near Crider's. 

22. Shady Grove: Two miles northwest of Port Republic. 

23. Mt. Zion: Three miles northeast of McGaheysville. 
Church dedicated in 1899. 

24. Elkton. 

25. East Point: Two miles west of Elkton. 

26. Mt. Hebron: Near Beldor. 

27. Swift Run: On Swift Run, southeast of Elkton., 

In the Rockingham Register of Feburary 26, 1864,. 
appeared this paragraph: 

"Virginia annual conference of the United Brethren in 
Christ will meet at Freeden's Church, Rockingham County, 
Va., on the 11th of March." 

Inasmuch as Whitesel's Church is near Friedens, the 
former may be the one referred to in the above notice. 

The United Brethren have been at work in Rockingham 
for more than a century. In 1809, when the Baltimore 
Methodist Conference met for the second time in Harrison- 
burg, Christian Newcomer, who succeeded Otterbein and 
Boehm as bishop of the United Brethren, was present in the 
effort to arrange for the union of the two churches. Although 
the plan for union was never formally consummated, Asbury 
recieved Newcomer warmly, and cordial relations have always 
existed between the two bodies. The United Brethren have 
frequently been called German Methodists. Practically all 
of their preaching up to 1820 was in the German language, 
and the teaching is like that of Methodism. 



Like the Mennonites, the Dunkers, the Methodists, and 
at least some of the Lutherans and Reformed, the United 
Brethren opposed the institution of slavery. Their well-known 
attitude on this question subjected them to no little unpopu- 
larity and to some persecution. In 1830 there were only 
three church houses in all Virginia, one of these being White- 
sel's Church. So heavily did the storms of the civil war fall 
that Bishop Markwood, in 1865, or thereabouts, is said to 
have exclaimed, "There is no United Brethren church in Vir- 
ginia." In view of this statement, and the discouraging 
situation that warranted it, the present large number of 
churches in Rockingham and adjacent sections of the State 
is the more remarkable. 

One of the indefatigable leaders in building up the waste 
places after the war was Rev. John Williams Howe. He 
was born December 4, 1829; and lived long enough to see 
much rejoicing in the blessings that followed his labors. 
He died June 17, 1903. A fitting sketch of his life and work 
is given in the second volume of "Our Heroes," by W. M. 
Weekley and H. H. Fout. The same book contains an 
extended tribute to Rev. James L. Hensley, another leader 
of the church, a native of Rockingham. The establishment 
of a church school at Dayton,^' in 1876, which has since grown 
to large proportions and influence, contributed greatly to the 
success of the religious work now so much in evidence. In 
this connection the influence of the Ruebush-Kieffer publish- 
ing house at Dayton should also be mentioned. 

The membership of the United Brethren churches in 
Rockingham in 1906 had reached a total of 2917.^^ 

Colored Churches. 
So far as ascertained, there are eight colored churches in 
Rockingham: Two Baptist, two Methodist, and four United 

12. Now Shenandoah Collegiate Institute and School of Music. 

13- For aid in securing information regarding the United Brethren 
Church in Rockingham, I am under special obligation to Rev. A. S. Ham- 
mack and Mr. Joe K. Ruebush, of Dayton. 



The colored Baptists in Harrisonburg have had a church 
organization for many years. Shiloh Church was dedicated 
July 11, 1875; and again in June, 1882. The Baptists of 
Bridgewater erected a church on Mt. Crawford Avenue, near 
Main Street, about ten years ago. 

The colored Methodists of Harrisonburg dedicated John 
Wesley Church November 25, 1866. In January, 1870, they 
purchased the "brick church on the hill" shortly before re- 
linquished by the Baptist congregation (supposedly the col- 
ored Baptists), for $2500 ;i^ and in January, 1880, they pur- 
chased Andrew Chapel, on the west side of German Street, of 
the white Methodists. 

The colored Methodists of Bridgewater used to meet in 
an old school house that stood on the southwest side of the 
river, not far from Warm Spring. In May, 1879, they first 
used the present house of worship, west of Main Street. 

In 1879, Mt. Moriah, the colored M. E. church at Mt. 
Vernon Forge, was burned. 

The four United Brethren churches are the following: 

1. Harrisonburg: Organized in April, 1876, by Rev. A. 
H. Wells. 

2. Linville. 

3. Long's Chapel: Near Lacey Springs; used as early 
as 1885. 

4. Dungee's Chapel: Near Pleasant Valley. 
Reliable statistics of membership of the colored churches 

have not been available. 

The date when and the place where the first Sunday 
school was organized in Rockingham have not been ascer- 
tained; but abundant evidence is at hand to show that ever 
since the civil v/ar Sunday schools have been numerous. 

In the published obituary of John Hinton Ralston, who 
died in 1874, at the age of 80, it is asserted that he had been 
one of the first persons in his community to encourage Sun- 
day schools, and to engage earnestly in the work, when many 

14. Rockingham Register, February 3, 1870. 



good people opposed them on conscientious grounds.— Mr. 
Ralston was a ruling elder at New Erection. 

In June, 1866, it was stated in the Register that there 
were 41 Sunday schools in the county, and 2500 scholars. 

At a county Sundayschool convention held in Harrison- 
burg, October 26, 1866, the following statistical report of 
certain schools in Rockingham County was made: 


Classes Books 

M. E. School, Hbg., 


















Linville's Creek, 



Cross Roads, 




Mt. Crawford (Union), 












New Erection, 



Dry River (Union), 




Elk Run, 




Edom (Union), 




Verses Committed. 

Edom school. 


Dry River school, 


Harmony school, 


In February, 1867, the following statement appeared : 

We learn from Rev. F. W. Stanley, agent for the A. T. S., that there 
are in Rockingham county over twenty-nine Sunday Schools in operation. 
In 29, the statistics show 322 teachers and 3016 scholars. Within the past 
year, in these twenty-nine schools, there have been 200 conversions. 

This is a winter report. 

In July, 1898, a Sundayschool Union of Harrisonburg and 
Rockingham County was organized in Assembly Hall, Court 

IB. Rockingham Register, Nov. 8, 1866. 



House, J. P. Houck being made president, and J. C. Staples, 

This is a summer report. 

For several years Mr. Henry N. Whitesel of Harrison- 
burg, now deceased, was the enthusiastic president of the 
county Sundayschool organization. He was succeeded in office 
by Prof. Geo. H. Hulvey, who held the presidency till 1910. 

The most remarkable development in efficient organiza- 
tion, extending from the county force to the district officers, 
and from the latter to the individual schools, has been wit- 
nessed during the last two years. Not only has the county 
association made itself vital in all its parts, but it has also 
set a pace for other counties of the State. According to the 
reports of the State officers, based upon careful comparisons 
of statistics, the Rockingham County Sundayschool Associa- 
tion, for efficiency and thoroughness of work, is now second 
to none in Virginia. It is also an acknowledged fact that 
this condition must be credited mainly to Dr. E. R. Miller, of 
Harrisonburg, who has been president of the organization 
since 1910. It would be difficult for any one not acquainted 
with the facts at first hand to appreciate the value of his 
services, or to realize how much time and labor he has devoted 
to the work; but the results speak for themselves, and are 
patent to all. The county convention this year was attended 
by 1000 people, and practically every school in the county 
was represented by delegates or letter. From the reports 
presented it appears that there are in the county 142 Sunday- 
schools, with 1415 officers and teachers, and 12,184 scholars: 
a total enrollment of 13,599. Of this number, 3972 are in 
Ashby District; 3349 in Central; 1622 in Linville; 2139 in 
Plains; and 2517 in Stonewall. 

The table on the opposite page has been prepared from 
statistics collected by the president of the Association 
during the past two years, and will be convenient for refer- 
ence. It shows that all the churches are awake to the 
importance of the Sundayschool work. 









Ashby i 

















2 I 




Church of 








Church of 































































The Sundayschool map presents the above conditions in a 
still more graphic manner. 


The present (1912-13) officers of the county Sunday- 
school association are the following: 
Dr. E. R. Miller, president. 
Mr, W. J. Dingledine, vice-president. 
Rev, J. S. Garrison, secretary. 
Dr. W. T. Lineweaver, Treasurer. 

Superintendents of Departments. 
Elementary Division, Mrs. P. S. Thomas. 
Secondary Division, Mr. J. D. Alexander. 
Adult Division, Prof. J. Owen Long. 
Home Department, Miss Vada Funk. 
Teacher-Training Department, Rev. A. W. Andes. 

Y. M. C. A. 

In December, 1860, there was a Young Men's Christian 
Association in Harrisonburg, with Geo. 0. Conrad, president, 
J. B. Odor, secretary; and the organization was preparing to 
hold its 4th annual meeting in the M. E. Church on January 
5, 1861. 

In May, 1873, there was another organization of the Y. 
M. C. A. in Harrisonburg, F. A. Berlin being made presi- 
dent; Jos. T. Logan, vice-president; D. H. Lee Martz, secre- 
tary; J. Wilton, treasurer; Frank L. Harris, librarian. 

There seems to have been another revival of the organiza- 
tion in 1884; at any rate it was in operation in 1885, and until 
sometime in 1886, when it was discontinued. For three years 
it lapsed; but in March, 1889, a new start was taken. E. T. 
Dadmun of Staunton came down as a special aid: Judge 
Grattan was made president, J. C. Staples, secretary; and a 
ladies' auxiliary gave assurance of support. From this re- 
vival the work seems to have gone on for 14 years — that is, 
till March or April, 1903. 

As early as 1827 a Rockingham County Bible society, 
with John Brown as president, was in operation. In Septem- 
ber, 1866, a county Bible society was organized at Harrison- 
burg, in a joint meeting of the several churches. In Novem- 
ber, 1874, Col. D. H. Lee Martz was president of the society; 



Rev. Cline, of Broadway, and other ministers in the county,, 
were vice-presidents. In 1875 the society was active. J. J. 
Miller was colporteur for the county, and was expected to 
visit every family. In the Register oi February 11 (1875) he 
made an interesting report. 

Temperance Movements. 

In March, 1844, Marshall Division No. 3 of the Sons of 
Temperance, a national order, was organized at Harrison- 
burg, with Wm. G. Stevens, Jacob R. Stevens, J. M. Con- 
rad, W. McK. Wartmann, John W. Bear, L. W. Gambill, 
Chas. D. Gray, and Henry T. Wartman charter members. 
During the next four years 153 men were initiated into the 
chapter. Some of the well known names that may still be 
seen upon the roll are these: Alg. S. Gray, Geo, 0. Conrad, 
St. Clair Kyle, Jacob E. Harnsberger, P. Liggett, J. N. Lig- 
gett, John H. Gtaham, Morgan Switzer, and John G. Effinger. 

In 1846 Worth Division No. 44, Sons of Temperance, was 
organized at Port Republic, and was kept going till the civil 
war. In January, 1873, it was revived and reorganized. On 
Christmas Day, 1860, the Sons of Temperance at Bridgewater 
had an elaborate procession, the Mt. Crawford Cavalry under 
command of Capt. Jordan, taking part. 

Mt. Crawford for many years seems to have been a 
potential center of temperance sentiment. As early as 1838 
the village had a live temperance society. On May 20, 1854, 
a large convention of temperance advocates was held in the 
Mt. Crawford Reformed Church, Dr. M. H. Harris presiding. 
C. Coffman Bare and J. B. McGill were secretaries. A com- 
mittee of gentlemen in each precinct in the county was 
appointed to obtain signatures to a petition to the court, 
praying the court not to grant any license for the sale of 
"ardent spirits'' in the county. Frequently during the years 
of Reconstruction Mt. Crawford was heard from regarding 
temperance, when the "Friends of Temperance" were organ- 
izing councils. 

The following paragraph, which appeared in the Register 
of March 19, 1868, will give an idea of what was being done 
for temperance at that time. 



We are gratified to notice that our talented and intelligent young 
friend, E. Roller, Esq., of Harrisonburg, is exerting himself actively in 
behalf of the cause of Temperance in the Valley. We see that he has 
proposed organizing Councils of Temperance in Woodstock, Strasburg, 
Edinburg, Mt. Jackson and New Market, in our sister county below us. 
He has already organized a number of flourishing Councils in Rockingham 
and Augusta counties. This is a new organization with the same objects 
of the old order of Sons of Temperance, an institution that flourished and 
did much good before the war. 

Mt. Crawford was honored in this tribute, for "E, Roller, 
Esq.," now well known as Gen. John E. Roller, grew up in 
the vicinity of Mt. Crawford. 

In March, 1868, Harrisonburg Council No. 37, Friends of 
Temperance, elected J. S. Harnsberger president, and A. Poe 
Boude chaplain. In July following the same council elected 
J. Ed. Pennybacker president, J. Wilton associate, T. U. Dud- 
ley chaplain, and J. Gassman secretary. In the fall of 1869, 
at Petersburg, J. Ed. Pennybacker (1844-1912) was elected 
president of the State council. 

During the decade from 1873 to 1883 the Good Templars 
were active in Rockingham, having organizations in many 
parts of the county. In January, 1882, a county local option 
alliance was organized at Harrisonburg. The same year a 
local option petition, 18 feet long, with a double row of names, 
was on exhibition at the store of Houck & Wallis. In 1884 a 
women's temperance reading room was established in the old 
clerk's office. It was during the later 80' s that the saloons 
in Harrisonburg and certain other parts of the county were 
closed a little while by local option. 

For a number of years past the Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Union and the Anti-Saloon League have had active 
organizations in Rockingham. 

Benevolent societies and temperance societies have not 
been wanting among the colored people of Rockingham. For 
example, in 1875, 1876, etc., organizations of the Sons of 
Jonadab, the True Reformers, and the Sons of Purity were 
effected in various parts of the county. ^^' 

16. General acknowledgmentismade to Dr. E. R. Miller, Dr. H.H. Sher- 
man, Rev. L. J. Heatwole, and Hon. James Hay for aid on this chapter. 



The desire on the part of the Valley of Virginia people for 
higher education has become general only in recent years; 
but from early times most of them have craved for them- 
selves and their children the rudiments of learning— or more; 
and therefore elementary schools grew up with the first set- 
tlements. Frequently the pastor was also the teacher; and 
in many cases the church house and the school house were 
built on the same lot. The records are not sufficient to give 
us many particulars regarding the first schools in Rocking- 
ham and adjacent sections, but we know of some that were 
here more than a century ago; and with these, as well as 
with others that came later, we shall have to do. 

In 1794 the Methodists of Harrisonburg opened a school. 
It was organized under the direction of no less a person than 
Bishop Asbury himself. We read on the yellowed page of 
the minute book: 

In conference chamber, the following persons were nominated by the 
Bishop as Trustees of the Harrisonburg School, viz. 

Andrew Shanklin Samuel McWilliams 

Joseph Denny Robert Harrison 

Benjamin Smith Thomas Harrison 

Reubin Harrison Joseph Cravens 

Jeremiah Reagan William Cravens 

George Wells William Hughs 
Benjamin Harrison 

From the thirteen nominated, seven were chosen, as fol- 

Andrew Shanklin Benjamin Harrison 

George Wells Samuel McWilliams 

Benjamin Smith Joseph Cravens 

Reuben Harrison 


The elder of the circuit, who appears a few months later 
as Joshua Wells, was to be president of the board, ex officio; 
George Wells was made vice-president; Joseph Cravens, 
clerk; Benjamin Harrison, treasurer. 

It is said that Asbury held the conference this year 
(1794) in the Harrison house, on Bruce Street near Main, 
which is now Gen. John E. Roller's law office. The log 
church, which stood on the top of the hill where the Dunker 
church now stands, was new and likely unfinished; for on 
June 23 the seven trustees, who looked after the business of 
the church as well as that of the school, resolved, "that a 
sum sufficient to finish the Methodist meeting house suitable 
for said School as well as publick Preaching &c. be raised by 

So the meetinghouse became also the schoolroom. Brother 
John Walsh was employed as teacher at a salary of fifty 

If the term "Blue Light" or "Blue Laws" could with 
propriety be attached to the Methodists, we should certainly 
be inclined to use them both in describing the rules by which 
this school for boys and girls was to be regulated. They — 
these rules— remind us very much of some that John Wesley 
himself drew up for another school:— but here they are, as 
formulated by the seven trustees on the 23d of June, 1794. 

Rule 1. The Scholars shall attend at EightO'clock in the Summer and 
Half Past eight in the winter; and the Teacher Shall regulate the time 
of attendance in Spring and Autumn, according to the length of the day. 

2. They Shall be allowed an hour for recreation in Winter, and 
two Hours in Summer. 

3. They Shall be dismissed at six o'clock in Summer, and at four 
in Winter; and in Spring and Autumn in proportion. 

4. The School Shall always be opened and closed with prayer. 

5. The Teacher Shall appoint a weekly monitor out of a Senior Class, 
who Shall Call the list upon all Occasions, and see that the Scholars be 
present at all times of Publick worship in the School; and give Informa- 
tion of al! misdemeanors in the Teachers Absence. And also that all 
Scholars of Seven Years old and upwards shall attend at publick service 
on the Sabbath, wherever his or her Parents Guardians or Master may 



6. No gaming of any kind, nor Instruments of Play shall be tolerated. 

7. The Tutor shall be judge of all excuses for non attendance, and 
shall deal with the delinquents accordingly. 

8. A strict order of silence shall be observed in School hours. 

9. In every case of Sinning against God, the trial shall be very 
Serious, the facts proved, and the Sinner Properly dealt with, according 
to the Judgment of the Teacher. If it should be near the time of a Vis- 
itation (of the trustees) let it be laid over till the meeting of the Board 
of Trustees. 

10. In a case of rebellion against the rules of the School, or the 
Authority of the Teacher, Such a Scholar with the concurrence of the 
Tutor, with the Trustee, Shall be dismissed. 

Nevertheless, in Case of Such dismission there shall be a right of ap- 
peal to board of Trustees. 

11. No Scholar Shall be permitted on any account whatever to wear 
Ruffles or powder his hair. 

12. The Scholars Shall be examined in the "Instructions for Chil- 
dren" Once a week Except the Children of such parents as disapprove 
the same. 

13. There Shall be a Garden procured (if practicable) that those 
Scholars who choose it may Recreate themselves therein. 

14. That no teacher Shall be Eligible for a Trustee. 

15. It is Earnestly recommended that no person or persons will send 
their Children to the School without observing the Strictest punctuality, 
in making payment Half Yearly; And if Any Subscriber neglects payment 
one Year, it Shall be determined by a majority of the Trustees, whether 
he shall be permitted to send the Ensuing Year. 

16. Every subscriber is required to give three months notice, if he 
does not Continue to Send the Insuing Year. 

17. There Shall be no more than Forty Scholars admitted into the 
School and the Subscribers Shall pay to the Trustees the sum of Thirty 
three Shillings for each Scholar per Year. 

18. No Subscriber shall have restitution for the Scholars loss of time, 
by sending more than the number, or longer than the time subscribed. 

The school evidently was continued in session the whole 
year. The last Fridays in the months of November, Febru- 
ary, May, and August were days set apart for visitation. On 
these days the vice-president of the board of trustees was to 
call a meeting of the trustees, and they were to "Examine 
the Scholars in their knowledge of God and progress in 

Subscribers were to have the privilege of sending their 


black servants into the school for the first year, "Under 
these Restrictions viz. They Shall be Classed & Seated by 

A space in the gallery, on the right hand of the pulpit, 
w^as to be set apart for the reception of such pupils as 
attended public worship. The teacher or a trustee was to 
sit at their right. 

If we are disposed to revolt at some of the foregoing 
regulations, we are certainly gratified at others. On the 
whole, we must regard the provisions for this school of a 
hundred and fifteen years ago as remarkably sane and liberal. 
One or two provisions are surprisingly progressive; for 
example, who would now imagine that the people of that day 
were planning for a school garden? 

In May of the next year, 1795, Bishop Asbury was again 
at Harrisonburg; and he gave on that occasion further evi- 
dence of his concern for the new school. Under date of 
Wednesday, May 13, he writes in his Journal: * 'Rode twenty- 
four miles to Rock-Town, and preached at three o'clock; and 
again the next day. Here I met the trustees of our school, 
to whom I read my Thoughts on Education. In the evening 
I left the town, and on Friday 15, rode forty miles." 

It appears from the records that the teacher for the 
second year, 1795-6, was a Mr. Spencer. It would seem that 
early in 1795 the trustees were planning to enlarge the school 
by having two departments and two teachers — Mr. Walsh 
and Mr. Spencer. The new department was to be a ' 'gram- 
mar school." March 16, 1795, the Board resolved that "the 
Grammar School Shall be under the same Rules & Regulations 
which have been made for the English School — except the 
Two last weeks in April & the Two first in October, which 
times shall be set apart for Vacation as Common in Grammar 

The outcome seems to have been about this — the minutes 
are very meager — that Mr. Spencer for the second year had a 
school combining in some measure the two departments 



After 1796 I find no more references in the records to 
this school, definitely; but at a quarterly meeting conference 
held in Harrisonburg on Saturday, January 15, 1820, the 
matter of securing a school teacher was again under consid- 

Mrs. Carr, whose recollections went back into the first 
quarter of last century, mentions Richard Fletcher, Rev. Mr. 
Coie, and Rev. Joseph Smith as among the Harrisonburg 
schoolmasters of that time; and names Tiffin Harrison, 
Gessner Harrison, and Henry Tutwiler as pupils of Mr. 
Smith. She gives the following characteristic account of 
school Hfe: 

The school hours were from eight to twelve, and from two to five. 
Recess was never known at that time. We were allowed to go out once in 
the morning and once in the afternoon. A piece of wood shaped like a 
paddle was hung on the inside of the door by apiece of string; on the one 
side was written the word OUT, in large letters, and on the other side 
was written IN. Two girls were allowed to go out together, when the 
paddle was turned to OUT, and when they came in the paddle was turned 
to IN. Sometimes the paddle was reversed, when two more girls would 
go out to meet the others and have a good time playing, until the teacher 
missed them; he would send for them to come back. Girls were very sel- 
dom punished; if ever, very slightly; boys were frequently whipped or 
kept in after school. We were taught reading, spelling, writing, gram- 
mar, and geography. A pupil who had gone through Pike's arithmetic, 
Morse's geography, Murray's grammar, and could spell a dozen words 
without mis-spelling three, could write a plain round hand, he was a man 
that was thought capable of holding any common office. Ladies of that 
day never followed any profession, or meddled with men's affairs— they 
could teach small children their alphabet and work samplers. 

On January 20, 1806, an Act was passed incorporating the 
Rockingham Library Company, the said company being 
authorized to procure a library for the improvement of the 
inhabitants. In 1818 an Act was passed changing the time 
of meeting of this company. In 1867 the Rockingham Library 
Association was chartered, and books opened for subscriptions 
at $2.50 a share; in November (1867) James Kenney was 

1 Acknowledgment is made to Dr. H. H. Sherman for access to 



elected president of the association, J. L. Sibert vice presi- 
dent, 0. C. Sterling, Jr. , treasurer, Ran D. Cushen secretary, 
Wm, D. Trout, librarian. 

In the summer of 1825 S. M. Hunter and Rich. P. Fletcher 
were advertising the opening of a school in Harrisonburg, on 
August 15, in which school Greek, Latin, philosophy, rhetoric, 
geography, English grammar, mathematics, surveying, read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic were to be taught. 

In February, 1826, Rockingham Academy was chartered, 
with Samuel Moffett, Wm. McMahon, Saml. Newman, An- 
drew Moffett, Isaac Thomas, Peter Grim, John Hoover, 
Joseph Gline, and Saml. Hoover as trustees. This school was 
located between Timberville and New Market, and is now 
known as Plains (school and church). 

In 1827 Miss Anna Moore was conducting a school in 
Harrisonburg for girls; and at the same time another school, 
at or near the same town, was going on under the direction 
of Abner W. Kilpatrick. In November, 1833, Mr. Kilpatrick 
was preparing to open his school at his home, SJ miles from 
Harrisonburg; board and tuition for 5 months for $55. 

In 1839 a project was on foot, and was probably carried 
through, to establish an academy in Harrisonburg. An Act 
of incorporation was passed by the legislature this year or the 

For a year or two, beginning about 1838, a school in Mc- 
Gaheysville was conducted by Joseph Salyards, probably the 
most famous teacher that has ever lived in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia. Born near Front Royal in 1808, he grew^ up at New 
Market, winning by toil an education in spite of poverty and 
obscurity. After many years of work as a teacher in Rock- 
ingham, Page, and Shenandoah, he died at New Market, 
August 10, 1885, full of years and honors. Roanoke Gollege 
conferred the M. A. degree upon him in 1872; and he is re- 
membered as scholar, teacher, and poet.- 

2. See biography of Salyards by Elon 0. Henkel, New Market, Va. ; 
also sketch and selections from his poems in Harris and Alderman's 
Library of Southern Literature, Vol. X. 



Mr. Richard Mauzy, who went to Salyards' school in Mc- 
Gaheysville, thinks he opened it in 1838. After a year or so 
Salyards became temporarily insane; but in December, 1840, 
and January and February, 1841, he was advertising the re- 
sumption of his school at McGaheysville. 

Mr, Mauzy supplies the following list of early McGaheys- 
ville teachers: 

George Mauzy, about 1830-31. 

Miss Jeanetta Conrad, about 1832-33. 

Charles Buck, 1833-35. 

David Howard, 1836. 

Mr. Lamb, 1836-37. 

Joseph Salyards, 1838-39, etc. 

Salyards probably taught at New Market from about 1845 
to 1855; from about 1857 to 1860 he was principal of Rock- 
ingham Male Academy, located on W. Market Street, 
Harrisonburg, in a building that now forms part of the resi- 
dence of James Kavanaugh. Academy Street marks the 
place. From 1859 or 1860, for two or three years, he was 
principal of Pleasant Grove Academy, located on the Valley 
Pike, two miles south of Mt. Crawford. Before me are notices 
of this school in the Southern Musical Advocate of July and 
August, 1860, and the Rockingham Register of Aug. 3, 1860, 
and Oct. 4, 1861. In 1860 P. S. Roller, J. R. Keagy, and D. 
Ross were proprietors of Pleasant Grove Academy; and Sal- 
yards was spoken of as "one of the oldest and best teachers 
in the Valley. " The branches taught included languages, lit- 
erature, and mathematics. Mr. S. T. Shank, writing in the 
Harrisonburg Daily News oi February 27, 1911, says that Sal- 
yards was assisted at Pleasant Grove in 1860-61 by his son. 

In August, 1862, Salyards was in charge of Cedar Grove 
Seminary, near Broadway; and in 1864 he was at Rosendale, 
on Smith's Creek. The old stone house at Rosendale 
("Smith Creek Seminary") in which he taught is still 
standing. From Rosendale, according to Mr. Thos. L. Wil- 
liamson, he went to Luray, thence returning to New Market, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. Mr. Elon 0. 




Henkel says he went to Woodstock from Luray, coming to 
New Market in July, 1870. 

One of Salyards' advanced pupils at Rosendale was a 
young man who was blind, but who, in spite of misfortune, 
has, like his master, achieved distinction. The following par- 
agraphs from his pen are a special contribution to this work. 

The writer is glad of the opportunity of paying a grate- 
ful tribute of reverent respect to the memory of Joseph 
Salyards. He was a man of the common people. In early 
life he developed an extraordinary taste for the higher learn- 
ing, and, without masters or schools, made himself familiar 
with the ancient languages to such a degree that he read 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Sanscrit with the ease and fluency 
of a master, and not merely the text books in those languages, 
but their literature with critical discrimination and judg- 
ment. He also read and wrote in all the modern languages 
that had a literature. Besides his wonderful linguistic accom- 
plishments, he was the most profound scholar in mathematics, 
science, philosophy, history, and literature that Rockingham 
ever produced, and perhaps the State of Virginia. 

He was not appreciated in his day at his true value. He 
would have adorned any chair in any school or college. The 
drawback in his life was his own consent to Hve in the hum- 
ble sphere to which he had been born, and he never made any 
effort to rise above it, so far as the writer knows. In early 
life he was fond of attending the country dances, and not 
always as careful to avoid the social cup as he should have 
been. It is said that he lost an eye in consequence of an 
attempt to go to such a frolic on a dark night, possibly in not 
perfect command of himself, by striking his face against a 
fence stake, inflicting an injury which destroyed an eye. 
With one good eye, which was happily preserved, he learned 
more than most people, and was at the time at which the 
writer knew him a perfectly temperate man of most digni- 
fied bearing. He spoke elegantly, wrote with a facile pen, 
and would have commanded attention in any company. He 
enjoyed the friendship and high respect of the best men in 



the valley of Virginia; was known most favorably by John 
Baldwin, A. H. H. Stuart, and Hugh Sheffy of Staunton, 
and the prominent men all along the beautiful valley. The 
acquaintance was not very profitable to him in social life; 
but they loved and honored him. 

During the war between the States I was sent to his little 
school at Rosendale, on Smith Creek, in the northern edge of 
Rockingham County, where I found a rare opportunity of 
prosecuting my studies in the more advanced learning, which 
could not at that time have been found anyvv^here else. He 
was tenderly kind to my infirmity, which made me dependent 
on the eyes of others, giving me all the encouragement in his 
vast field of wisdom and learning. 

In a stone house, which had in ante-bellum days been a 
still house, on the beautiful estate of the late George Rosen - 
berger, within a stone's throw of his hospitable home, where 
I lived for a year or two, Mr. Salyards taught a school com- 
posed of the sons and daughters of the surrounding farmers, 
in the earlier grades, as we would say now. The venerable 
teacher found time in that school of sixty or more "scholars'* 
to hear me work out my problems in the advanced courses in 
which I was so busy. I had for my companion a young friend 
who took the same courses with me, and we enjoyed much of 
the great teacher's time, both out of school and in the hours 
of the day's work. We often went to his little log house in 
the field, only a few hundred yards from Mr. Rosenberger's 
residence, where, surrounded by his children and their 
mother, much younger than himself, we enjoyed his elegant 
conversation, and the treasures of his splendid library, a sur- 
prise in such surroundings. He referred to his books with 
the readiness of one who had them entirely at his command. 
No time was ever lost in finding the most abstruse references. 
He seemed with almost an instinctive precision to turn to just 
what we wanted. I feel that I owe any success I may be 
thought to have achieved in the course of my life to his 
instruction and inspiration. 

After nearly fifty years, I recall with wonder and aston- 



ishment, that he told me with his own lips, that he had had 
in early life an ambition to write a literary degree after his 
name, and had sought from the University of Virginia the 
privilege of standing for examination with a view to such 
degree; but his request was declined. A finer general scholar, 
of more varied learning than any one of the faculty, he had 
to be denied the distinction because, doubtless, of some iron- 
bound rule of the institution. In later life, however, that 
institution honored itself not less than him, in bestowing a 
degree without examination.^ 

This backwoods philosopher for many years frequently 
contributed to the local press, and is still remembered doubt- 
less by some of the older newspaper people; his articles hav- 
ing appeared in both prose and verse on a great variety of 
subjects; and possibly also he may have written for some of 
the magazines. About 1874 he gave to the world a poem of 
which it was not worthy, and did not appreciate, for it still 
lingers on the shelves of the publishers, if indeed it is not 
out of print. "Idothea" is almost an epic, and received a 
most flattering review from a great English review by a dis- 
tinguished author of high literary note. My memory is at 
fault as to the name of the English reviewer. It had also flat- 
tering notice from several sources in this country. A. W. 
Kercheval and the writer reviewed it for the publishers, who 
issued a pamphlet to advertise the book; but it was all in vain. 
The rich descriptions of local scenery and personages of note 
in his community, and the deep philosophy of the work make 
it a treasure in itself, which may some day, to a more appre- 
ciative auditory, bring it into favor and general knowledge. 
Prof. Salyards, in the last years of his useful life, occupied a 
chair in the Polytechnic Institute at new Market. 

H. H. Johnson, 
Senior Teacher, Blind Department, School 
for the Deaf and Blind, Romney, W. Va. 

3. This is a mistake. Prof. Johnson probably had in mind the degree 
conferred by Roanoke College. The University of Virginia has never 
conferred a degree except for residence work. 



Mr. S. H. W. Byrd of Bridgewater informs me that a 
number of the old citizens of his town and vicinity were pupils 
at an old school house that formerly stood at St. Michael's 

In August, 1840, Chas. Viquesney, a native of France, 
was advertising a night school at Harrisonburg, to teach 
French; the said school to be conducted during the coming 
winter. At the same time Julius Hesse was giving notice of 
a writing school; and Henry Brown was announcing a "School 
for Females" to open September 1: both in Harrisonburg. 
On February 22, 1841, the Bridgewater debating society cele- 
brated Washington's birth, with the Harrisonburg band in 
attendance. In 1844, as I am informed by Rev. A. Poe Boude, 
Wm. W. Littell was running a school in Dayton — the only 
9-months school in Rockingham at that time. Among his 
pupils were A. P. Boude, Danl. Smith, and John Green Smith; 
the Smiths being sons of Judge Danl. Smith. The same year 
(1844) Wm. C. Jennings was preparing to open a school in 
Harrisonburg, April 29. 

In 1851 an Act was passed incorporating Rockingham 
Male and Female Seminary, to be established in or near Har- 
risonburg. The trustees were Wm. Kiger, Thomas D. Bell, 
Robt. Grattan, and ten others named. In 1854 Rockingham 
Male Seminary was in charge of R. W. Thurmond, principal. 
In September of the same year Miss Harriet Bear was pre- 
paring to open a school for young ladies in one of the base- 
ment rooms of iVndrew Chapel (Hbg.). About 1856 the 
"Academy" near Broadway, first in charge of James Wright, 
was erected. 

During the years now under consideration, Joseph Funk, 
at Mountain Valley (Singer's Glen), was conducting a school 
to which a number of young men came from various parts of 
the country. It is probable that he was teaching at his home 
as early as 1825 or 1830; and his school was continued by his 
sons for a number of years after the civil war. In the South- 
ern Musical Advocate of July, 1859, he and his sons were ad- 
vertising their school— offering to teach not only music, but 



also grammar, elocution, and the art of teaching music. Board 
and music tuition cost $9 a month; instruction in grammar 
and elocution raised the total cost to $10 a month. 

On the first Monday in September, 1860, Rockingham 
Male Academy, in Harrisonburg, reopened under the princi- 
palship of John W. Taylor. Thos. D. Bell was secretary of 
the board of trustees. Mathematics, natural science, Latin, 
Greek, French, etc., were offered. On the first Wednesday 
of September, 1861, the third session of Rockingham Female 
Institute, in Harrisonburg, began, with J. Mark Wilson 

The early days of Reconstruction were fruitful in schools 
as well as in marriages. In the fall of 1866 the following 
schools were announced: 

Female Institute, P. M. Custer, principal. 
Male Academy, E. H. Scott, principal. 
School for Children, Miss Alice Houck. 

Miss Mollie McQuaide. 
" " Miss Fannie Lowman."* 

" " Miss Carrie Harrison. 

School for Young Ladies, Rev. A. Poe Boude. 
Conrad's Store. 

4. Fannie Lowman was born at or near Rushville in 1840 or 1841, and 
died in Harrisonburg in November, 1909. In spite of lameness, poor 
health, and few pecuniary advantages she gained an education in good 
schools: in Georgetown and Staunton; in the Valley Normal at Bridge- 
water, the School of Methods at Charlottesville, and elsewhere: and for 
more than 30 years she was a teacher— two years in Texas, the remainder 
in Virginia. Some of her first earnings went to aid a younger sister, who 
also became a teacher. For several years before her death she was en- 
titled to a teacher's pension, but she preferred a meager salary with the 
work she loved. With characteristic altruism, it was her wish that the 
very few dollars she left at death be devoted toothers rather than to her- 
self or her memory. On learning these facts the Rockingham County 
Teachers Association undertook to mark her grave, in order that her own 
small balance might not be thus consumed, but might go to benefit the 
living. The fund for a monument is growing, and her colleagues and old 
pupils are embracmg a privilege in honoring her. 



Classical School, W. K. Jennings. 

Linville Creek. 
Classical School, John D. Pennybacker.^ 

Lacey Spring's. 
Classical School, John W. Taylor. '^ 

Professor Taylor did not, perhaps, designate his as a 
classical school, but it seems to have been similar to the oth- 
ers that were thus called. 

In 1866 there was a Rockingham County teachers' asso- 
ciation, H. Handy being secretary. 

The first regular session of Harrisonburg Female Insti- 
tute, A. Poe Boude principal, Mary L. Attkisson teacher of 
French and music, was advertised to open February 18, 1867, 
in the basement of the "E. M. Church on the hill." 

In April, 1867, B. A. Hawkins opened the first session of 
Keezletown Academy. In October following B. A. Hawkins 
and W. T. Brett were principals of Pleasant Grove Academy; 
at the same time P. M. Custer was principal of Rockingham 
Female Institute, and B. F. Wade was principal of Rocking- 
ham Male Academy, the last named two schools being at 
Harrisonburg. In this same year (1867) John H. Moore had 
a large school at Beaver Creek. 

In 1868 W. S. Kennedy was advertising a classical school 
to open September 1, in the town hall at Bridgewater, to 

5. John Dyer Pennybacker (1833-1904) was a son of Sen. I. S. Penny- 
backer, and a brother of J. Ed. Pennybacker (1844-1912). His wife was 
Elizabeth Lincoln (1827-1905). 

6- John W. Taylor was born 76 years ago on the west bank of the 
Shenandoah River, in East Rockingham, opposite what is now the town 
of Shenandoah. His father was Zachary Taylor (Scotch-Irish) and his 
mother Nancy Eppard (German). Winning early education under scant 
advantages, he taught a school at East Point when 18 or 19. Continuing 
his studies at Richmond College, Randolph-Macon, and other schools, he 
received the A. M. degree at Randolph-Macon in 1860. The next session 
he was principal of the male academy in Harrisonburg. In 1865 he opened 
his school at Lacey Springs, where he has taught almost continuously to 
the present. His wife was Virginia C. Lincoln, a daughter of Jacob 
Lincoln, of Rockingham. 



continue 10 months. At the same time J. H. Turner and 
G. W. Holland were principals of Rockingham Male Academy, 
and P. M. Custer' of Rockingham Female Institute. The 
buildings of the last, which stood on the site of the present 
Harrisonburg Main Street School, had been erecced a few 
years before the war; during the war they were used as a 
hospital by the Confederates. (See page 153). 

In 1870 there were at least ten schools for the white 
children in Harrisonburg.^ In the fall of 1871 the Harrison- 
burg graded school was organized, under the new public 
school system, and Rev. J. S. Loose was elected principal. 
In 1871 a classical school was opened in Bridgewater, with 
John H. Barb principal, Richard Halstead intermediate 
teacher, and Frank Stover primary teacher.^ In 1872 S. C. 
Lindsay opened a classical and mathematical school in Harris- 
onburg, in September, to run till June of the next year. 

In 1873 a boarding and day school for young ladies was 
opened in the home of Rev. W. G. Campbell, his niece and 
two daughters being teachers. In 1877 the house on Camp- 
bell Street, Harrisonburg, now Shaffer's boarding house, was 
built for a school by the Misses Campbell. As late as 1892 
Miss S. L. Campbell was conducting the school. Later mem- 
bers of the family had charge of Westminster School in Rich- 

In 1874 and 1875 B. L. Hodge was principal of McGaheys- 
ville Male and Female Academy. The session ran 9 months, 
and classical as well as English instruction was offered. 

At Dayton, in 1875, A. Paul Funkhouser and other pro- 
gressive leaders in the United Brethren Church founded 
Shenandoah Seminary, which has grown into the well known 
Shenandoah Collegiate Institute and School of Music. As in- 

7. Rev. P. M. Custer died in Alabama in 1890, aged 70. For partica- 
lars regarding Rockingham Female Institute, I am obliged to Mr. L. H. 

8. Rockingham Register, June 30, 1870. 

This information was given by Mr. S. H. W. Byrd. 



dicated in the name, music has been much encouraged in the 
policy of this school. The institution has really inherited the 
musical traditions and tendencies that so long distinguished 
the school of Joseph Funk & Sons at Singer's Glen. Since its 
organization it has grown in favor and popularity at home and 
abroad, particularly in the Southern States, from all of which 
a large number of students come annually. It aims to supply 
the best of instruction by modern methods at lowest possible 
cost. It exalts the moral above the merely intellectual. 

To the older buildings, two new brick structures have re- 
cently been added: (1) Howe Memorial Building (1899), 
occupied exclusively by the School of Music; (2) the Admin- 
istration Building (1909), four stories, containing laboratories, 
class-rooms, studios, offices, etc. Separate dormitories are 
provided for ladies and gentlemen. Reading rooms, literary 
societies, a Y. M. C. A., a Y. W. C. A., special lectures and 
entertainments, etc., supplement the w^ork of the class-rooms 
and chapel. The students publish a handsomely illustrated 
annual, "The Zynodoa," and maintain athletic organizations. 
The enrolment for 1911-12 was 259. J. H. Ruebush is gen- 
eral manager; J. N. Garber is president of the board of 
trustees. The board of control is composed of J. H. Ruebush, 
C. A. Funkhousev, G. P. Hott, and A. S. Hammack. The fac- 
ulty comprises 1 ( regular members. 

In March, 1876, State Supt. W. H. Ruffner visited Har- 
risonburg and made two addresses on education in the court- 
house. The specific purpose of his visit (he had been invited 
by the town council) was the erection of a public school 
building. In November, 1878, Supt. Ruffner was in Har- 
risonburg attending a teachers' institute. On October 30, 
1879, Judge Kenney wrote in his diary: "The new brick 
school house for the free school is about finished. Cost $5000. " 
It was used for the session of 1879-80, Clarence H. Urner of 
New Market being principal of the school. This building is 
now used for the grades in the Main Street school. The 
trustees under whose direction it was built were J. L. Avis, 
G. 0. Conrad, and G. F. Compton. 



Harrisonburg in 1878-9 had a Shakespeare Club. Traces 
of the same club, or another like it, were found just twenty 
years later. 

In 1878 and thereabouts North Mountain Academy, near 
Chrisman, J. W. Jones being principal, was attracting a good 
deal of attention. 

In 1878 there came to Rockingham a man who probably 
did more than any other to commend the public schools to 
general favor, to stir up school spirit, and to inspire his pupils 
with a desire for higher learning. This was A. C. Kimler. 
From 1878 to 1881 he taught at River Bank; from 1881 to 1889, 
at McGaheysville. It was at the latter place he did his great 
work for Rockingham. Says Mr. Richard Mauzy: "He estab- 
lished Oak Hill Academy, and was a successful teacher." 

During his eight years at McGaheysville Professor Kim- 
ler sent students to Randolph-Macon College, Roanoke, 
Franklin and Marshall, Nashville Normal School, the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, West Point, Richmond Medical College, and 
Baltimore Dental College. He received letters commending 
their work from Dr. Smith of Randolph-Macon, Dr. Venable 
of the University of Virginia, and others. mg those he 

sent out were the following, many of '>' well known 


William Yancey, Harrisonburg, de 

C. N. Wyant, school principal in Pennsylvania. 

Dr. J. B. Rush, Woodstock, Va. 

R. H. Sheppe, teacher and educator, deceased. 

Rev. J. P. Harner, Middlebrook, Va. 

C. C. Herring, editor; Harrisonburg. 

Rev. Melville Killian. 

H. W. Bertram, lawyer and editor; Harrisonburg. 

Floyd W. Weaver, county clerk, Luray, Va. 

J. H. Bader, educator; McGaheysville. 

Rev. John Life. 

Fayette Hedrick, McGaheysville. 

Luther Hopkins, McGaheysville. 



C. L. Lambert, Little Rock, Ark.^o 

Bridgewater College dates its beginnings from 1880, 
when D. C. Flory, assisted by J. R. Shipman, opened a nor- 
mal and collegiate institute at Spring Creek. In 1882 the 
school was located at Bridgewater, where it has since gained 
wide recognition. It was chartered as a college in 1889. On 
December 31 of this year the main building burned, but 
others have taken its place until to-day there are? buildings; 
two frame, five brick. These include a gymnasium and a 
central heating plant. One of the benefactors of the school 
was W. B. Yount, who was president from 1892 to 1910. The 
institution represents especially the educational interests of 
the Church of the Brethren, and is co-educational. Work is 
offered leading to the degrees of B. A., M. A., Th. B., etc. 
The library contains over 10,000 volumes. 

The students conduct three literary societies, the Vic- 
torian, the Virginia Lee, and the Acme; and publish a monthly 
magazine, founded in 1896, the Philomathean Monthly. A 
student civic league and other organizations are also main- 
tained. The enrolment during the session of 1911-12 was 184. 

John S. Flory is president of the college; Hiram G. Miller 
is presiden' "^he board of trustees. The faculty consists of 
17 regular - r with a number of assistants. An active 

alumni ass( ■ ^ been in existence since 1899. Grad- 

uates of the 1 have taken high rank at the univer- 

sities, and a it. imber have entered the Gospel ministry. 

At Mt. Clinton, in 1890, a 2-room graded school, offering 
some high-school work, was built up into a 4-year high-school, 
and named West Central Academy. It continued in this 
character till 1902, I. S. Wampler, now fiscal secretary of 
the alumni association of Peabody College, Nashville, was 
principal; and among the other teachers were C. J. Heatwole, 

10. Abram C. Kimler graduated from Franklin and Marshall College in 
1878. After leaving McGaheysvillehe went to New Market, Va. ; thence 
to Shepherdstown, W. Va. , where he was principal of the State Normal 
College for several years. At present he is principal of the Waynesboro 
(Va.) High School, and he is still sending students up higher. 



L. R. Dinges (now studying in Germany), D. I. Suter, M. 
A. Good, and D. B. Wampler. The largest enrolment in 
high school classes at any time was 170. Public and private 
funds were combined for maintenance. Graduates entered 
Washington and Lee, the University of Virginia, and other 
colleges. The summer normal institutes were a special feature. 
About 1897 it was ascertained that 65 '-^ of all the teachers in 
Rockingham had at some time been students of this school. 

In 1896 Rockingham Military Academy, atMt. Crawford, 
was opened under the principalship of Otey C. Hulvey. From 
the beginning of the second session until the suspension of 
the school in 1901, Capt. F.A. Byerly, now a prominent teacher 
in West Virginia, was principal and commandant. The school 
occupied a handsome three-story building just west of the 
Valley Pike, at the northeast end of Mt. Crav/ford. For some 
time, prior to his connection with the R. M. A., Capt. Byerly 
had conducted Sunnyside School for Girls at Pleasant Valley. 

A Rockingham County historical society was organized in 
1898-9. A committee, made up of Maj. George Chrisman, 
James B. Stephenson, and F. A. Byerly, drew up a constitu- 
tion and by-laws. Gen. John E. Roller ^was elected presi- 
dent. There were 16 vice-presidents, an executive committee, 
a library committee, a committee on Confederate soldiers, and 
a reception committee. The society was given the use of a 
room in the courthouse; but in spite of this official recognition, 
the rich field at hand, and the need of a strong organization 
to preserve our historical materials, interest in the organiza- 
tion soon fell to a low ebb. A revival of spirit will doubtless 
come at some time in the future, when many golden oppor- 
tunities have passed forever. Rockingham County needs a 
historical society; but such a society to live must have the 
sympathy of many people. 

It is a common misimpression that our present public school 
system in Virginia is altogether a product of Reconstruction — 
that we had no free schools before the war. As a matter of 
fact, there were legislative provisions in Virginia as early as 
1780 — perhaps earlier— for the establishment of free schools; 



and such schools were in actual operation from the beginning 
of the 19th century up to the civil war. To be sure, these 
public free schools were inadequate to the general need: they 
were intended for the poor, and in most cases were used only 
by the poor. This fact will explain some of the prejudice 
against free (public) schools in more recent times. 

A few statistics from different periods will illustrate gen- 
eral conditions. In 1824-5 the number of free schools in 98 
counties and towns of Virginia was 2450; the number of 
"poor" children was 21,177; the number sent to school was 
10,226; the amount expended for their tuition was $49,222.22. 
Eleven counties made no report. ' ' In 1826 $45, 000 was appro- 
priated for schools in the different counties; Rockingham's 
share was $942.12. 

According to the census of 1850, there were in Rocking- 
ham 2765 persons who could neither read nor write, in a total 
white population of 17,500. Rockingham's share of the school 
fund this year was $1399.^2 

The increased allotment ten years later, and its distribu- 
tion among the several districts of the county, are shown in 
the following table: 


For Rockingham Co., for the Year 1861. 

The following is the apportionment made by the Superintendent of 
the Literary Fund for Rockingham county, for the year ending Septem- 
ber, '61: 

Dist. No. 1 

C. A. Sprinkel, 


$180 00 


J. W. C. Houston, 

130 00 


B. F. Lincoln, 

140 00 


P. P. Koontz, 

130 00 


Wm. Sellers, 

100 00 


Madison West, 

130 00 


Jos. H. Conrad, 

170 00 


Wm. B. Yancey, 

120 00 


Y. C. Ammon, 

150 00 

11. From a Virginia almanac of 1827. 

12. From a Virginia almanac of 1852. 



ist. No 10 Geo. W. Kemper, 


$140 00 

" 11 Jos. Beery, 


120 00 

12 Geo. P. Burtner, 


120 00 

" 13 Jacob Byerly, 


170 00 

14 M. H. Harris, 


130 00 

15 Peter Wise, 


50 00 

16 Wm. Beard, 


140 00 

17 G. R. Harrell, 


140 00 

18 F. M. Ervine, 


200 00 

" 19 Jesse Ralston, 


80 00 

'* 20 Arch'd. Hopkins, 


230 00 

21 Jno. Q. Winfield, 


130 00 

22 Henry Neff, 


130 00 

" 23 Benj. Trumbo, 


160 00 

" 24 Jacob Caplinger, 


140 00 

Chas. a, Sprinkel, 

County Sup't of Schools for 
Rockingham County. 

From the Rockingham Register of Dec. 14, 1860. 

In the same issue of the Register the school teachers of 
the County are notified that all claims against the Board of 
School Commissioners must be presented each year by the 
■October Court; the notice being signed by M. H. Harris, 
president, and Chas. A. Sprinkel, clerk. 

Although there was less prejudice against the free school 
system of 1870 and following years in the Valley than in most 
other sections of Virginia, many even in Rockingham looked 
upon it with misgiving, fearing an aggravation of the race 
problem, a weakening of the moral code, and various other 
undesirable things. On this point Rev. W. T. Price, of Mar- 
linton, W. Va., for 16 years a prominent citizen of Rocking- 
ham, said in a recent letter: 

When the pubHc school system [of 1870] was first mooted, the feeling 
quite prevalent among the more influential people was that the effect 
would be a very serious one upon the religious interests of the people, 
through secular education. . . . The first superintendent of schools 
[in Rockingham] was the Rev. Mr. Loose. He favored all efforts to have 
the teachers realize their moral responsibility. The result was that a pre- 
dominating element of officers and teachers were in control of the system 
who realized this. The institutes were opened with prayer, the Bible 
was read in all the schools as a preliminary exercise, and in numerous in- 



stances the school would be lead in extempore prayer, or the Lord's 
Prayer would be recited in concert. As time passed it was to be noticed 
that the moral and religious features became more evident, and the bane- 
ful effects of mere secularism were in great measure prevented. 

In January, 1871, it was reported that there were 7663 
white and 965 colored persons in the county of school age, 5 
to 21; that over 60 free schools were in operation in the 
county, with more than 2000 children in attendance. There 
were at this time two free schools in Harrisonburg for col- 
ored pupils, but as yet none for white children. 

In November, 1874, there were 112 teachers of free schools 
in Rockingham, and about 90 were present at an institute in 

The following statistics are copied from the county super- 
intendent's report, published in September, 1876, for the year 
ending July 31, 1876: 

Total school population, aged 5 to 21, 9815. 

Total number of public schools, 157. 

Average number of months taught, 4.85. 

Average number of pupils enrolled monthly, 5060. 

Average daily attendance, 3897. 

Total enrolment for the session, 6446. 

Average monthly salary of teachers, $32.56. 

Amount received from the State, $10,165. 

Amount received from the county, $8809.17. 

Amount from district tax, $5818.95. 

Amount of supplements paid teachers, $5050.50. 

Value of school property owned by districts, $8985. 

Number of school houses owned by districts, 24. 

In 1889, 203 schools were open to white and 16 to colored 
pupils; 7348 white pupils and 617 colored were enrolled; 118 
men and 85 women (white), 6 men and 10 women (colored), 
were employed as teachers; the total amount expended in the 
county for school purposes was $42,833.78; the total value of 
school property was $78,144. 

According to the census of 1905, the school population of 
the county was 9470; the number of illiterates, 443. 



The present widely recognized excellence of the Har- 
risonburg public schools is mainly due to the efficient and ener- 
getic principal, William H. Keister, who came here in 1894. 
He has been here continuously since that time, and has built 
up one of the best school systems, beginning with a kinder- 
garten and ending with a high-school following eight grades, 
in the State. He has stood by the school, and the progressive 
school board has stood by him. The people have stood by 

In 1911 Harrisonburg and the several districts of the 
county voted for compulsory school attendance by large ma- 
jorities — Rockingham being the second county in Virginia to 
adopt the compulsory rule. This year (1912) the school board 
of Harrisonburg has secured an aid of $250 a year for five 
years from the Slater Fund to introduce industrial training 
into the colored schools of the tov/n. 

The year 1911 also marked the opening of the splendid 
Waterman School in the northern section of Harrisonburg, 
providing for a second kindergarten and a number of the lower 
grades. In 1910 Mr. Albert G. Waterman of Nev/ York gave 
the town a fine lot of three acres or more for a school site; 
and the town at once erected thereon a stone building, with 
most approved equipment, for a school of the sort contem- 
plated. The site commands a wide viev/ of the town and sur- 
rounding country, and is only a fev/ hundred yards south of 
the old Waterman homestead, where the house and farm 
buildings burned on the night of July 13, 1868. '^ 

The Harrisonburg school board, composed of Messrs. W. 
J. Dingledine, Wm. Dean, and P. F. Spitzer, are setting a 
pace which, if generally followed over the State, will soon 

13- Dr. Asher Waterman, already mentioned in this book, was a sur- 
geon in the Revolution. He came to Harrisonburg about 1783. August 
30, 1787, he married Sarah Lochart of Augusta County. Albert G. and 
Augustus Waterman were his sons, the latter probably living at the old 
homestead above mentioned. Annie and Isabella were his daughters, the 
former marrying Chas. Douglas, the latter Robt. Gray. Albert G. , born 
at Harrisonburg, about 1800, went about 1827 to Philadelphia, where he 


^^.^^^f^-^i-^ A:^e^^/iirA./f^ 

(Pages 288-292, 338) 

Engraving- loaned by Henkel & Co. 

New Market, Va- 


place Virginia in the front rank of educational progress. 
Other recent members of the board were Hon. A. H. Snyder 
(1863-1910) and Dr. T. C. Firebaugh. Dr. J. M. Biedler de- 
serves special mention for the work he has done in forwarding 
medical inspection in the schools of Harrisonburg and Rock- 
ingham County. 

Rockingham County has had a notable history in the 
normal school work of Virginia. In August, 1870, E. Arm- 
field Legg was advertising the "Harrisonburg Normal School," 
the next session of which was to begin the first Monday of 
September, in the basement of the Lutheran Church, and 
close the last Friday of June, 1871. Teachers' institutes were 
held in the county before this time, and many short summer 
sessions have been offered to teachers of the county for many 
years. From 1884 to 1891 summer normals were held at 
Harrisonburg under provisions of the Peabody Fund, as many 
as 300 teachers being in attendance at one time. From 1882 to 
1884, and thereabouts, the institution now Bridgewater Col- 
lege was called the "Virginia Normal School." 

Of all the early movements for the professional training 
of teachers the most notable in Rockingham, perhaps in Vir- 
ginia, was carried on at Bridgewater from 1873 to 1878 by 
Alcide Reichenbach,i'*J. D. Bucher,!'^ A. L. Funk, ^^^ Miss Vir- 

died February 16, 1862, highly honored as a citizen and benefactor. For 
24 years preceding his death he was on the board of managers of the 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind. His son, Mr. 
A. G. Waterman, Jr., is the honored patron of the Harrisonburg school 
bearing his name. 

14. Alcide Reichenbach, A. M., was born in Switzerland in 1845, and 
enjoyed excellent advantages for training in both Europe and America. 
For a number of years he has been a professor in Ursinus College, Col- 
legeville. Pa., where he still lives. 

la- Dr. J. D. Bucher, still a resident of Bridgewater, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, and has been identified for many years with various phases of 
educational and professional work. He had received a 4-year course of 
training in the Pennsylvania normal schools. 

16. Prof. A. L. Funk, with Prof. G. H. Hulvey and others, continued 



ginia Paul, ''^ Miss Laura O'Ferrall, ^^ and others. In outlining 
professional courses for teachers, one covering two years, 
another four, catalogues of the best American and German 
normal schools were consulted. A model school for observa- 
tion, etc., was conducted. State Supt. Ruffner, Maj. Jed 
Hotchkiss, Prof. S. T. Pendleton, of Richmond, Prof. E. V. 
DeGraff, and others were secured as special lecturers. Stu- 
dents were in attendance from a number of counties of Vir- 
ginia, from West Virginia, and Ohio. Some of the pupils 
that have since become prominent in education and related 
work are: S. F. Lindsay, Mrs. G. B. Holsinger, Miss Fannie 
Lowman, Miss Fannie Speck, L. J. Heatwole, J. S. McLeod, 
G. R. Berlin, Cyrus H. Cline, and Rockingham Paul. In 1875 
Supt. Ruffner wrote to the principal: 

Your normal school has been a most useful institution, and I am 
greatly pleased that you intend to continue it. You are offering advan- 
tages to teachers such as are hard to find anywhere else in reach of them. 
They could well afford to spend a large portion of their earnings in at- 
tending upon your school, 

A detailed history of the Valley Normal School should be 
preserved in the educational records of Virginia. It was per- 
haps the first in the State to do real normal school work. 

Shenandoah Normal College, G. W. Hoenshel,^^ princi- 

normal teaching at Bridgewater and other places. He was principal of 
the Harrisonburg high-school in 1878-9. 

17. Miss Virginia Paul, daughter of Peter Paul, sister of Judge John 
Paul, was a graduate of the State normal school at Trenton, N. J. She 
taught in the Valley normal school at Bridgewater from 1876 to 1878. 
She died at Ottobine, Nov. 14, 1879, aged 26. 

18. Miss Laura O'Ferrall was a sister to Hon. Chas. T. O'Ferrall, gov- 
ernor of Virginia, 1894-8. 

19. George W. Hoenshelwas bornat Mendon, Pa., Dec. 11, 1858. After 
graduating from the Danville, Ind., Normal School, he took steps toward 
organizing a similar school in Virginia. First at Middletown, then at 
Harrisonburg, afterward at Basic City and Reliance, he did a helpful 
work for the teaching profession and the cause of education. His wife 
was Miss Carrie Moffett, of New Market. He died at Reliance, April 



pal, was located at Harrisonburg, on W. Market Street, from 
1887 to 1890. Other members of the faculty were A. P. 
Funkhouser, I. M. Groves, J. J. Corn well, Mrs. Minnie Funk- 
houser, and E. U. Hoenshel. Some of the students in 1888 
were D. R. Good, I. S. Wampler, T. 0. Heatwole, and Orville 

When, in 1904, definite steps were proposed in the Vir- 
ginia Senate for establishing another State normal school for 
women, Harrisonburg formally entered competition for the 
said school. The town council offered an appropriation of 
$5000, the county supervisors one of $10,000. The same year 
a committee of the General Assembly visited Harrisonburg, 
among other places, to compare the claims of the respective 
localities. It was not, however, until March 14, 1908, that 
Harrisonburg was designated, by Act of Assembly, as the 
place for a new State normal. April 15, 1909, the corner 
stone was laid; and on September 28, following, the first ses- 
sion began. At present (1912) there are four buildings, three 
of stone, one of brick, not counting several smaller structures. 
In all, 1343 different students, representing over 90 counties of 
Virginia, with a number of States outside of Virginia, have 
been enrolled. About 70 full graduates have been sent out — 
two years of work upon the basis of a 4-year high-school 
course being required for graduation. Two literary societies 
(the Lanier and the Lee) are maintained by the students, who 
publish a splendid annual, "The Schoolma'am. " A Y. W. 
C. A., an athletic association, and an alumnae association are 
kept up, and the student body has adopted an honor system. 
Julian A. Burruss, formerly of Richmond, is the president 
and efficient organizer of the school, to whom is due the chief 
credit for its phenomenal success. He is assisted by a corps 
of 20 specialists, as instructors and administrative officers, 
together with a number of student assistants. Hon. Geo. B. 
Keezell is president of the board of trustees; Hon. Floyd W. 

12, 1896. Among his published works is a 149-page volume entitled 
"X-Talks and Other Addresses." Dr. E. U. Hoenshel of Dayton, Va., 
well known as an educator, traveler, author, and lecturer, is a brother. 



King is vice-president; Hon. Geo. N. Conrad is treasurer. The 
late Hon. A. H. Snyder was a most helpful member on the 
original board of trustees. 

Two sons of Rockingham who long ago became famous 
as educators were Henry Tutwiler and Gessner Harrison, 
both born in Harrisonburg in 1807, one the son of the post- 
master, Henry Tutwiler, the other the son of the doctor, 
Peachy Harrison. They both entered the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1825, where, in due time, Tutwiler got the M. A. and 
Harrison the M. D. degree. It is said that Tutwiler was the 
first to receive the coveted Master's degree from the nev/ in- 
stitution. Later he went to Alabama, where his life work 
was given, with eminent success, to educational work. His 
daughter, Julia Tutwiler, is to-day accorded first honors in 
Alabama among the teachers and leaders of her sex. Henry 
Tutwiler lived till 1884. 

Gessner Harrison became a professor in his alma mater, 
and was chairman of the faculty a number of years. He pre- 
pared serviceable text-books, and taught with the inspiring 
word of a leader. His motto, "Trust God and work," 
explains his life and character. He died in 1862, The sons of 
Mars dinned men's ears at the moment, but upon the quiet 
lawn, and among the arcades where the scholars linger, his 
voice is still heard. 

Among the men and women, native or not, who have 
made notable contributions to Virginia's schools, may yet 
be mentioned the following: Geo. A. Baxter, of Rocking- 
ham; president of Washington College, now Washington and 
Lee University, 1799-1829; Hugh Tagart, first a Catholic 
priest, then a school-master, who died at Harrisonburg about 
1840; Wm. S. Slusser (1836-1898), 40 years a teacher in 
Rockingham and Augusta; R. H. Sheppe, lately deceased, 
prominent fiist as an educational leader in Rockingham, then 
in the State at large; C. E. Barglebaugh, long well known as 
a teacher in the county, and still in active life; Miss Belle C. 
Hannah, long a favorite teacher, now the wife of Sen. G. B. 
Keezell; Chas. G. Maphis (1865 — ), a native of Shenandoah,, 



but from 1887 to 1890 principal of the Harrisonburg schools; 
now professor of education in the State University ; H. M. Hays, 
a son of Rockingham by long residence, now on the faculty 
of the University of Missouri; W. T. Myers, a son by birth, 
now on the faculty of the University of Virginia; I. N. H. 
Beahm (1859 — ), another native, a founder of schools; H. S. 
Hooke, long in Harrisonburg, now in Roanoke; J. J. Lincoln, 
well known in the State; J. W. Basore, of Broadway and 
Princeton ; and last, but not least, our veteran superintendent, 
Geo. H. Hulvey, a son of Rockingham by birth and service. 

References have already been made to the colored schools 
of the county and county-seat. As early as December, 1866, 
Mrs. M. W. L. Smith, Miss Phoebe Libby, and Miss Ellen 
Crockett, from Maine and New Hampshire, were conducting 
a school in Harrisonburg for colored children: 82 being in at- 
tendance during the day, 100 at night. ^ They were teaching, 
it was said, in the new colored church. From time to time 
the school seems to have been taken from place to place. 
Sometimes it was held in the basement of the church (North- 
ern Methodist, later Catholic) that stood opposite the B. & 0. 
station; at another time it was in a back room, somewhere, 
upstairs, and the boys and girls to reach it had to "climb, 
jump, and stoop." But they did it all gladly. 

In the fall of 1868 Watkins James, an agent of the 
Freedmen's Bureau, established a colored school at Bridge- 
water. Just before Christmas a lot of white fellows wrecked 
the furniture, but the better people condemned the act.^^ 

Within the last year or two the colored people of Har- 
risonburg have taken notable part in repairing and enlarging 
their school building, which is now a handsome and com- 
modious structure. The efficient principal is Mr. H. A. M. 
Johns, formerly of Hampton, who has been here since 1908. 
Under his direction the work is making fine progress.-- 

20. R. Register, Dec. 13, 1866. 21. Old Commonwealth, June 6, 1869. 

22. I am indebted to Prof. U. G. Wilson for a most interesting paper 
on the Harrisonburg colored schools; it is withheld from publication here 
only for lack of space. 




As early as 1822 there was in Rockingham an auxiliary- 
colonization society, endeavoring to raise money to establish 
and support an "Infant Colony" at Cape Misurado, on the 
African Coast. Robert Herron was treasurer. This society 
was still in existence in 1825. 

The civil war of course produced many needs for charity, 
and was marked throughout by organized movements aiming 
to supply those needs. Early in the war a soldiers' aid 
society was organized in the county. At a meeting in Har- 
risonburg, September 24, 1861, the following officers were 

President — Miss Jeannetta Conrad. 
Vice-Presidents — Mrs. Amanda Keezle, Mrs. Strother 

Recording Secretary — Miss M. Byrd. 
Corresponding Secretaries— Mrs. Harriet Ruffner, Mrs. 
M. Harvey Effinger. 

Treasurer — Mrs. Harriet Warren. 
The following were chosen managers: 
Mrs. James Crawford Mrs. Margaret Wartmann 

Mrs. G. Kratzer Mrs. Rebecca Newman 

Mrs. Dr. Dinges Mrs. Henry Ott 

Mrs. Nelson Sprinkel Mrs. Annie Kenney 

Mrs. Geo. Christie Mrs. Lucy Effinger 

Mrs. Col. Hopkins Mrs. Juliet Strayer 

Mrs. A. Lincoln Mrs. Mary Kyle 

Miss Anna Strayer Maj. L. W. Gambill 

Miss Rebecca Davis Mr. Peter Woodward 

Miss Annie Jennings Mrs. Lizzie Hudson 

Miss O'Brien Mrs. Susan Bear 

Mrs. L. Bryan Mrs. Malinda Kite 


Most of the ladies named lived in Harrisonburg and 
vicinity; some were from other parts of the county. At 
another meeting held in Harrisonburg, October 29, the fol- 
lowing were added to the list of solicitors for the county: 

Mrs. Bramwell Rice, Rushville; 

Mrs. E. Bear, North Mountain; 

Mrs. Fannie Hopkins, Mt. Clinton; 

Mrs, Kieffer, Mountain Valley; 

Mrs. Mary Lincoln, Linvill's Creek; 

Mrs. A. Brock, Linvill's Creek; 

Mrs. Jane Burkholder, Linvill's Creek; 

Mrs. Christian Coffman, Linvill's Creek; 

Mrs. D. C. Byerly Mrs. Huldah Heiskell 

Mrs. Jacob Byerly Mrs. Priscilla Miller 

Mrs. Lenion Harman Mrs. Rankin 

Miss Mary Lewis Miss Dolly McGahey 

Miss Sarah Weaver (Mrs. Fannie Hopkins) 

The object of the society was to provide supplies of 
various kinds for soldiers in the field and in the hospitals.' 

In June, 1862, C. Clinton Clapp, a Harrisonburg mer- 
chant, made the first subscription ($50) to a fund for the pur- 
pose of erecting a monument upon the battlefield where the 
lamented Turner Ashby fell.^ 

On April 30 and May 1, 1863, the ladies of Bridgewater 
gave an entertainment in the M. E. church, the proceeds to 
be used for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. In the 
spring of 1864 they sent 30 pairs of socks to Co. D, 10th Va. 

In February, 1864, the Misses Ewing, of near Harrison- 
burg, furnished an abundant supply of warm, woolen socks 
to Co. A, 1st Mo. Cavalry. This was the famous Woodson's 
Company, McNeill's Battalion, partisan rangers. About the 
same time D. M. Switzer offered to cut garments free for 
private soldiers of Rockingham in limited circumstances. 

1- See Rockingham Register, Oct. 4 and Nov. 1, 1861. 
2 See page 179 of this book. 



The physicians made special provisions for such soldiers and 
their families. Some of the mills in the county did grinding 
for soldiers' families, free of toll. 

At a meeting held in McGaheysville February 21, 1864, 
residents of the village and neighborhood contributed $1700 
for the aid of soldiers. The meeting was addressed by Rev. 
J. L. Stirewalt, of New Market, who was soliciting funds to be 
used in purchasing artificial limbs for maimed Confederates. 

November 28, 1864, at a special meeting in the M. E. 
church, Port Republic, conducted by Rev. J. Stirevs^alt and 
Pastor J. P. Hyde, $894.66 was taken up for the help of 
wounded (maimed) soldiers. 

After the battle of Nev/ Market, May 15, 1864, the people 
of Harrisonburg and vicinity sent a lot of carriages to the 
battlefield, specially for the purpose of bringing the wounded 
men of Woodson's company to Harrisonburg, where many of 
them were cared for in private families. 

In 1865-6 the merchants, lav/yers, doctors, and mechanics 
of Harrisonburg formed a Thespian society, for the relief of 
widows and orphans of Rockingham soldiers. In May, 1866, 
a Thespian society was formed in Bridgewater. 

In the summer of 1866, a Rockingham Memorial Associa- 
tion was organized by the ladies of Harrisonburg, This was 
probably the beginning of the Ladies' Memorial Association 
mentioned on pages 159, 169, 170, above. In the Old Com- 
monwealth of November 28, 1872, appeared a tribute to Mrs. 
C. C. Strayer, president of this association. 

In 1878 liberal contributions were sent from Rockingham 
to the yellow fever sufferers in the South. Up to October 17, 
$715.24 had been contributed in the county to this cause. 
Early in 1880 a meeting was held in the Court House to 
organize relief for the victims of the famine in Ireland. 

A work of benevolent character that must not be over- 
looked in this connection was organized and led for many 
years by Mrs. Lucy G. Chrisman, in cleaning up, beautifying, 
and caring for the cemeteries of the county. This work 



probably centered at New Erection, but has extended far 
and wide with most beneficent results. 

The remainder of this chapter will be devoted to five 
particular institutions, which typify different lines of benev- 
olent enterprise: (1) the Harrisonburg- almshouse, (2) the 
county almshouse, (3) the Old Folks' Home, (4) the Orphans' 
Home, (5) the Rockingham Memorial Hospital. The chief 
benevolent institution of Rockingham is the good will of her 
citizens; but this has crystalized in various definite forms. 

The almshouse for the town of Harrisonburg is located 
on the Valley Pike, a short distance southwest of town, near 
the toll gate. It is under the supervision of a committee of 
three of the town council, who, with the chief of police, look 
after the poor of the town. The inmates usually number 
only five or six. The present chief of police is Frank L. 
Dovel; the superintendent of the almshouse is David Landes. 

The almshouse for the county was formerly located near 
Keezletown, but for the past thirty or forty years it has been 
at the present site, one mile northeast of Pleasant Valley. 
It is on a fine farm of 323 acres, 185 acres of which are under 
cultivation, the balance being in timber. The number of 
persons cared for here is usually 46 or 47. The popular 
superintendent is C. W. Pence, who has had charge of the 
place for the past seven years. 

At Timberville is located the Old Folks' Home, main- 
tained by the Church of the Brethren. Initial steps toward 
providing such an institution were taken in 1888, when 
Michael Zigler, S. F. Miller, and N. W. Beery were appointed 
a committee, by the Second District of Virginia, to take the 
matter under advisement. The home was opened March 1, 
1892, with Daniel Wine and wife in charge. The number of 
inmates ranges from ten to tv/enty-five. J. W. Lichliter is 
the present superintendent. 

Near the Old Folks' Home, at Timberville, the Church 
of the Brethren maintains an Orphans' Home, established in 
1905. The present building was completed in 1910. The 
plan contemplates a home and industrial school for orphan 



children, regardless of religious affiliation. Altogether, up 
to March 31, 1912, 44 children had been received at the Home. 
Of these, 24 have been placed in permanent homes. The 
original trustees of the institution were D. H. Zigler, J. W. 
Wampler, J. M. Wampler, M. J. Cline, and P. S. Thomas; the 
present trustees are D. H. Zigler, S. D. Miller, M. J. Cline, 
J. J. Conner, and P. S. Thomas. Mr. and Mrs. John L. Hol- 
singer are in immediate charge. 

On October 1, 1912, the Rockingham Memorial Hospital, 
located at the south side of Harrisonburg, adjoining the 
grounds of the State Normal School, was formally opened. 
A gift of $20,000 or more, by will, made four years ago by 
William G. Leake, led to the establishment of this institu- 
tion. Of Mr. Leake it has been said, "He devoted his life 
to honest work, and his wealth to relieve human suffering. 
The Rockingham Memorial Hospital is his Monument." By 
his own request, the hospital does not bear his name, but 
inside the main entrance is a handsome bronze tablet, bearing 
the following inscription: 





















At another place in the hall is a marble tablet, inscribed 
as follows: 

r~ — ~ — >k 


Board of Trustees 

J. Wilton— President 

T. N. Haas— Vice-President 

J. M. BiEDLER— Secretary 

E. R. MILLER— Treasurer 
W. J. Dingledine T. 0. Jones 

George E. Sipe Layton B. Yancey 

Elmer U. Hoenshel John S. Funk 

Walter B. Yount John H. Hoover 

Building Committee 

J. Wilton W. J. Dingledine 

E. R. Miller E. U. Hoenshel 

T. N. Haas J. M. Biedler 

Architects— Corneal & Johnston 
Builders— W. M. Bucher & Son 


At present Julian A. Burruss and Jacob S. Sellers are 
members of the board of trustees. 

All over the county, churches, benevolent organizations, 
and generous individuals have made donations to the hos- 
pital. Within the past year the ladies' auxiliary of Harrison- 
burg has raised $2575 for the institution. The president of 
this organization is Mrs. Russell Bucher; Mrs. Julian A. Bur- 
russ is secretary, and Mrs. E. Purcell, treasurer. Among the 
number of ladies who have rendered notable service, it will 
not be invidious to mention the name of Mrs. B. Ney. The 
superintending nurse in charge of the hospital is Miss Nan 




A. A List of Writers and Their Works. 

Beahm, Isaac N. H. : Born near Good's Mill, May 14, 
1859; educator, traveler, and lecturer; writer on various edu- 
cational and social topics; address, Trevilians, Va. 

Bowman, Peter: Located in Rockingham about 1785; in 
1817 published (Laurentz Wartmann, Harrisonburg, printer) a 
book entitled "Ein Zeugniss von der Taufe." 

Braun, Johannes: From 1800 to 1850 a leader of the 
German Reformed Church in Rockingham; in 1818 he pub- 
lished (Laurentz Wartmann, Harrisonburg, printer) a 16mo 
book of 419 pages, entitled "Circular-Schreiben an die Deut- 
schen Einwohner von Rockingham und Augusta, und den 
benachbarten Counties: Erster Band," In 1830 Wartmann 
printed for him "Eine kurze Unterweisung Christlichen 
Religion," etc., a 16mo book of 72 pages. 

Brown, T. H. B. : Born in Albemarle County, Va. , Sept. 
25, 1835; died at his home in Bridge water, Aug. 12, 1900; a 
resident of Rockingham from 1859 or 1860; a physician, a 
skilled journalist ("N. W. Orb"), and a contributor for many 
years to the Rockingham Register and different metropolitan 

Bryan, Daniel: Born in Rockingham about 1795, son of 
Maj. William Bryan; brother of Allan C. Bryan; named after 
Daniel Boone; graduated from Washington College (now W. 
& Lee University) 1807; merchant, lawyer, poet; colonel in 
War of 1812; postmaster at Alexandria many years; died in 
Washington City, December, 1866; author: 

1813— "The Mountain Muse" (16mo, 252 pp.); printed at 
Harrisonburg, by Davidson & Bourne. 


"Lay of Gratitude" (greeting to Lafayette). 

1826— "Appeal for Suffering Genius." 
1830— "Thoughts." 

"Education," etc.^ 

"The Mountain Muse," dealing in heroic verse with the 
adventures of Daniel Boone, was sold in no less than nine or 
ten States outside of Virginia. Considering the difficulties of 
travel, transportation, and communication in those days, 
we cannot help wondering how Mr. Bryan secured such a 
wide circulation for his little book. The matter may be 
explained in some measure, no doubt, by the fact that the 
number of books put upon the market then was small in 
comparison with the number that are bidding now in sharp 
competition for the reader's notice. In one copy of "The 
Mountain Muse" that the writer has seen, and in only one, is 
printed the list of the subscribers' names. They total about 
1350, and belonged for the most part, to the people of Vir- 
ginia: eastern Virginia as well as the Valley. About 150 
belonged to residents of Tennessee; about 100 to residents of 
Ohio; while the remainder were distributed among Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, New York, South Carolina, North Carolina, 
Connecticut, Louisiana, and Mississippi Territory. 

Hon. Chas. Page Bryan, ambassador to Japan, is a grand- 
son of Daniel Bryan, 

Bryan, Mrs. Emma Lj^on: Native of Richmond; a resi- 
dent of Harrisonburg since her marriage in 1864 to Pendleton 
Bryan (son of Allan C. Bryan); artist, composer, author: 

1879— "My Sunflower's Fan" (illustrated by herself; 
published in St. Nicholas, December). 

1892— "A Romance of the Valley of Virginia" (a story 
of the war of 1860-5; 12mo, 228 pp.; printed on Confederate 


1867— "Harrisonburg, Looking Eastward." 

1- References: Washington and Lee Catalogue of Alumni, p. 59; 
Painter's Poets of Virginia, pp. 57-59; Rockingham Register, Jan. 3, 1867, 
and May 7, 1868. 



1886— "Sunrise at Lover's Leap." 

1886— "Where Ashby Fell" (original owned by Mis^ 
Lucy Shacklett, Harrisonburg; copies in the Confederate 
Museum at Richmond, and elsewhere). 

Burkholder, Newton M. : Born at Fort Lynne, near 
Greenmount, Jan. 17, 1844; son of John Burkholder; was a 
C. S. A. soldier, and a telegraph operator at Harrisonburg 
from Jan. 1, 1863, till the close of the war; graduated in 
dentistry (1867) from the Bait. College of Dent. Surgery; in 
1865 married Miss Ella Moore, who died in 1897; in 1899 
married Miss Cornelia Switzer who survives him; he died 
Dec. 8, 1900, at Harrisonburg; was a frequent contributor to 
the Rockingham Register, the Central Presbyterian (Rich- 
mond), etc.; in 1899-1900 he wrote a series of articles for the 
Richmond Dispatch, on episodes of the war. 

Burkholder, Peter: Long a resident of Rockingham; in 
1816 he published a treatise on water-baptism, etc. , comprising 
60 16mo pages, which was printed in Harrisonburg by Lau- 
rentz Wartmann; was the author of "Nine Reflections," 
published in English by Joseph Funk in 1837. 

Byerly, Frank Aubrey: A native of Rockingham, and 
many years a teacher in the county, now in West Virginia; 
published in 1910 "Hints, Helps, Devices, and Suggestions 
for School Work" (16mo, 32 pp ). Has been a frequent 
contributor to the Rockingham Register and other periodicals 
on educational topics. 

Chrisman, George: Born in Rockingham, June 2, 1832; 
son of Geo. H. and Martha Herring Chrisman; captain of 
"Chrisman's Infantry" (1861) and the "Boy Company" of 
cavalry (1864); married Lucy Gilmer Grattan, Nov. 13, 1867; 
for many years a writer on farming and stock raising. 

CHne, Justus H. : Born near Timberville, Oct. 14, 1875; 
minister, teacher, and author: 

1905 — "Some Benefactors of Bridge water College." 

1912 — "Geological Features of Rockingham County" (see 
pp. 21-31 above). 

1912 — "Dikes of the Shenandoah Valley" (in preparation 
with Dr. Thos. L. Watson). 



Address, Stuart's Draft, Va. 

Compton, Geo. F. : Long a resident of Harrisonburg, now- 
living in Charlottesville; wrote 27 articles on the early history 
of Rockingham County, published, 1885, in the Rockingham 

Conn, Miss Ruth Randolph: Born at McGaheysville, 1893; 
author of "Swords and Roses" (story), "The Making of the 
Flowers," "October Woods," "A Blink o' Rest" (poems); 
etc.; a contributor to this book (page 32). 

Conrad, Miss Mary Lynn: A native of Rockingham, and 
a resident of Harrisonburg; author of "Confederate Banners" 
(12mo, 20 pp., illust). 

Converse, Henry Augustus: Born in Philadelphia, May 
8, 1839; died Dec. 5, 1880, in Harrisonburg, where he had 
lived from January, 1879, and where he compiled his valuable 
work for the members of his profession: "Indexes to the 
Virginia and West Virginia Reports" (8vo, 381pp. ; Rich- 
mond, 1881). 

Cox, S. K.: Born in Baltimore, July 16, 1823; died in 
Harrisonburg, Nov. 27, 1909; clergyman, journalist, poet. 
Dr. Cox came in 1888 to Harrisonburg, where he had his home 
the remainder of his life. In 1892 he married Miss Bryan 
Moffett, who survives him. For a number of years he was 
associate editor of the Baltimore and Richmond Christian 
Advocate; he wrote much in prose and verse, of high merit. 

Daingerfield, Foxhall A. : Born in Rockingham, Feb. 8, 
1839; married Nettie Gray, Nov. 4, 1863; lawyer, soldier, 
writer; contributor to agricultural papers, specially; residence, 
Castleton, Lexington, Ky. 

Daingerfield, Mrs. Nettie Gray: Born in Harrisonburg, 
daughter of Col. A. S. Gray; wife of Capt. F. A. Dainger- 
field; address, Castleton, Lexington, Ky. ; author: 

1903— "That Dear Old Sword" (12mo, 99 pp.). 

1906— "Our Mammy" (8vo, 143 pp.). 

1909— "Frescati" (12 mo, 71 pp.). 

Early, Henry C. : Born in Augusta County, Va., May 11, 
1855; for many years a resident of Rockingham. Long a 



contributor to, and recently an editor of, the Gospel Messenger, 
he writes with force and grace. He is the author of Chapter 
5 in "Two Centuries" (8vo, 398 pp.; Elgin, 111., 1808). 

Flory, J. S. : Born in Rockingham, March 28, 1836; in 
1881 was editor of the Home Mirror, Longmont, Colo., in 
1883, of the Longmont Press; the latter year he contributed 
a series of letters to the Rockingham Register on ' 'Western 
Rambhngs"; author: 

"Echoes from the Wild Frontier." 

1897- "Mind Mysteries" (12mo, 221 pp.). 

Flory, John S. : Born in Rockingham in 1866: Ph. D. of 
the University of Virginia, 1907; now president of Bridge- 
water College; author of: 

1903— "The Turleytown Blockhouse" (in U. Va. Mag.. 

1903- "Gray's Relation to His Time" (in U. Va. Mag., 

1904— "The First University Planned for America" (in 
Southern History Magazine, Washington, Jan.). 

1904— "John Wilson as an Essayist" (in Sewanee Re- 
view, Oct.). 

1906 — "The German Folksong" (in Sewanee Review, 
Jan. ) . 

1908— "Literary Activity of the Brethren in the 18th 
Century" (12mo, 347 pp.). 

1908— "Our Present Educational Activity" (pp. 331-339 
of "Two Centuries," Brethren Pub. House, Elgin, 111.). 

1911— "The Junior and Senior Years of the College 
Course" (in the Inglenook, August). 

Funk, Benjamin: Born at Singer's Glen, Dec. 29, 1829; 
died in 1909; compiled "Life and Labors of Elder John 
Kline," an octavo volume of 480 pages, published at Elgin, 
III, in 1900. 

Funk, Joseph: Born in Berks County, Pa., March 9, 
1777; died at his home in Singer's Glen, Dec. 24, 1862; 
teacher, author, translator, compiler, and publisher. His 
printing establishment, opened at Mountain Valley (Singer's 


(Pages m^. :W-J) 
By per. of J. S. Patton, U. Va. 


Glen) in 1847, is said to have been the first Mennonite printing 
house in America; this was kept up by himself and his sons 
till 1863, and then by his sons till 1878. The Ruebush-Kieffer 
press, established at Dayton in 1878, continues his work into 
the present. More concerning him is given in this chapter, 
in the list of Rockingham periodicals, and in Chapter 18, 
under the head of Rockingham singers; following is a list of 
his more important writings, compilations, etc. : 

1816 (traditional date) — A collection of hymns, in Ger- 
man, set to music, entitled "Choral-Music"; 88 pages; printed 
at Harrisonburg by Laurentz Wartmann.^ 

1832— First edition of "Genuine Church Music," 208 
pages; later called "Harmonia Sacra," the last (17th) edition 
appearing after 1870. The first two editions were printed at 
Winchester; the third at Harrisonburg (1842), by Wart- 
mann & Way; the rest, beginning with the 4th in 1847, at 
Singer's Glen. 

1837- "Mennonite Confession of Faith," with Burkhold- 
er's "Nine Reflections" (12mo, 460 pp.); a translation from 
the German; including a historical introduction, written by 

1857 — "The Reviewer Reviewed"; a work in controversial 
theology, directed against Eld. John Kline's "Review" of 
Eld. Henry Funk's "Treatise on Baptism"; 16mo, 309 pages; 
printed by Joseph Funk & Sons, at Mountain Valley. 

Funkhouser, Jacob: Born in Rockingham about 1833; died 
July, 1903; compiled and published (Harrisonburg, 1902) "A 
Historical Sketch of the Funkhouser Family" (8vo, 100 pp.). 

Garber, Jacob A. : Born near Mt. Crawford, Jan. 25, 1879; 
residence, Timberville; occasional writer of prose and verse; 
formerly editor of Emerson College Magazine, etc. 

Garber, W. A.: Minister, lecturer, writer; among other 
things, has published "The Passion Play Graft" (12 mo, 64 
pp. ; 1911) ; address, Dayton, Va. 

2. Mr. Noah Blosser, Dale Enterprise, has kindly loaned a copy of this 
book. It bears no date, but Mr. John Funk, a son of the compiler, says 
it was published in 1816. 




Grattan, Geo. G. : Born in Rockingham, February 12, 1839; 
lawyer and soldier; judge of the Rockingham County Court, 
1885-1904; brother of Charles and nephew of P. R. Grattan; 
pubHshedin 1912 "The Battle of Boonsboro Gap" (8vo, 12 pp., 
illust); address, Harrisonburg. 

Grattan, Peachy R.: Born in Rockingham, 1801; died near 
Richmond, 1881; famous in Virginia history as a statesman 
and as the compiler of Grattan's Reports. 

Hall, J. H. : A native of Rockingham, and a resident of 
Dayton ; compiler of "Golden Thoughts and Memoirs" (16mo, 
125 pp.), published in 1905 by the Ruebush-Kieffer Company, 
Dayton; has in preparation a history of popular Gospel songs. 
— See Chapter 18, for additional facts of biography. 

Harrison, Gessner: Born in Harrisonburg, June 26, 1807; 
died near Charlottesville, April 7, 1862; physician, educator, 
and author: 

1848— "On Greek Prepositions." 

1852— ' 'Exposition of Some of the Laws of Latin Gram- 
mar. " 

Hays, Daniel: Born in Hampshire County, Va., now W. 
Va., May 16, 1839; for many years past a resident of Rock- 
ingham; postofiice, Broadway. Eld. Hays has long been 
recognized as one of the best writers in the Church of the 
Brethren, and has been a frequent contributor to the church 
papers, especially the Gospel Messenger. In 1908 he con- 
tributed chapter 8 to "Two Centuries," a volume of church 
history; the year before (1907) he, with Eld. S. F. Sanger, 
published "The Olive Branch" (12mo, 232 pp.); and he now 
has ready for the press ' *A Silver Thread of History in a 
Golden Cord of Doctrine." 

Hays, Heber M. : Born in Shenandoah Co., Va., May 7, 
1876; long a residentof Rockingham; Ph. D., Univ. of Chicago, 
1912; member of the faculty, Univ. of Missouri; teacher and 

1908— "On the German Dialect Spoken in the Valley of 
Virginia" (in Dialect Notes, Vol. 3). 

1910 (?) — A genealogy of the John Myers Family (in 
Penn-Germania) . 



1912— An edition of Hesiod's Works and Days, with intro- 
duction, explanatory notes, etc., comprising about 200 pages. 

Heatwole, Cornelius J.: Born at Dale Enterprise, Oct. 
20, 1868; teacher and educator; published "History of the 
Heatwole Family" (Svo, 274 pp.), in 1907; a special con- 
tributor to this volume (see Chapter 21). 

Heatwole, D. A.: Published a history of the Heatwole 
family (16mo, 24 pp.), in 1882.— See note 7, page 224. 

Heatwole, Lewis J.: Born at Dale Enterprise, Dec. 4, 
1852, eldest son of D. A. Heatwole (p. 224) ; teacher, pastor, 
astronomer, author; has been a volunteer weather observer 
for 30 years; makes calculations annually for a large number 
of almanacs, etc., in the United States and Canada; is a fre- 
quent contributor to periodicals; he has published the follow- 
ing books; 

1907- "Moral Traininginthe Public Schools" (12mo, 109 

1908— "Key to the Almanac" (12mo, 238 pp.). 

1910— "A History of theMennonite Conference of Vir- 
ginia" (8vo, 117 pp.).— The last with C. H. Brunk and Chris- 
tian Good. 

At present Bishop Heatwole is perfecting the "Perpetual 
Calendar," which has already attracted wide attention be- 
cause of its simplicity, accuracy, and convenience, and which 
may become epoch-making in the annals of time. 

Hoenshel, Elmer U. : Home address, Dayton, Va. ; several 
years principal of Shenandoah Collegiate Institute; traveler, 
lecturer, and author: 

1909— "My Three Days in Gilead" (16mo, 85 pp.). 

1910- "By The Overflowing Nile" (16mo, 133 pp.). 

1912— "The Crimson Trail" (12mo, 141 pp.). 

Hoenshel, George W. ; Born in Pennsylvania, 1858; died 
at Reliance, Va., 1896; at Harrisonburg, 1887-1890; in 1888 
published "Education of Girls." In 1900 Mrs. Hoenshel pub- 
lished his "X-Talksand Other Addresses" (16mo, 149 pp.) at 
New Market, Va. 

Hott, George P.: Residence, Dayton; clergyman, educa- 

— 323 - 


tor, author; a frequent contributor to magazines, and a 
writer of a number of excellent hymns; author of "Christ 
the Teacher" (12mo, 138 pp.), 1900. 

Jeifries, Thomas Fayette: Known as "Crippled Fayette" 
and "Roaming Invalid. " His home was at or near Keezle- 
town, but he spent most of his time traveling, selling his 
writings, showing stereoscopic views, etc. He was a fre- 
quent contributor of travel sketches (from many different 
States) to the Register, the Old Commonwealth, etc., during 
the 60's and 70's— perhaps during the 80's also. He died in 
Georgia 15 or 20 years ago. He published at least two books: 

1856- "Nine Years in Bed" (16mo, 72 pp.); printed by 
Jos. Funk & Sons, Mountain Valley. 

"Invalid's Offering" (16mo, 150 pp.); date and place 

of publication not known. 

These books contain interesting notes of travel. 

Johnston, James C. : Educator and writer; residence, 
Harrisonburg; contributor to periodicals, and editor of classics 
for school use. 

Kemper, Charles Edward: Born near Cross Keys, June 
5, 1859, son of Edward S. and Susan Craig Kemper; gradu- 
ated in law at Washington and Lee, 1882; practiced 10 years 
in Staunton; in 1893 appointed Assistant and Chief Clerk in 
the office of the Supervising Architect, U. S. Treasury Dept. ; 
in 1894 appointed chief of this office, holding the position till 
March, 1911, when he resigned on account of poor health; on 
July 16, 1912, re-entered the service, and, by special designa- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, placed on the Board of 
Award, to award all contracts for the construction of public 
buildings. During his service in the above department, Mr. 
Kemper has been directly connected with the erection of post- 
offices, courthouses, custom houses, and marine hospitals for 
the United States, costing in the aggregate more than $160,- 
000,000; and served on the U. S. Boards of Management for 
the expositions held at Atlanta, Nashville, and Omaha. He 
was a contributor to Boogher's "Gleanings of Virginia His- 



tory" (Washington. 1903); and edited, with valuable notes, 
the following: 

"The Record of Peaked Mountain Church" (William and 
Mary College Quarterly, Vol. 14). — See pages 61-63, above. 

"Moravian Diaries of Travel through Virginia" (Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography, Vols. 11 and 12).— See 
pages 45-51, above. 

"The Early Westward Movement of Virginia" (Va. Mag., 
Vol. 13).— See pages 35, 36, above. 

In addition, he has frequently written articles of special 
historical interest and value. 

Kieffer, Aldine S. (1840-1904) : musician and poet; pub- 
Hshed "Hours of Fancy, or Vigil and Vision" (16mo, 237 pp. ) 
at Dayton in 1881. — See next chapter for a more extended 

Kieffer, H. Prime: Born at Singer's Glen, July 23, 1880, 
son of Rollin and Jennie Stinespring Kieffer; nephew of 
Aldine S. ; educated in Lafayette, Indiana, high-school and 
Purdue University; contributor to leading magazines; traveled 
in Canal Zone and Europe as special correspondent for N. Y. 
papers; residence, New York. 

Langhorne, Mrs. Orra Gray: Born in Harrisonburg, 
daughter of Col. A. S. Gray; lived in Lynchburg; wrote sev- 
eral small volumes, and was a contributor to high-class peri- 

Lilly, Malcolm G. : Well known as a teacher at Clover Hill 
and other places in Rockingham; occasional writer of verse; 
has in preparation a volume on U. S. history and teaching de- 

Long, Isaac S. : Born near Port Republic, May 13, 1875; 
since 1903 a missionary in India ;'present address, Pimpalner; 
lecturer and writer on subjects relating to India. 

Long, Mrs. Isaac S. : Born near Scott's Ford, Rocking- 
ham County; since 1903 a missionary in India; writer on India, 
Babylonia, etc. 

Mauzy, Richard : Born at McGaheysville, June 17, 1824. 
son of Col. Jos. Mauzy; editor and journalist; from 1860 to 



1895 was owner and editor of the Staunton Spectator; in 1911 
he published a history (8vo, 127 pp. ) of the Mauzy and Kis- 
ling families (printed at Harrisonburg, bound at Dayton); 
he is a special contributor to this volume (see pp. 194, 195, etc) . 
Present address, McGaheysville. 

Myers, Weldon Thomas: Born at Broadway, Oct. 25, 1879; 
Ph. D., Univ. of Va., 1912; adjunct professor, English Liter- 
ature, U. Va. ; occasional writer of prose and verse. 

1905 — Two chapters in "Bridgewater College, Past and 

1908-"Aldine S. Kieffer, the Valley Poet, and His 
Work" (in Musical Million, August). 

1909 — An article on Amelia B. Welby, in the "Library of 
Southern Literature." 

1912 — "The Relations of Latin and English as Living 
Languages in England during the Age of Milton." 

Neff, John H. : Born near Mt. Jackson, Va., 1842; mar- 
ried Miss Brownie Morrison, Nov. 1, 1883; died at Charlottes- 
ville, March 18, 1912; for many years a prominent physician 
of Harrisonburg and Virginia; wrote "Typhoid Fever," 
pubhshed by Va. Med. Soc, 1893; "The Proper Mode and 
Place for Inflicting the Death Penalty," pubhshed by Vir- 
ginia Board of Health, 1901. 

O'Ferrall, Chas. T. (See chapter XIX for sketch) : Author 
of ' 'Forty Years of Active Service, " a volume of 367 8vo pages, 
published by Neales in 1904. 

Palmer, Olin Austin: Of Port Republic, printer and 

1912— "At the Mercy of Fate" (8vo, 210 pp.); a tale of 
the Shenandoah Valley; printed by Mr. Palmer at Port Re- 

1912 — "The Mystery of Chesney Hall"; in preparation. 

Paul, Mrs. K. S. : Miss Katherine Green, of Front Poyal, 
Va., married Hon. John Paul, of Rockingham, in 1872; com- 
piled a list of about 500 Virginia writers in 1893 for the 
World's Fair; was a member of the executive committee of 



the board of lady commissioners; a writer of both prose and 
verse; address, Harrisonburg. 

Price, Wm. T. : Clergyman, editor, and author; born near 
Marlinton, W. Va. (his present home), July 19, 1830; from 1869 
to 1885 was a citizen of Rockingham — pastor at New Erection. 
During this period he published the Young Virginian (q. v. ) ; 
he also took much interest in education (see page 302, above). 
He has contributed extensively to periodicals, and is author 

"Memoirs of Rev. John Pinkerton" (pastor of Mossy 
Creek Church, Va.). 

"Memoirs of Dr. J. H. Scott" (of Beverly, W. Va.). 

"History of Pocahontas County." 

"Semicentennial History of Greenbrier Presbytery." 

"Onto Grafton." Etc. 

Richcreek, W. A. : A resident of Bridgewater; for many 
years a contributor to the press, local and national. 

Rohr, Wilis.: Under pseudonym "Singlesticks" wrote 
"The Mountaineer," a tale of the war, published as a 
continued story in 1866 in the Old Commonwealth; in 1868 was 
associate editor of the Southern Musical Advocate, in which 
he published "Wishtaneta, " a serial, founded on a legend of 
the Joe's Creek Valley. 

Roller, John Edwin: Born nearMt. Crawford, 1845, son of 
Peter S. and Frances Allebaugh Roller; graduate, Va. Mili- 
tary Institute, 1863; soldier, C. S. A.; member of Va. Senate, 
1869-1873; appointed major-general of the 3d division of the 
Virginia militia, January, 1872; lawyer, lecturer, antiquarian. 
He has made a collection of rare books, manuscripts, etc., 
that cannot, perhaps, be duplicated in America. Among his 
published addresses are the following: 

1900— "The Reformed Church in Schlatter's Day." 

1907- Address before Neif-Rice Camp, U. C. V., New 
Market, Va. 

1909— Address of welcome, made at Harrisonburg before 
the annual conference of the Church of the Brethren. 

See page 282 above. 



Roller, Robt. Douglas: Born in Rockingham, near Mt. 
Crawford; received degree of D. D. from W. Va. University, 
1894; now rector of St. John's Episcopal Church, Charleston; 
has served in various honorable and responsible positions in 
the councils of the church; author: 

"Richardson— De Priest Family" (8vo, 50pp.); gave val- 
uable assistance to Bishop Peterkin in the preparation of "A 
History and Record of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
Diocese of West Virginia" (Svo, 876 pp., 1902). Dr. Roller 
is a brother of Gen. John E. Roller, of Harrisonburg. 

Salyards, Joseph (.1808-1885): Scholar, teacher, philoso- 
pher, poet; writer of prose and verse; in 1874 his chief work, 
"Idothea; or. The Divine Image" (16 mo, 308 pp.), was pub- 
lished by Henkel, Calvert & Co., New Market— See pages 
288-292, above. 

Showalter, William Joseph: Journalist and author; born 
near Dale Enterprise, July 10, 1878; present address, Wash- 
ington City. For a number of years Mr. Showalter has been 
one of the best known syndicate writers of the national cap- 
ital. His schooling was received at Bridgewater, Mt. Clinton, 
and other places in Rockingham, and his first experience in 
newspaper work in Harrisonburg. His great book, "The 
American Government" (1911), written for F. J. Haskin, is 
attracting unusual attention. His articles on the Panama Canal 
are regarded as among the best, if not the best, published. 
One appeared in the National Geographic Magazine for Feb- 
ruary, 1912. Mr. Showalter is now publishing a large volume 
on the Panama Canal. His reputation is becoming not only 
national, but international. 

Snell, WalsteinM.: Born in Harrisonburg, Oct, 7, 1888; 
business man and occasional author: 

1911— "The New Tutor" (played in Harrisonburg; sold to 
a New York firm) . 

1912— "The Artist's Model" (played in Harrisonburg). 

1912— "The Freshman's Prestige" (in preparation). 

Strayer, Joseph S. : Born in Rockingham, 1853; died near 
Port Republic, July 25, 1896; wrote much, and very well,. 



under the name of "Wyndham," for the Rockingam Register. 

Wartmann, Henry T. : Born in Harrisonburg, Nov. 8, 
1823, the son of Laurentz Wartmann; after m.ore than 50 
years in the place of his nativity, he moved to Citra, Fla., in 
1879, where he served as school trustee, tax collector of 
Marion County, etc. ; he died in Citra, Febr. 27, 1905. At 
Harrisonburg he was associated with his brother, J. H. 
Wartmann, in the publication of the Rockingham Register. For 
twenty years (1861-1881), perhaps longer, he was a frequent 
contributor to the Register, under the pseudonym of * 'Jona- 
than Sykes of Zekelville." A really fine wit was sharpened 
by a facile pen. His writings were a feature of the paper. 
More is given concerning him in Chapter 18. 

Wenger, Joseph H.: Born near Edom, Nov. 15, 1835; now 
a resident of South English, Iowa; author: 

1905— "Descendants of Abraham Beery" (12mo, 328 pp.). 

1911— "Descendants of Nicholas Beery" (12mo, 496 pp.). 

Winfield, Miss Paulina: Daughter of Capt. John Q. Win- 
field (p. 134); address, Broadway; author of: 

"With Washington in the Valley of Virginia" (in Things 
and Thoughts, Winchester). 

1909— "On the Primrose Way" (in The People, Franklin, 
Pa., Jan.). 

1909— "ThelncreduHtyof Ford's John" (in Pictorial Re- 
view, N. Y., March). 

1910— "In Lieu of a Pig" {in Pictorial Review, October). 

1912— "When Boys Went Forth to Battle" (to appear in 
Adventure) . 

And other pieces in prose and verse. 

Zigler, David H. : A native of Rockingham, and a resident 
of Broadway; published in 1908 "A History of the Brethren 
in Virginia" (12mo, 278 pp.). 

Bocock, John Paul: Editor and poet, born at Harrison- 
burg, 1856, son of Rev. J. H. Bocock. Educated for law, 
but turned to letters; member of staff of Philadelphia Press, 
later of N. Y. World; contributed to leading magazines; died 



1903. His wife issued his poems: "Book Treasures of 
Maecenas. ' ' 

B. A List of Periodicals. 

From 1818 to 1820, etc. , Ananias Davidson had a printing^ 
establishment in Harrisonburg. In 1818 he printed a second 
edition of "The Mountaineer" (16mo, 240 pp.); in 1820 he 
printed the "Life and Labors of Rev. Benj. Abbott" (16 mo, 
292 pp.), for James A. Dillworth;^ and it is said that he was 
printing the "Kentucky Harmony" and other musical works 
about 1821.'* 

1822 — Rockingham Weekly Register — Harrisonburg; first 
issue, Saturday, July 27; 4 pages, each lOJxlT inches; 
Lawrence Wartmann, printer and publisher; Lawrence 
Wartmann was still the publisher in 1838; in 1841 Wart- 
mann, Way, & Wartmann were the publishers. There were 
86 subscribers at the start; in October, 1874, Jacob D. Wil- 
liamson of Rockingham had been a subscriber 52 years, and 
was the only one of the original subscribers then living. In 
1841 the size of the paper was 16x21. In 1833 the title was 
Rockingham Register; in 1842, Rockingham Register and Valley 
Advertiser; in 1860, Rockingham Register and Advertiser; in 
1861 Rockingham Register and Virginia Advertiser; in 1862, 
Rockingham Register and Advertiser; in 1863, Rockingham. 

In 1861 and 1864 it was asserted that the Register had a 
larger circulation than any other country paper in the State; 
in 1871 the number of subscribers was said to be over 2000. 
In December, 1864, the subscription price was $10; in March, 
1865, $20. 

In 1842 J. H. Wartmann was publisher; in 1844, J. H, 
Wartmann & Brothers; in 1854, J. H. Wartmann and Wm. G. 
Stevens; in 1863-4, J. H. Wartmann & Co.; in 1866-7, J. H. 

3. I am indebted to the kindness of Messrs. E. M. Whitesel and Q. 
G. Kaylor for a loan of the two books named. 

4. See Rockingham Register, Oct 5, 1876. 

— 33(>- 


Wartmann & S. M. Yost; in 1867-8, J. H. Wartmann, Hern 
& Co. ; in January, 1868, Giles Devier entered the firm, suc- 
ceeding Hern and Guiheen; in October, 1875, Giles Devier 
succeeded J. H. Wartmann & Co. ; in 1878 Devier & Dechert 
were proprietors; in 1883, Devier and John P. Kerr; in 1890, 
Devier and A. H. Snyder; in 1900 Snyder became sole owner. 
Since 1903 the paper has been published by the News-Register 
Co. In 1895 the Register was said to be the fifth newspaper 
in Virginia in age. 

About 1868 Maj. S. M. Yost was connected with the St. 
Louis Times. In 1897 J. Harvey Wartmann was living in St. 

Adolph Heller Snyder, born in Woodstock, Oct. 22, 1863, 
died in Harrisonburg, January 18, 1910, shortly after his 
election to the Virginia House of Delegates. He was a gen- 
tleman journalist. 

Giles Devier was born July 24, 1820, near Bridgewater, 
son of Allen Devier; he died at Harrisonburg, Sept. 3, 1906, 
one of the best known citizens of Rockingham. 

Lawrence Wartmann, founder of the Register, had first 
worked at New Market with Ambrose Henkel— probably 
learned his trade there. He was established at Harrisonburg 
as early as 1813, since in that year he printed a book con- 
taining a sermon by Rev. A. B. Davidson.-^ In 1849 J. H. 
Wartmann & Bros, printed a 16mo book of 476 pages, entitled 
"Sketches on a Tour Through the Northern and Eastern 
States, The Canadas & Nova Scotia," by J. C. Myers, of New 
Hope, Va. Funks bound this book. 

Mrs. Carr gives the following interesting account of the 
early Register: 

The next building on the N. W. corner of the Main street was a 
large log house. The first newspaper in Harrisonburg was printed in 
this building, on the second floor in the S. end. The Editor, Mr. Wart- 
man, was proprietor, printer, and everything else. I often went to look 
at him. He had a small folding press on a table in the middle of the 
room; in either hand he held a leather ball, which was used to ink the 

5. Rockingham Register, Feb. 22, 1901. 



type. Then he placed the dampened paper on the type, and turning over 
the top of the press, screwed it down tight, until the impression was 
taken; removed the paper and went on this way until one side of the 
edition was finished; then he set the type for the other side of the paper, 
and proceeded in the same way until the whole edition was finished. On 
Saturday Harvey, his son, about ten years old, would deliver the papers 
to the subscribers: I do not think there were more than one hundred. 
New Years some one would write an address for Harvey to deliver to 
the subscribers, and receive a small amount of money from them. I 
have so often looked at the patient old man, going through his work so 
systematically, and thought it [a very grand thing to be a newspaper 
publisher. If his spirit could visit a steam printing oflSce and see the 
hundreds of thousands of papers turned out daily, it would make his hair 
stand on end. 

1844 — The Republican — Harrisonburg; first issue about 
June 18; published every Tuesday morning by W. S. Ward; 
office, opposite Pollock's Hotel, Main St. (from No. 6, Vol. I, 
July 23, 1844); 4 pages; in January, 1847, Maupin & Gilmer 
were publishers; seems to have been running in 1854. 

1854 — Valley Democrat — Harrisonburg; in the Register 
of May 27, Samuel T. Walker and Samuel M. Sommers an- 
nounce that they will remove the office of the Valley Democrat 
from New Market to Harrisonburg soon; in 1859 Walker & 
Bridegame were publishing the said paper at Harrisonburg. 

Col. S. T. Walker was killed at Chancellorsville, May 3, 
1863 (seep. 138). 

1859 — The Southern Musical Advocate and Singer's Friend 
— Mountain Valley (Singer's Glen) ; monthly magazine; first 
issue, July; Joseph Funk & Sons, publishers; continued till 
March, 1861; resumed for a year or so in 1867; Aldine S. 
Kieffer and Wm. S. Rohr were editors in January, 1868. 

The Funk printery and bindery were busy from the first. 
In 1848 "Sturm's Reflections," an octavo of 490 pages, bound 
in leather, was published. In 1850 was bound the second 
edition of Kercheval's History of the Valley of Virginia. In 
1853 "Dialogues of Devils" (Vol. I, 16mo, 336 pp.) was 
given to the public by Andrew Hess and Henry A. Showalter, 
through the Funk press. The ' 'Harmonia Sacra' ' had reached 
the 10th edition by 1860; in 1872 the firm brought out the 6th 



edition of the Mennonite Hymn Book, partly in German. 
These random instances will indicate the scope and volume of 
the work done by the Funks as printers and binders. 

1862 — The Stonewall— Harrisonburg; 4-page weekly; No. 
4, Vol. I, was dated January 15, 1863; Saml. J. Price was 
editor and proprietor; it was not long continued; the editor, 
Mr. Price, was later in charge of the Page Valley Courier, 
Luray, Va. 

1865— The Old Commonwealth — Harrisonburg; 4-page 
weekly; first issued about Oct. 10; Cushen & Sheiry publish- 
ers and proprietors in October, 1866; in 1870 Capt. John Gate- 
wood and Capt. Ran D. Cushen were editors; in the fall of 
1871 W. H. Effinger and W. S. Lurty took the place of Gate- 
wood, being associated with Cushen; about Jan. 1, 1872, 
Effinger became sole editor; from January to May, 1873, J. 
N. Liggett was editor; about May 1 (1873) Chas. H. Vander- 
ford became owner and editor; Vanderford sold to J. K. 
Smith and P. B. Dulaney, May, 1878; Smith was still editor 
in November, 1883; in 1884 the paper was sold at public 

1866 — The American Union — Harrisonburg; Geo. K. Gil- 
mer, publisher; Smith & Gatewood reported proprietors in 

Dr. Geo. K. Gilmer was appointed P. M. of Richmond in 

1869 — The Musical Million— Dayton; monthly magazine, 
devoted to music and literature; published at Singer's Glen, 
by Ruebush, Kieffer & Co., till 1878; then at Dayton; present 
editor, Joe K. Ruebush, of the Ruebush-Kieffer Co. ; probably 
the oldest music journal in America. — Ephraim Ruebush, one 
of the original firm of Ruebush, Kieffer & Co. , was born near 
Church ville, Augusta Co., Va., Sept. 26, 1833, the son of 
John and Mary Huffman Ruebush; he married at Singer's 
Glen, March 28, 1861, Virginia Kieffer, a granddaughter of 

6. Thanks are due to Hon. Geo. E. Sipe for lending files of the Old 



Joseph Funk, and a sister of Aldine S. Kieffer, the poet. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ruebush have been living at Dayton since 1878. 
A sketch of Aldine Kieffer, another member of the firm 
named above, will be found in Chapter 18. 

1869 — Harrisonburg Enterprise; 5-column, 4-page weekly; 
Gideon Sheiry, propr. ; ' 'Published every Friday morning . 
. . Office in Paul's Building, over C. F. Dutrow's store." 
-From No. 43, Vol. 4, Nov. 15, 1872. Last issue about Nov. 30, 
1872. For some time, beginning about September 15, 1870, the 
Enterprise was semi-weekly, Geo. S. Null and John F. Sheiry 
being associated at different times with G. Sheiry; publica- 
tion stopped a month by fire of Dec. 25, 1870. 

"Rose Thornton," a camp novelette, was pubhshed by 
Harry & Sheiry, Harrisonburg, in 1864. 

1872— The Lily of the Valley — Harrisonburg; a 32-page 
monthly magazine, historical, literary, agricultural; first issue, 
January; G. Sheiry &Co., publishers; still running in August. 

1872 — The Rural Virginian — Harrisonburg; monthly; J. S. 
Trout, editor; Sheiry, publisher. May issue noticed in Register 
of May 10. 

1874 — The Young Virginian — Mt. Clinton; 8-page monthly; 
first issue, January; editor W. T. Price; printed by Ruebush, 
Kieffer & Co., Singer's Glen; published 3 years. — Contained 
numerous pieces of local interest, especially sketches of Pres- 
byterian churches in northern Virginia. 

1875— The Ray of Hope — Harrisonburg; a semi-monthly, 
issued first Jan. 1; a temperance paper; S. J. Price and W. J. 
Points, editors. 

1877-The Faithful Word— Mt. Clinton; 8-page monthly; 
first issue, January; W. T. Price, editor; Ruebush, Kieffer & 
Co., Singer's Glen, printers. 

- 1878— Spirit of the Valley — Harrisonburg; weekly; first 
issue in September; Daniel Dechert & Son, publishers; pur- 
chased by D. S. Lewis, 1886; converted into the Daily Times, 
1905.— Daniel Sheffey Lewis was born atlLynnwood, Oct. 17, 
1843; died at Clifton Forge, Oct. 3, 1912; lawyer and journal- 



ist; son of Sen. John F. Lewis. — See page 127 above, and 
Chapter XIX, following. 

1878 — The Bridgewater Enterprise; 4 pages; No. 1, Vol. 
I, Sept. 11;^ E. Smith Dinkle propr.;Dr. T. H. B. Brown, 
editor; J. E. Braithwaite, asso. ed. and bus. mgr. In 1879 
Lambert & Burwell ran the paper a short time, then John B. 
F. Armstrong succeeded, changing the name to the Journal, 
Sept. 4, 1879.8 

1879 — The Star — Bridgewater; "a diminutive though spicy 
sheet"; first issue, July 4; J. B. Burwell, publisher. 

1879 — The Bridgewater Journal; succeeds Bridgewater 
Enterprise, Sept. 4; E. S. Dinkle, propr., J. B. F. Armstrong, 
editor. In September, 1880, Armstrong, who was a young 
lawyer, died; in October (1880) G. T. Barbee purchased the 
Journal, and published it till Nov. 30, 1883; then G. R. Berlin 
published it till Nov. 30, 1885. 

1880 — Rockingham Advertiser — Bridgewater; semi- 
monthly; G. R. Berlin, publisher. Register announced re- 
ceipt of first number, July 8, 

1881 — The Valley Herald — Bridgewater; weekly; pub- 
lished during June, July, August, by G. R. Berlin. 

1881 — The Pearl Press — Mt. Crawford; first issue, July; 
Pearl Press Pub. Co. 

1881 — The Watchful Pilgrim — Dale Enterprise; a religious 
monthly; first issue, August; Abraham Blosser printer and 
publisher; 24 pages and cover till December; 16 pages from 
December (1881) till April, 1883; after this, 8 pages, twice a 
month; last number seen, Dec. 15, 1886. Abram Blosser did 
job printing, also; he had the press that was set up by Jos. 
Funk & Sons, at Mountain Valley, in 1847. His paper cir- 
culated in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, and 

7. Thanks are due Mr. Paul Miller, Bridgewater, for a loan of the 
above paper. 

8. Information by Mr. S. G. Dinkle, Bridgewater. 

9- Special acknowledgement is due Mr. Noah Blosser and Rev. L. J. 
Heatwole, Dale Enterprise, for lending files of the Watchful Pilgrim. 



1882— Virginia Post— Harrisonburg; published by R. B. 
and M. L. Robinson (colored) ; moved to Alexandria. 

1883— The People— Harrisonburg; 4-page weekly; first 
issue, Dec. 8; A. P. Funkhouser and C. I. B. Brane, editors; 
absorbed by the State Republican, 1886. 

1884— The Postal Card— Mt. Crawford; a semi-monthly, 
published by W. H. Foley; first issue in March. 

1885— Farm and Home— Harrisonburg; 8-page weekly; 
first issued in January; J. K. Smith, editor and propr. ; sold 
to Thomas & Yancey, 1886.— Jos. K. Smith, who had also been 
associated with the Register, died at Winchester, Va., in 
February, 1905. 

1885— The Sentinel— Harrisonburg; H. M. Roudabush, 
editor; announced in September. 

1886— Our Monthly— Bridge water; G. R. Berlin, pub- 
lisher; issued 12 months. 

1886— The Independent — Port Republic; 48-column weekly 
newspaper, published by Holsinger & Bowman. 

1886— The State Republican— Harrisonburg; founded by 
A. P. Funkhouser; W. C. Elam, editor; 1891, Funkhouser & 
Snavely, publishers; 1893, leased to Hughes & Hinde; 1894, 
Funkhouser resumed management; in June, 1899, Saml. J. 
Price, editor, died; W. W. Roller (1856-1897) was some time 
connected with the paper as associate editor, etc. 

1887— People's Educational Quarterly— Dayton; published 
by Fries & Ruebush. 

1888— The Broadway Enterprise; first issued in January; 
E. D. Root was publisher in 1892 and 1893— perhaps from the 
beginning; purchased in November, 1893, by I. C. Wade; dis- 
continued, probably in December, 1894. 

1890— The Broadway News; Geo. L. Jameson and John 
S. Fravel, publishers; later Kline & Kline were publishers; 
discontinued in December, 1893— sold to I. C. Wade, editor of 
the Broadway Enterprise. 

1890— Harrisonburg Progress; a monthly. 

1891— The Elkton Index; first issued in January; contin- 
ued at least till June, 1892. 



►aiitTED *ND PuoLiSiillrtit L^iras/fcs irjxTtuMJf. 

UARKISONBURG, Vi. S^TUKDAY, Dcctiabct 7 h, l»23. 


t TUf ITefUll Hfgi^tf 

Tr^ DnLAt 

ilhcr b»f lithe 




n;>iranei>et !iix M 

" ' ,„,„„„v- ,.;?.?, ■"'fP ''7.1'" 9V«<t" ■>"""■»'""".(■' mTF. 


1P ^7 rt<- 9\« 

HAVING ritited both Ihe Nonhcit ind S«ihcf» 

Ukr;, ,n,. Fill. I h..e Il« .•t..l.a.Of> ol „,t...r."e 

d^ ind Ca»loowrt. ihn I h«»t beVTie i..bk to 

k GenenJ \MonBKnl i* Fr^n Mcdu. ' '^S 

fc-' ti •detMoodil 

1 V »;a.o,nun,cttu,n, tr..l Uutri lo lUt E.lili 



-"■ ri'K THVCT or L\ND on whirh iht Uie 
'=• •'">' (II^" ■'"■' " ''^" ■^"" ''''■'' ""•'■"• '" 

Do* offinnf for ■ale. aad li 

CMb, I will kU Ibtnc h>w for Ibc MBe. « em . tliot 

Cn4*to fuactsal^iiMMDen- ' 


BuTiaofikgrg, No<. anili. 1123 

CooniTo' R rki..i.hi 

I SI,™«a„h R,«r, tuni.i-, -„,r T.el.r HmH-H ^. ______ 

■ Acre., or ,h,ch iboul "n.i. H'lnl'M •■« fit""! «B- — — ~— — — ^ 

•M «fT«o HunJ-r,r^l, tin- B..""m&«f-I;,.„t _^ ,^ ._ ., .. 

"t;;i»^?F"^,:'r;::;:<;fj',?:;''''„?".*j^„,';'r,* 1v1-/1t1'L/ t J\ i> 

• •tUiMoi, «llh,l|„ccr.,.„.j|^^ir„rOllt Hmi.I. 

•"■1 \ IT,. TK. I»«rtn i. TS r.rWir.i^Mii, THE SUBSTFI BEK wdtt. M. K^f*^"" ' •- 
jpooo-rdcr; and ■ eo..»ld«r*bfc Qirt.rtir sf ^U firkin , IrdKcmcnl to (he Cil'arnt of H*rni''.il>wr , a. . i« 
toKardtirr po4,r^*Kin Bill br Viciniir. (or farovra hcTttohjft rtcrnf. *iliici.3f 

le wett rnd of ih« llogie lorintny -to, .t. >t'- 
1 F Lffiinerr. •> i Slore toon.. op.«..iu •'■ ' »<- 
oec o1 M. Jo-rph Tl«irni«i. on C.iiJ.. »...t.. 

T>iE SUBSRiBFR »>.lie. lo irll ii,r Plir- ..._- 
»bea-" li.^v one tnik Iro^ H<rr,»rJiuc,. VjHlj. "Uh ihr F.-n. 
»>n, Coum., on Ibe main ro.d l..d„.v (roin tH^.s-... ^Se tr„„, nf . 

umber of H-^rsr* ind a|| | 
LAND Oi r F. orih d!t, 

TwJ Hund cd k-Soreniy- fit 
an . l;>i(T Aircv ol »hic» i« < 
«.d*-..n„e, |»aS...r.ieO 

»iio.o UK Terhl. 

Konnbcr Soth, 1«3S. 

eritkAuri*h ; AkI 

no dnubl wUl cUj on U 

,1 of Tro.1 opoi, .he ' 
lerl, a Credll of T.el 
.u^ Fire Dollar, .HI 
1 appro.e 


««U br rtmLiail 
from day to ii»y 

, of Fi 
il Ihc wbolc Property ti eold. 

CHARLES LEW1<!. -ieii 


Ai Rule. heW in Ihe rietkS.flB-.e « 'hr Counji of; Hotember Uih, Itia. 
t„rk...|tnam.on Sr.i Momi., i O tojer IBJl _^_.. | 
OKid O Doaih a.. NJanin Mn a 

• iT 6«»<-irl Anr., Jr<* 


n M.. I 1 , a 9- '•^ 

C>'K«r> I Pl'aillt'ilh 1, i;/* The E.'Uora of Ike St.onlon R-p«Hi 
] - S "Voc'Liock H.rj|.l— Wtnehe.i.r G.aer 

. auimii . . T'S O'itie. and Nalmnal Inirlliccncer are .., 

William llracD And Jacob W. ? rt.««A*Jk» Baen Ihs tborr In ihcir re, pectire papers until Ihe 1 
\t.;lini,on \ OelMklkMIW' „ ;,„a.^ „,„, ,„4 (o,,.rd ,b,„ „„ui.l to I 

" OIBee 

■ Tne D^reodant .tVitlien, Grc^n bit hirini 
li, appearance and giving sccurily kccgrdulg 
Itt \i^smblr «Rdqh»injiti of tkte court, and i 
^k»< or saliifact jrT ««sdfvce that be u nn an i 
ad iftta CO nmonwralth : it ii ordered Ihaj the 
fev'j t do 

n of the Wocdttoek Hei 

lonal lniclli,;rncrr «ill pi 
: J>ap<r. csntunuig the 


redlfce II 

He baa b 

dhts woek OLjfkaa eaiDf »h«.- -iioaini 

MUN Douoatsrs 

cobwt. Not Mu, lUX 


of »ild Councy 

r J G^mM. C It C 


' ALL oerMT* iftdrbted to i 
()ueiTcd to ilu l^e tame brforr 


I Mduto< 

SlOic, il a 

tHE HOUSE \XD LOTT Utoly owned »n4»<-; f '""""" ' 
Vn'etl "■ tfcaT^ ^ HarnMon^ Deccaied. 
ytt TcMb 4i)yly to 

RFUlitS HfRH!«:ON 
llJ^feci CHAVIAS. J. £*«* 
PillLlP fi H^RM3SON 
tlarrtsonburf, N<jr- SDih* IS.'S 


e Sulrtcribrr who 

i In< 

{Continocd our bai ) 
The VibI: U ibc ftrcit comer ttone opon vktcti th* 
MOpemluoua labric of muonrj haa been rruird . allA 
the nceUcDi lawa by wbicb (ho fraieniitTt* goxftc^ 
have bccQ drawa from the mcxbsAiftlc rcairro^k of 
M wiidoiD : n«hin( incoaueiaM with n* parity i- i^ 

view trie Tarioua duties u rcqairca as tofcrfum, rt r^ 
quirt* Ibai we aboulddiacbarge ^xi'hfidcltflcvfry nwral 
tblieauoft — lo Ood. W e«r ecighbor and ts oarvctvea % 
To Ood, ID never tDectMUog h*a nelp a^me b«i wtite 
that awe and rcvcfriKo wbk) U :' m froai Uk crca<u« 
to nil cruwr*-io implore bia ud .d all •or laodabiic in>- 
dcnakiDga ukI to catcebi bin. id tbc duef good i To 
ofmrab- outMighbor. inactBnap«lheaquart.twl«»ii>fconw 
Mr Stcvrn** hio ai we would wiah he ahould do ur'o «> - And t9 
In TOT behalf 1 „„^ 


I pr. oh of It 



Anv IVr--onKhoht¥einy WHfclELBAR. 
lluW 'hlU-pkai.e lo rcium i' to. 

hcrcicfor' I 

in aToiding all lTrv);utanij 
^j I wb^ch iDi|>ht impair oor hcvliiri or 
>er. I of owr proleuion i lo the auta, w% are rc^oirrd lo b« 
^ to' ^uict and peaceful auOjeata, trve to our Kovrmtnettf 
and juH to oar coaatry ; Wo w% rvquucd re hoM out 
the baadof charity to tbc «^a vorld. but lo a ,->anico- 
•r manner It enjoina opoo «• tb* atrkt perfonBancc ot 
ill uur social dutiea la tliero'any ihtD( iruonwotvnC 
with (f)c aptrit of cbrlatlanity io llua t On ibr coiitary, 
doca It ckA breathe • reXi|toa aa pvn and u'rlrgled aM 
IbeoM UOKbt by oar bfcvacd Rr4e«^..err Ourcero* 
ntoniea, that to fbo world aay ponibly appear n Ir «i«| 
fvdicnlou, at| coBvty tome important ksaou af m<'< sUf. 
Klbl»|[ saperffsoMa ta admitted mtoiKem. The •< Ttt 
Ifan foraa tbo aacrvl chain b; BMch *r are aei^u ta 
eacboiber haadeacendcd M u* (bo 'n tt-.i) nnimp-.k^ 

iwppUcd wiib adticc and Mcdictne 

Oldest Known copy of Rockingham Register 
Front page 

(See pages 330-332) 


1891— The Shendun News; first heard of in February, 
1891; the first editor and manager, L. A. Frazier, was suc- 
ceeded as editor by J. A. Phillips, October, 1891; in June, 
1892, it was changed from a weekly to a semi-monthly; in 
December, 1892, Mr. Coles was editor; ordered discontinued 
by directors, March, 1893. 

1891— The Monthly Call— Bridgewater; 8- pages; started 
in April by Rev. A. R. Thompson. 

1891 — Harrisonburg Free Press; weekly; H. B. Miller, 
publisher, succeeds Miller & Snavely March, 1897; W. I. Good 
was business manager in 1900; the Free Press was made a 
daily about March 20, 1904. It has not been published for 
several years past. 

1893— The Elkton News; ran at least from August, 1893, 
till January, 1894. 

1894— The Bridgewater Herald; first issue, Feb. 2; G. R. 
Berhn, publisher; last issue, Sept. 15, 1906. —Mr. Berlin is a 
skilled job printer, as well as a publisher. 

1895 — The Evening Glance — Harrisonburg; 4-column af- 
ternoon daily; first issue, June 17; last, Jan. 8, 1896; Weis- 
hampel & Hinde, publishers. 

1895— The Virginia Echo — Broadway; W. Grim, editor. 

1896 — Philomathean Monthly — Bridgewater; first issue, 
May; published by the literary societies of Bridgewater Col- 
lege; issued every month the first three years, 8 or 9 times a 
year since 1899. 

1896— The Broadway Echo; Mr. Grim, publisher. 

1898 — Harrisonburg Daily News; founded by R. B, 
Smythe, the present manager; first called the Evening News; 
editor, 1903-10, A. H. Snyder; editor, 1910-11, James C 
Johnston; present editor, J. H. Robertson. 

1898 — Our Assistant— Mt. Crawford; 4-page monthly; 
Rev. A. D. Wolfinger, publisher; ran at least till May, 1899. 

1898 — The Illuminator — Dayton; 8-page quarterly, edited 
by E. U. Hoenshel and E. T. Hildebrand. 

1899— College Life— Bridgewater; educational quarterly; 
published by the faculty of Bridgewater College. 



1905 — Harrisonburg Daily Times; founded by D. S. Lewis r 
present publishers, Rickard & Voorhees; editor, D.S. Lewis, Jr. 

1906— Old Dominion Home — Dayton; published for a few 
months by Taylor & Kieffer. 

1907— The National Poultry Journal — Harrisonburg; 
monthly; founded about 1907, by C. 0. Hen ton; continued till 
1911, E. V. Crist, R. B. Smythe, R. C. Hughes, and Chas. 
Turner having successive parts in the enterprise; office of 
issue, Elkton. 

1909— Our Mountain Work— Elkton; 4-page monthly; F. 
W. Neve and J. R. Ellis, publishers; in fall of 1911 moved to 

1911— The Sunday-School News— Elkton; G. M. Keezel, 

1911 — Rockingham Daily Record — Harrisonburg; H. W. 
Bertram and C. C. Herring, editors; Geo. W. Berry, business 


It has been asserted (see page 183) that there are prob- 
ably more people, old and young, in Rockingham who can 
sing, and who love music, than in any other section with the 
same population in America, This assertion is, of course, 
beyond either proof or disproof, but it is made advisedly, 
and is believed to be warranted by known facts. For ex- 
ample, a year or two ago a dozen competent judges weBe asked 
to vote for the twelve leading singers and musicians of Rock- 
ingham, natives or long residents of the county, and to name 
others deemed worthy of special mention. In all, about 80 
different men and women were named. So many teachers 
and leaders of song would not be found apart from a large 
number of learners and lovers of song. Most of the people 
of the county are church-goers, and nearly every member of 
every congregation sings. Singing is a common pastime in 
many homes, and singing classes are frequently conducted 
in the churches as well as in the schools. All-day singings at 
churches are not uncommon. Singing books were printed by 
Lawrence Wartmann and Ananias Davisson a century ago; 
Joseph Funk and Sons printed tens of thousands of music 
books and music journals from 1832 to 1878; and since that 
time the Ruebush-Kieffer Company have sent out hundreds 
of thousands more. The output to-day is greater than ever. 
The music departments of Shenandoah Collegiate Institute and 
Bridgewater College have attracted many students for many 
years; the Funk school at Singer's Glen was widely known of 
old; the new State Normal School at Harrisonburg has large 
classes in music; and occasionally, for the past forty years or 
more, summer normals for music teachers have been held in 
and near the county. For example, in the early 70 's, Chester G. 


Allen, P. J. Merges, B. C. Unseld and others held several ses- 
sions of a music normal at New Market; and from 1894 to 
1896 G. B. Holsinger, B. C. Unseld and others held summer 
music schools at Bridgewater. For three-quarters of a cen- 
tury Joseph Funk, his sons, his grandsons, and their pupils 
went all over Rockingham and neighboring counties teaching 
the art of song. 

While the music cultivated in Rockingham has been mostly 
church music in its simpler forms, classical forms of music 
and famous musicians are not, and have not been, unknown. 
Within the writer's own recollection Sidney Lanier, Edward 
Remenyi, Creatore and his band, and the Conradis have 
delighted Rockingham audiences. A few famous songs have 
also had their genesis in Rockingham; ' 'Twilight is Falling, ' ' 
by Kieffer and Unseld, and "The Everlasting Arms," by 
Hoffman and Showalter, have probably been sung around the 

In November, 1867, a great musical convention was held 
in Harrisonburg, in Rev. T. D. Bell's (Presbyterian) church. 
The session continued for four days; 122 delegates from Har- 
risonburg, Dayton, McGaheysville, Bridgewater, New Erec- 
tion, Singer's Glen, Cross Keys, Union church, and Edom, in 
Rockingham, and from Mossy Creek, Parnassus, Augusta 
church, and Bethel church, in Augusta County, were present. 
A constitution was adopted and a permanent organization 
effected. Rev. T. D. Bell was elected president; Rev. T. U. 
Dudley, Maj. J. H. Irvine, Emmet Guy, and Capt. J. P. Rals- 
ton, vice-presidents; H. T. Wartmann, secretary; and G. 
Fred Mayhew, treasurer. Subsequent meetings of the organ- 
ization, which was known as the Valley Musical Associ- 
ation, were held at Mossy Creek (1868), Harrisonburg (1869), 
Bethel church (1870), and Tinkling Springs (1872). W. H. 
Evans was director of the chorus in 1869, etc. It may be of 
interest to state in this connection that an oratorio society has 
just been organized in Harrisonburg, with Miss Julia Starr 
Preston and Rabbi Schvanenfeld as directors. 

The twelve singers and composers of Rockingham receiv- 

— 340— 



ing the highest number of votes in the election referred to 
above were the following: 

J. M. Bowman. G. B. Holsinger. 

J. D. Brunk. A. S. Kieffer. 

Joseph Funk. J. H. Ruebush. 

Timothy Funk. W. H. Ruebush. 

J. H. Hall. A. J. Showalter. 

E. T. Hildebrand. J. Henry Showalter. 

Four are dead, eight are living; and, of the latter, four 
are now residents of the county. 

Bowman, John Michael: Born near Harrisonburg, June 
11, 1859; at the age of 18 attended the music normal of Unseld 
and Merges at New Market; has since studied with a number 
of America's foremost teachers. Every year he conducts a 
number of music normals in the Southern States. He is a 
skilled tuner of pianos; has written a number of popular pieces 
of music; and is author, or associate author, of several books 
of hymns, songs, and choruses. Residence, Harrisonburg. 

Brunk, John David: Born near Harrisonburg, March 13, 
1872, a great-grandson of Peter Burkholder (see p. 318) ; has 
had training in the New England Conservatory of Music, and 
in other high-class schools; he is a teacher and composer of 
ability, and possesses unusual skill in directing choruses; he has 
compiled and edited several excellent books; for the past six 
years or more he has been director of music in Goshen Col- 
lege, Indiana. 

Funk, Joseph: A native of Pensylvania, but an almost 
life-long resident of Rockingham. On December 25, 1804, 
he married Elizabeth Rhodes: children, Jonathan (1806-1874), 
Henry (1807-1813), Elizabeth (1808-1870), Susan (1810-1815), 
Barbara (1812-1850); on Sept. 6, 1814, he married Rachel 

Britton: children, Mary (1815-1888), Joseph (1816 ?), 

David (1818-1870), Samuel (1819 ), Hannah (1821 ?), 

John (1822 ), Timothy (1824-1909), Solomon (1825-1880), 

Benjamin (1829-1909). 

For 46 years Joseph Funk was a teacher of music, a 
trainer of music teachers, and a publisher of music books and 



periodicals. By 1858 he and his sons, particularly Timothy, 
had taught music classes in at least 10 counties of Virginia, 
besides Rockingham; records show that by the same year his 
books had been sold and used in 37 counties and cities of Vir- 
ginia, as well as in Georgia, Illinois, Ohio, Maryland, North 
Carolina, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Missouri, and Canada 
West. By the 70 's, between 75,000 and 100,000 copies of 
his famous book, "Harmonia Sacra, " had been sold. It is still 
used in old-folks' all-day singings in Rockingham and adja- 
cent sections. 

One of the 12 men now under review (Timothy Funk) 
was Joseph Funk's son; one (A. S. Kieffer) was his grandson; 
two (J. H. and W. H. Ruebush) are his great-grandsons; two 
(A. J. and J. H. Showalter) are great-grandsons of his sister 
Elizabeth; others of the 12 are related to his family, and all 
have come more or less directly under his influence. He may, 
with justice, be called the father of song in Northern Virginia; 
he more than any other man, has made Rockingham a land 
of singers, and he was himself one of her greatest citizens. ^ 

Funk, Timothy: Born at Singers Glen, Jan. 29, 1824; died 
at the same place in 1909; after his father, the most famous 
itinerant teacher of singing in the Valley of Virginia. For 
more than 50 years he was known in this capacity, not only 
in Rockingham, but far beyond her borders. He was also, 
for many years, a minister of the Gospel. 

Hall, Jacob H. : A native of Rockingham, and one of the 
best known conductors of music institutes in the South, 
having worked in no less than 20 different States. He 
studied under Geo. F. Root and other famous teachers, and 
has been a student in Dana's Conservatory and other high- 
grade schools. He has written dozens of excellent pieces, 
and has been an editor of many popular music books. His 
address is Dayton. — See page 322 above. 

Hildebrand, Ephraim Timothy: Born near Greenmount, 

1- See pages 293,294, above; see also "Joseph Funk, Father of Song 
in Northern Virginia" (4to, 12pp. ), published by The Ruebush-Kieffer 
Co., Dayton, Va. 


< » 











§ ^ 

g ® 







^ . 







r 1 


^ 1 


^ 1 


3 1 









W (. 2 

M - 2 

= 3 

s ^ 

2 1 




Jan. 18, 1866; teacher, composer, editor, publisher, and singer; 
has had training in New York Vocal Institute, the Metro- 
politan Conservatory, and other schools; was a member of the 
New York Oratorio Society, under the direction of Frank 
Damrousche; has written many excellent pieces, sacred and 
secular, among the latter being "The Hills of Tennessee." 
Some of the popular books he has helped to edit are * 'Gems 
of Gladness," "Crowning Day, " and "Onward and Upward. " 
Address, Roanoke, Va. 

Holsinger, George Blackburn: Born in Bedford County, 
Pa., May 10, 1857; died in Illinois, November, 1908. From 
1882 to 1898 Prof. Holsinger was director of music in 
Bridgewater College; from the latter year till his death he 
was music editor for the Church of the Brethren, but con- 
tinued to have his home at Bridgewater. He was a pleasing 
singer and versatile composer, his pieces having been used in 
about 100 different publications. "Psalms and Hymns," one 
of the numerous books of which he was associate editor, had 
reached a sale of over 200,000 in 1905. His wife, who survives 
him, was Miss Sallie Kagey. 

Kieffer, Aldine Silliman: Born in Sahne County, Mo., 
August 1, 1840; died at his home in Dayton, Va., Nov. 30, 
1904. His mother was Mary Funk, daughter of Joseph Funk, 
Father of Song in Northern Virginia; she married John 
Kieffer, May 30, 1837. On June 22, 1847, her husband died, 
and she returned from Missouri, to Mountain Valley (Singer's 
Glen), with her children. Lucilla Virginia married Ephraim 
Ruebush, March 28, 1861, and has handed down to her sons 
the gift of song; Aldine wrote songs, set them to music, and 
taught them to the people. 

Aldine S. Kieffer founded the Micsical Million and edited 
it for many years; he compiled the "Christian Harp," the 
' 'Temple Star, ' ' and many other books of song. The ' 'Temple 
Star" has reached the half-million mark, and is still being 
sold. With his brother-in-law, Mr. E. Ruebush, he gave 
name and character to the publishing house transferred from 
Singer's Glen to Dayton in 1878, and still known as The 



Ruebush-Kieff er Company. He wrote the song, * 'Twilight is 
Falling," wedded to music by Unseld, and sung by thousands 
far and near. Many other songs he wrote, which, with or 
without music, have touched many hearts.^ 

Ruebush, James H. : Born at Singer's Glen, Oct. 19, 1865, 
son of E. Ruebush and Virginia Kieffer Ruebush, and great 
grandson of Joseph Funk; teacher, composer, editor, edu- 
cator; has studied with such artists as H. N. Barttelb, H. R. 
Palmer, and F. W. Root, and has been a student in the Grand 
Conservatory of Music, N. Y., and other high-grade schools; 
is the author of many popular pieces of music, and the editor 
of many well-known music books — collections of songs and 
manuals of instruction. For a number of years he has been 
connected with Shenandoah Collegiate Institute and School 
of Music, and is at present general manager of that institution. 

Ruebush, William H. : Born in Rockingham, June 4, 1873, 
a brother of James H. ; a teacher of music in Shenandoah 
Collegiate Institute, a writer of popular pieces for male and 
mixed voices, and a skilled director of choirs and orchestras; 
has enjoyed excellent advantages for training in his art, and 
is endowed with the perception of the artist; is the author of 
various manuals for his profession, and the editor of a 
number of popular song books. 

Showalter, Anthony J.: Born in Rockingham, May 1, 
1858; for many years a man of mark in Georgia; head of the 
A. J. Showalter music publishing company, and editor of the 
Music Teacher and Home Magazine, Dalton; author of the 
music to "The Everlasting Arms" and hundreds of other 
Gospel hymns and songs; has studied under the best teachers 
of America, has visited the music centers of Europe, and has 
held more than 200 sessions of music institutes in the Southern 
States; he is the author of 30 music books, and the associate 
author of as many more. 

Showalter, J. Henry: Born at Cherry Grove, Rockingham 
County, Nov. 2, 1864, a brother of A. J. Showalter; present 

2 See page 325 above; also, the Musical Million, Kieffer memorial 
number, August, 1908, and Wayland's "German Element," pp. 173-175. 



address, West Milton, Ohio; singer, teacher, composer, and 
publisher; has studied under the best teachers, and holds high 
rank as a teacher and singer; has written hundreds of beautiful 
songs and anthems, and has compiled more than a score of 
music books; some of his best pieces are: "At the Golden 
Gate of Prayer," "The Blood of the Lamb," and "Breathe 
Upon Us, Holy Spirit." 

John A. Showalter, born in Rockingham, Dec. 19, 1832, 
was for many years a teacher of singing classes in various 
parts of the Valley. In 1892 or 1893, while in Shenandoah 
County teaching a class, he said that he had kept account of 
the number of his classes till he had taught a hundred — then 
he had stopped counting. He is the father of A. J. and 
J. Henry Showalter. 

Years ago Karl Merz, long editor of Brainard's Mtcsical 
World, published at Cleveland, Ohio, taught music for awhile 
in Rockingham. In 1860 Chas. Eshman (died March 18, 1901) 
was a teacher of brass bands and orchestras in the county; 
in 1867 he organized at Harrisonburg a band of 13 or 14 
members, composed mainly of men of German extraction. 
In 1891 he was still leading a band in Harrisonburg. Mr. 
Eshman was a native of Germany, and visited his Fatherland 
in 1883. From 1861 to 1873, perhaps longer. Prof. A. Kuh- 
nert, a skilled musician, taught singing and piano-forte in 

One of the best known musicians in Rockingham some 
years ago was Henry T. Wartmann, one of the sons of Law- 
rence Wartmann. (See page 329.). In October, 1872, his 
singing class from Andrew Chapel, Harrisonburg, numbering 
60 or more, went upon special invitation to Baltimore and 
Washington, singing at St. Paul's Church, Trinity Church, 
Central Church, Western Female High School, and Maryland 
Institute in the former city, and at Mt. Vernon Place in 
Washington. They were termed the "Virginia Rustics. " In 
1873 the Choral Singers from Trinity M. E. Sundayschool, 
Baltimore, returned the visit of the "Rustics," singing in 
Harrisonburg, and visiting the Cave of the Fountains, Tay- 



lor's Springs, Rawley Springs, and other places of interest. 
In 1878 the "Rustics" were again in Baltimore and Wash- 
ington. Mr. Wartmann was a talented composer, as well as 
a skilled director. 

Among the younger pianists and teachers of music from 
Rockingham must be mentioned Kinzie Blakemore, of New- 
port News, and C. Ernest Hall, of Evanston, 111. Perhaps 
the greatest singer ever born in Rockingham is Mrs. Tenney 
Showalter Schwerin, of Oregon City, Oregon. One of the 
best singers and teachers now in the county is Mrs. Imogen 
Avis Palmer, of Harrisonburg, who has enjoyed unusual 
advantages in piano playing, composition, and voice culture, 
and who is a poet as well as a musician. Mr. S. G. Cline of 
Harrisonburg is a well known teacher of music and a dealer 
in musical instruments; and Mr. J. Owen Long, of Melrose 
(R. D. , Harrisonburg) is a composer and publisher of creditable 
music, as well as a singer and teacher of ability. 

It would be a pleasure to mention all of the Eighty, but 
the printer's space limits the writer's lines. 



John Sevier, a pioneer of the Shenandoah Valley and one 
of the builders of Tennessee, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished of all the sons of Rockingham. A tall shaft 
in Knoxville marks honor to his memory; his nickname, 
"Nolichucky Jack," is familiar on many tongues; and 
his native county may well learn to know him. He was born 
Sept. 23, 1745, the son of Valentine Sevier and Joanna Goade. 
He had a brother who also won distinction (see pages 63, 64) . 

After a short schooling in Fredericksburg and Staunton, 
John Sevier helped his father keep store. In 1761 he mar- 
ried Sarah Hawkins. After farming a short while in Long 
Meadows, he bought a tract of land where New Market now 
stands, and kept a store and an inn as part of the village he 
laid out. He gave the Baptist church three acres of land on 
which to erect a building. In 1770 he moved to Millerstown 
(supposedly Woodstock) ; but soon he became interested in 
the great southwest, and in 1773 moved to what is now East 
Tennessee, where his name was soon written large. In 1777 
he was a member of the North Carolina legislature; and, for 
the rest, we may quote part of the inscription on his mon- 

Pioneer, soldier, statesman, and one of the founders of the Republic; 
Governor of the State of Franklin; six times Governor of Tennessee; four 
times elected to Congress; the typical pioneer who conquered the wilder- 
ness and fashioned the State; a projector and hero of King's Mountain; 
thirty-five battles, thirty-five victories; his Indian war-cry, "Here they 
are! come on, boys, come on!" 

It is said that some of Sevier's early Indian fighting was 


done from New Market. He died Sept. 24, 1815, near Fort 
Decatur, Ga., while on a mission to the Creek Indians.^ 

The records thus far examined seem to corroborate the 
foregoing statements concerning Sevier. The Augusta County- 
records show the name of Valentine Sevier as early as 1746, 
perhaps earlier. Dr. Waddell points out the fact (Annals of 
Augusta, pp. 45, 46) that he was a member of Peter Scholl's 
military company in 1742. In 1753 he was keeping a tavern 
near New Market and Tenth Legion (see page 49). From 
1753 to 1773 he, with Joanna his wife, sold no less than eight 
tracts of land on Smith Creek, in the Long Meadow, and else- 
where in the vicinity, to Andrew Bird, the Holsingers, and 
others, as the Augusta records show. On May 10, 1765, 
Valentine Sevier, of Augusta, and Joanna his wife, sold to 
John Sevier, of Frederick (now Shenandoah), 378 acres, 
located on a branch of Smith's Creek, in Frederick County, 
adjoining the land of John Hodges, Capt. Peter Scholl, and 
Jane Schene; the said land having been granted to Val. Sevier 
from Lord Fairfax in 1749. The next day, May 11, 1765, 
John Sevier and Sarah, his wife, mortgaged the same tract to 
Alex. Wodrow and John Neilson, of Falmouth, King George 
County, Va. At this time John Sevier was living on the land 
in question. The mortgage was witnessed by Joseph Hawkins 
and others.'^ 

The archives of Shenandoah County, formed from Fred- 
erick in 1772, record a number of real estate transctions in 
which John Sevier was a party. In 1782 Val. Sevier's "old 
house" was still a familiar landmark in the Long Meadow 
(see page 217). This, in all probability, was John Sevier's 

1. See Harper's Encyclopaedia of U. S. History, Vol. 3, p. 418; Vol. 
8, p. 132; Vol. 9, pp. 40-43; Roosevelt's Winning of the West, Vol. 1, pp. 
223-230; Life of Gen. John Sevier, by F. M. Turner; Nolichucky Jack, by 
L. T. Sprague, in Outing Magazine, April, 1908. 

2. See records of Frederick County, Va. 

3. Inasmuch as John Sevier was a famous Indian fighter, as well as a 
:statesman, it may be of interest to note in connection that Lewis Wetzel 



Gabriel Jones, known as "The Lawyer," was born May 
17, 1724, near Williamsburg, Va. , son of John and Elizabeth 
Jones, of Wales. Educated in London, he was admitted to 
the bar; in 1747 he bought land near Kernstown, Frederick 
County, Va., where he likely was residing the year before 
when he was appointed prosecuting attorney for Augusta 
County. October 16, 1749, he married Margaret Morton, 
widow of George Morton, and daughter of William Strother. 
August 8, 1751, he bought 244 acres of land from Christopher 
Francisco, the tract being on the north side of the river below 
Port Republic, whereon is the homestead called Bogota. He 
seems to have moved to Bogota about the end of 1753. There 
he had his home till he died, October, 1806. His wife lived 
till 1822, and in November of that year Charles Lewis, Sr., 
administrator, was arranging to make sale of the property 
on January 21, 1823. The property consisted of nearly 1200 
acres of land, a frame dwelling house, with out-buildings, 
growing crops, and "upwards of FORTY very likely 
NEGROES," together with household furniture, elegant 
prints, a large and well selected library, horses, cattle, and 
farming utensils. The place has since been owned by the 
Strayers, and is at present the residence of Dr. A. S. Kemper. 

Mr. Jones had five children, one of whom died in infancy. 
One daughter (Margaret) married Col. John Harvie; another 
married John Lewis, of Fredericksburg; the third married a 
Mr. Hawkins, of Kentucky. His son, William Strother Jones, 
born March 21, 1756, was a student at William and Mary, a 
captain in the Continental Army, and later a colonel of militia. 
His wife was Fanny Thornton, of Fredericksburg. 

Mr. Jones was the first lawyer for Augusta, and the first 

the famous Indian fighter of the Ohio Valley, was also a native of Rock- 
ingham. His father, Capt. John Wetzel, born in Switzerland, 1733, was 
brought to what is now Rockingham in 1740. Here were born John 
Wetzel's sons, Martin, Lewis, Jacob, George, and John. About 1769 
John Wetzel moved west, settling on Wheeling Creek. — See Thwaites and 
Kellogg's Frontier Defense on the Upper Ohio, 1777-1778, page 296.— 
The Wetzel name is still familiar in Rockingham. 



also for Rockingham, in which he lived from its organization 
in 1778 (see pages 65-69). He held the office of common- 
wealth's attorney in Rockingham till 1795, when he resigned 
and was succeeded by David Holmes. He represented Au- 
gusta in the House of Burgesses in 1757, 1758, and 1771. In 
1788, he, with his brother-in-law, Thomas Lewis (page 127), 
was a member of the Virginia convention, and zealously 
favored the adoption of the Federal Constitution. He was a 
little man, of great integrity and explosive temper. His 
difficulty with Henry Brewster (page 73) would indicate as 
much. Dr. Waddell tells of another incident, which probably 
occurred at Woodstock. Hugh Holmes, opposing lawyer, sharp 
and witty, made old Mr. Jones angry, and he exploded. It 
happened again. The court of justices refrained from inter- 
fering as long as possible, but finally they put their heads 
together, and then, after due consideration, the presiding 
justice announced that the court would send Lawyer Holmes 
to jail if he did not quit making Lawyer Jones swear so.^ 

In 1778 George Rootes was admitted to the practice of law 
in Rockingham (see page 71). Michael Bowyer took the oath 
of an attorney in 1779 (page 73) . The following were admitted 
to the Rockingham bar on the dates indicated: 

Lewis Wolf, May 23, 1797. 

John Monroe, April 23, 1798.-^ 

Daniel Smith , December 16, 1800. 

Robert Gray, June 18, 1805. 

George W. Harrison, April 22, 1807. 

4. See Waddell's Annals of Augusta, pp. 81-84; Wayland's "German 
Element," pp. 55, 66, 73, 86, 223, 224, 271; and an article in the W. Va. 
Hist. Mag., April, 1902, entitled, "The Lawyer," by R.T. Barton. Mr. 
Barton, who lives at Winchester, is a descendant of Gabriel Jones. The 
Rockingham Register of Dec. 7, 1822, contains Chas. Lewis' announce- 
ment of the Jones sale. 

5. Mr. Richard See, Jr., writing from Warsaw, Mc, May 20, 1911, 
says: "My grandfather on my mother's side, who is now dead, was Judge 
Joseph Monroe. He was born and raised in Rockingham Co., Va. ; moved 
to Benton County, Mo., many years ago; was a soldier in the war with 
Mexico, also in the civil war." 



Daniel Smith, "a learned, pure judge and good man," 
was born at or near Harrisonburg, in 1779, son of John and 
Margaret Davis Smith, grandson of Justice Daniel Smith 
(pp. 54, 68) ; he married Frances Strother Duff, June 10, 1809; 
children, Margaret, Elizabeth, Lucius, Frances, Marie, John, 
Daniel; he died Nov. 8, 1850, In 1805 he was a member of the 
Virginia House of Delegates; from 1804 to 1811 he was com- 
monwealth's attorney for Rockingham; on April 10, 1811, he 
was appointed a judge of the General Court, and from the 
same date till his death (1850) he was judge of the circuit 
superior court for Rockingham County. He succeeded Judge 
Hugh Holmes, and was succeeded by Judge Green B. 
Samuels. His portrait now adorns the Rockingham County 
court room. Judge John Paul said of him: 

No judge, perhaps, who ever presided on the Circuit Court bench in 
Virginia exerted a better or more lasting influence on the people within 
his jurisdiction. He was not only a great man intellectually, but he was 
great in the moral attributes necessary to the prefection of judicial 

In the celebrated case of the National Bank against 
Steinbergen and others, involving over half a million of dollars, 
he gave a decision on Saturday in favor of the plaintiff; on 
Monday morning following he came into court and announced 
from the bench that he had erred in his former conclusions, 
and proceeded to reverse his decision. "^ 

I have been told that Judge Smith's residence was a 
short distance northeast of Dayton, near the Shrum brick 

Robert Gray was born in Ireland, Nov. 1, 1781, but his 
family settled in the Shenandoah Valley about 1787. He 
was educated at William and Mary and at Princeton, and in 
1805 located at Harrisonburg to practice law. Soon he 
married Isabella, daughter of Dr. Asher Waterman, and about 
1812 built Collicello. (See page 192, 220.) He was a lawyer 

6- See Judge John Paul's address, made Oct. 15, 1896; Boogher's 
Gleanings of Virginia History, pp. 339,340; Waddell's Annals of Augusta, 
pp. 150-152; Compton's Rockingham Register sketches, No. 21. 


(Page S5'J> 
From oil portrait in Roclv. 
Co. Court Room. Photo 
by Morrison. 



of profound learning, an advocate and prosecutor of great 
eloquence. He wrote the proverbially bad hand of the lawyer 
(of his day) . Once when he gave a check for several thousand 
dollars on a Winchester Bank — there were probably no banks 
nearer then than in Winchester — the payee had to ride back 
the 67 miles to Harrisonburg, the cashier having refused to 
cash the check, declaring the signature a forgery, because it 
was legible. He died Dec. 17, 1859, accounted the wealthiest 
citizen of Rockingham County, He had four sons, Algernon, 
Jouett, Douglas, and Robert (1826-1887). 

Algernon S. Gray, eldest son of Robert Gray, was a 
lawyer with his father's gifts of eloquence, and a colonel of 
militia for his county, but he was most of all a philanthropist. 
In the Virginia convention he tried all measures to avoid 
secession, moving the assemblage to tears as he depicted 
what would be the ' 'most mournful Iliad in the history of the 
world," but he did not withstand the action of the majority, 
or disregard the final peremptory orders from his constituents. 
During the war he gave much to feed the soldiers and provide 
for their families, — even took off his own shoes in the street 
to give to a Confederate soldier whose feet left bloody prints 
in the snow. He went to Richmond in behalf of the non- 
combatant Dunkers and Mennonites, of whom there were 
many in Rockingham. After the murder of John Kline it was 
said, "Colonel Gray next," and he finally yielded to the 
entreaty of his daughters, going with two of his brothers to 
Baltimore. After the war he returned to Rockingham, where 
he used his influence for education and progress. For a 
number of years he was U. S. Marshal for the western district 
of Virginia. — See pages 131, 132, above. 

John Kenney, born in Augusta, 1791, located at Harrison- 
burg about 1817. He was commonwealth's attorney, in the 
circuit court, 1847 to 1852, and circuit judge, 1852-60. He 
was also a member of the Virginia constitutional convention 
of 1850. He died in Harrisonburg, 1873, at the home of his 
son. Judge James Kenney.'^ 

7. See sketch of John Kenney in the Register of Feb. 21, 1873. 




Mrs. Carr says: "The lawyers of that day [about 1820] 
were Robert Gray, David Steele, and Thomas Clark, and 
some younger ones I do not remember." — See Chapter 27. 

Isaac Samuels Pennybacker, one of the most distinguished 
sons of northern Virginia, was born at Pine Forge, near 
New Market, Shenandoah County, Va., Sept. 3, 1805. From 
1837 to 1839 he was a representative in Congress from the 
16th district of Virginia, composed of the counties of Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah, Page, Warren, Hardy, Pendleton, and 
Bath. Later he was judge of the U. S. District Court, and a 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution. From 1845 till his 
death, January 12, 1847, he was a U. S. Senator from Virginia. 
It is said that he was offered the Attorney-Generalship of the 
United States by President Van Bur en. 

At the time of his death Senator Pennybacker' s family 
was living in Harrisonburg, where he had resided for some 
time preceding. Some years later suit was brought in court 
for possession of the Waterman house, south side of the 
Harrisonburg public square, the same that is now occupied by 
Dr. R. S. Switzer and his sister, Mrs. Burkholder, with the 
lot whereon it stands. In the report of the said suit the 
following passage occurs: 

The plaintiff alleges in his bill that Isaac S. Pennybacker, his father, 
died about the year 1848, intestate, possessed of this lot, "leaving as his 
only heirs-at-law his widow, Sarah A. Pennybacker, and three infant 
children— John D., Isaac S., and your orator J. Edmund Pennybacker— 
to whom said lot of land descended"; 8 

This would appear to fix the place of Sen. Pennybacker's 
residence in Harrisonburg. 

Senator Pennybacker's wife was Sarah A. Dyer, daughter 
of Zebulon Dyer, of Pendleton County. She died in Franklin, 
W. Va. , June 17, 1891, aged 75. His sons; John D. and J. 
Ed., were both men of prominence, the former having served 
in the State senate, from Rockingham, from 1859 to 1863. — 
See pages 282, 295, above. Ex-Gov. S. W. Pennypacker, of 

8. See 75th Va. , page 672. 



Pennsylvania, is a relative of the family. Miss Kate Penny- 
backer, of Linville Creek, is a grand-daughter of Sen. I. S. 
Pennybacker, and possesses an excellent oil portrait of him. 
In 1844 the Rockingham Register contained cards of the 
following Rockingham lawyers: 

Herring Chrisman Jacob P. Effinger 

F. L. Barziza E. A. Shands 

In 1854 the following were advertised in the same paper: 
Allan C. Bryan & John C. Woodson 
E. A. Shands & S. M. Sommers 
J. C. C. Brettell J. N. Liggett 

Allan C. Bryan, born at Edom, was a brother of Daniel 
Bryan, the poet. Pendleton Bryan, lawyer, who died in Har- 
risonburg, Aug. 30, 1906, was a son of A. C. Bryan. 

John C. Woodson, who died in Harrisonburg, Apr. 25, 
1875, aged 52, had represented Rockingham in the legislature, 
etc. The Register of Apr. 29, and May 6, 1875, contained 
sketches of his life. 

Jacob N. Liggett was born in Harrisonburg, January 2, 
1829, the son of Samuel and Romanzy Nicholas Liggett. He 
graduated in law from the University of Virginia. During 
the civil war he served in various commands; and among his 
papers is a note written by Ashby, commending his courage 
and service. In 1860 he was a Presidential elector on the 
Douglas and Johnson ticket. Following the war he repre- 
sented Rockingham in the Virginia House of Delegates, and 
was elected to the convention that drew up the Underwood 
Constitution in 1868. From the latter body he was expelled 
by a partisan vote, because he did not hesitate to express his 
unvarnished opinion of the body and its proceedings. He 
was a lawyer of ability, a writer and reader of discrimination, 
and an orator of no mean powers. In 1852 he married Evelyn 
Winfield of Rockingham; following her death in 1884 he 
married Isabella Spence of Westmoreland County, who 
survives him. He died in Harrisonburg, May 8, 1912. 

John Francis Lewis, born near Port Republic, March 1, 
1818, came of the family of which Gen. Andrew Lewis and 



Col. Charles Lewis were earlier representatives. (See page 
127, note. ) He was a planter for many years. In 1861 he 
was one of Rockingham's delegates to the State convention, 
and the only member east of the Alleghanies who refused to 
sign the ordinance of secession. (See pages 131-3. ) In 1865 
he was an unsuccessful Union candidate for Congress, but in 
1869 he was elected lieutenant-governor (Gilbert C. Walker, 
governor) by 20,000 majority. In the same year he was 
chosen U. S. Senator for Virginia, serving in that capacity 
till March 4, 1875. In 1881 he was again elected lieutenant- 
governor of Virginia (W. E. Cameron, governor). In 1872 
he was mentioned as a possible candidate for the Vice- 
Presidency, on the Grant ticket. He died in September, 
1895. John F. Lewis, of Lynnwood, is his son, as was also 
the late Daniel Sheffey Lewis (pages 334, 335). ^ 

John Thomas Harris, for many years a distinguished 
citizen of Rockingham, well known throughout Virginia, and 
conspicuous in many national issues, was born in Albemarle 
County, Va., May 8, 1823, the son of Nathan Harris and Ann 
Allan Anderson. When he was five years old his parents 
moved to Augusta County, his early education being received 
in Albemarle and Augusta schools. At the age of 20 he 
taught school in Augusta, studying law in the meantime. 
Having graduated from the law school of Judge Lucas P. 
Thompson, he was licensed and admitted to the bar in 1845 by 
Judges Baldwin and Smith, and located in Harrisonburg. 

In 1848 he was a canvasser for Cass and Butler, and four 
years later rendered effective service in Pierce's campaign. 
The same year (1852) he was elected commonwealth's attorney 
for Rockingham County, holding the office by re-election till 
1859. In 1856 he canvassed Virginia as a Presidential elector 
for James Buchanan, and the next year was appointed a 
member of the board of visitors to the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute. In 1859, after a memorable campaign, in which the 

9. Biographical sketches, etc., of Sen. Lewis appeared in the Rocking- 
ham Register, Oct. 28, 1869; Jan. 14, 1875; Sept. 6, 1895. 



field at the start was against him, Mr. Harris was elected to 
Congress from the 9th district of Virginia, then composed of 
the counties of Highland, Bath, Rockbridge, Augusta, Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah, Hardy, and Pendleton. He was 
re-elected in 1861. 

Although opposed to secession, Mr. Harris promptly 
followed Virginia when she withdrew from the Union, and 
served two terms in the General Assembly during the war. 
From 1866 to 1869 he was judge of the 12th judicial circuit of 
Virginia, which included Rockingham (see pages 161-163, 
above). In 1870 he was elected again to Congress, this time 
representing the 7th district, and was continuously re-elected 
till 1880. In 1881 he resumed the practice of law, devoting 
himself chiefly to contested election cases, for which his long 
experience in Congress had given him special fitness. In 
1888 he, with Richard F. Bierne, was an elector at large on 
the Cleveland ticket, and the following year was a rival of 
P. W. McKinney for the Democratic nomination for the 
Governorship. Later he was appointed by Gov. McKinney 
one of the commissioners for Virginia to the World's Columbian 
Exposition, and as a member of the executive committee took 
a prominent part in the great celebration. He died at his 
home in Harrisonburg, October 14, 1899. 

On May 29, 1854, Mr. Harris married Miss Virginia M. 
Miller. The following children were born of the union: Anna 
H. Heard, 5908 Cabaune Ave., St. Louis; Emma H. Mac- 
Queary, 6809 McPherson Ave., St. Louis; Virginia 0. Beall, 
St. Regis, St. Louis; Graham H. Harris, 1438 N. State St., 
Chicago; John T. Harris, Harrisonburg; Hatton N. T. Harris 
(died 1905) ; Edith Harris (died 1904) ; and Clement C. Harris, 
who died in infancy. Hatton Harris was a surgeon in the U. 
S. Navy; Graham H. Harris and John T. Harris are prominent 

For many years, beginning with or before the war, one 
of the prominent citizens of Rockingham, and for some time 
an influential member of the legislature, was Dr. S. H. 
Moffett. During the war he was a director on the board of 



the Western State Hospital, at Staunton. The Register of 
Nov. 17, 1881, and Aug. 7, 1896, contained interesting accounts 
of him as a politician and statesman. The same paper, in 
1863, contained cards of John W. G. Smith, E. T. H. Warren, 
and John C. Woodson, Rockingham lawyers. 

The following list, for 1866 and 1867, is made up from 
several copies of the Register, compared with a copy of the 
Old Commonwealth of Oct. 10, 1866. 

James Kenney^° Allan C. Bryan 

Geo. G. Grattan Jno. C. Woodson 

J. S. Duckwall Wm. B. Compton^^ 

F. A. Daingerfield" Huston Handy 
Wm. H. Effinger G. S. Latimer 
J. N. Liggett A. M. Newman 
Chas. A. Yancey Wm. S. Rohr 
Thos. L. M. Chipley J. Ed. Pennybacker 

G. W. Berlin Pendleton Bryan 
Warren S. Lurty John Paul 

B. G. Patterson Granville Eastham (1834-'95)i3 

Chas. E. Haas J. S. Harnsberger 

Charles Triplett O'Ferrall was born in what is now 
Berkeley County, W. Va., Oct. 21, 1840, and died in Rich- 
mond, Va., Sept. 22, 1905. He was a Confederate cavalry 
officer, and rose to the rank of colonel. After graduating in 
law, in 1869, he located at Harrisonburg, and had his home 
there until December, 1893, when he moved to Richmond. 
From 1874 to 1880 he was judge of the Rockingham County 
court, and from 1894 to 1898 he was governor of Virginia. 
For twelve years of the interim he was a member of Congress 
from the 7th district of Virginia. Although not regarded as 

10. Sketch of in the Register of Oct. 19, 1894. 

11- See page 319; also, McDonald's History of the Laurel Brigade, 
pp. 379, 380. 

12. Sketch of in the Register of July 29, 1898, 

13. Sketch of in the Register of March 22, 1895. 


( Pages sriS. :!5'.0 
Photo by Moni-ion 


a profound lawyer, he was an efficient judge, and as a popular 
orator in political campaigns he had few equals. 

Governor OTerrall's mother was Jane Laurens, born in 
Fauquier County, Va., in 1817. She died in Bridgewater in 
May, 1891, having lived there several years preceding. Her 
grave is in Woodbine Cemetery, Harrisonburg. She had the 
Spartan spirit and the tender devotion of the lady of Shunem. 
Few stories are more touching and stirring than the brief 
account Col. O'Ferrall gives of her journey to his bedside, 
after he had received what was supposed to be a mortal 
wound, near Upperville, in June, 1863. 

In 1862 Col. O'Ferrall married Annie McLain; his second 
wife, whom he married in 1891, was Jennie Knight Danforth. 

In addition to numerous political essays and speeches, he 
published an autobiographical volume entitled "Forty Years 
of Active Service" (see page 326). In this he has a number 
of interesting things to say of Rockingham, her people in 
general and his colleagues in particular. For example, he 
says of George E. Deneale, who was his colleague in the 
Virginia House of Delegates in 1871-3, "He was called 'the 
old man eloquent.' " In telling of the famous Lawson trial 
of 1877, he gives graphic descriptions of John Paul and John 
Roller, as follows: 

The Commonwealth's Attorney who prosecuted in these cases was John 
Paul, who afterwards served a term in Congress and was then appointed 
United States District Judge for the Western District of Virginia. He 
was one of the ablest prosecuting attorneys I have ever known; his con- 
gressional service was creditable, and his career as Judge from 1883 to 
1902, when he died, was marked with ability and with an honesty and 
uprightness of purpose that drew plaudits from the bar of his district, 
and stamped him as a just, impartial, and incorruptible judge. 

The leading attorney for the defense was John E. Roller, and well 
did he act his part and do his duty. Astute, cautious, and watchful, 
never tiring, never lacking in quickness to object to what he conceived 
to be an improper question, and then maintaining his position with great 
force; searching and severe in the cross-examination of opposing wit- 
nesses, and drawing most skilfully from the witnesses for the defense 
every point favorable to his clients. Between the two— Paul and Roller 
—it was indeed a battle royal and a fight to the finish. They were 



both young men, neither forty— the latter, who was the junior, not more 
than thirty-five. ******** 

A distinguished and highly-esteemed member of the county bar . . . , 
Colonel Robert Johnston, was elected as my successor, i^ 

John Paul, statesman and jurist, was born near Ottobine, 
June 30, 1839, the son of Peter Paul and his wife, Maria 
Whitmer. He was commonwealth's attorney for Rockingham 
County, 1871-7; in 1880 he was elected to Congress; and in 
September, 1883, he was appointed U. S. judge for the 
western district of Virginia, in which capacity he served with 
distinction for 18 years,— till his death, Nov. 1, 1901.^^ His 
wife, whom he married in November, 1874, was Miss Kather- 
ine S. Green (see pages 326-7). One of his sons, John Paul, 
Jr., is now Virginia senator from Rockingham. 

J. Samuel Harnsberger, the son of Jeremiah and 
Elizabeth Harnsberger, was born in the eastern part of Rock- 
ingham County, near Conrad's Store, now Elkton, November 
17, 1839. In 1861, while a student at the University of 
Virginia, he entered the Confederate army, serving under 
Gen. Henry A. Wise in West Virginia; later he was a member 
of Co. F, 12th Virginia Cavalry, organized by Major Harry 
Gilmore, and afterwards commanded successively by Clarke, 
Figgett, and O'Ferrall. In 1862 he was a special aide to 
Stonewall Jackson, just preceding the famous Valley cam- 
paign. After the war he returned to the University to study 
law, and then located at Harrisonburg to practice his profes- 
sion. About 1904 he was appointed U. S. Commissioner for 
the Western District of Virginia, and held this position till 
death, which occurred at his home in Harrisonburg, May 2, 
1912. In 1871 he married Carrie V. Harnsberger, who, with 
two sons and a daughter, survives him. The sons are George 
S. Harnsberger, Harrisonburg, and Gilbert M. Harnsberger, 
Shenandoah City, Va. The daughter is Mrs. Bartow Jones, 
Point Pleasant, W. Va. During the last years of his life 

I'l. See pages 206, 207 of "Forty Years of Active Service." 
15. See "John Paul, 1839-1901," by John T. Harris. 


(Pages 359, SiJO) 


Captain Harnsberger collected a large amount of material 
towards a history of the Harnsberger family. 

Within the years 1876 to 1881, the following were among 
the lawyers of Rockingham: 

Edwin C. Bruffey 

G.IF. Compton (pages VI, 319) 

R. S. Thomas 

Geo. A. Roszelle 

Robt. B. Ragan (died 1881) 

Henry V. Strayer (died 1900) 

John A. Cowan 

0. B. Roller (1855-1912)16 

William Shands 

In 1905, Winfield Liggett, a well known member of the 
bar, died. 

George Bernard Keezell was born near Keezletown, July 
20, 1854, son of George Keezell and his wife, Amanda Fitzallen 
Peale. He was an only child, and his father, who married 
late in life, died when his son was eight years old. He was 
educated in private schools and at Stuart Hall, a collegiate 
institution, in Baltimore. At the age of 16 he took up 
farming, residing with his mother at the home built by his 
grandfather in 1794. Shortly after he was 21 he was elected 
a justice of the peace; and in 1883 he was elected to the State 
senate, being re-elected four successive terms from 1895 to 
1911. His senatorial service was the longest of any man in 
this generation. He was always in the thick of every fight, 
and was regarded as an authority on financial matters, having 
served as chairman of the Finance Committee a number of 
years. He resigned from the senate in 1910 to accept 
appointment as treasurer of Rockingham County, and served 
one year of an unexpired term. He has always been a 
Democrat in politics, and for 25 years was chairman of the 
party organization of his county. In 1901 he was a member 
of the Virginia constitutional convention, and was a presi- 

16. See pages 173, 178, above. 



dential elector in 1904. He has served on the State Board of 
Fisheries by appointment of four successive governors, Tyler, 
Montague, Swanson, and Mann. 

Senator Keezell has always taken an active interest in 
education, serving many years as local school trustee. In 
the senate he was on the committee for Public Institutions 
and Education, and was patron of the bill establishing the 
State Normal and Industrial School at Harrisonburg. He 
was also a member of the committee which made the prelimi- 
nary report favoring such schools, and was especially active 
and influential in locating the Normal at Harrisonburg. Since 
its establishment he has served as chairman of the Board of 
Trustees. In 1912 the "Schoolma'am, " the 200-page annual 
published by the student body, was dedicated to him, with 
the characterization: "A Progressive Farmer, A Virginia 
Statesman, A Patron of Education, and A Friend of Virginia 

Mr. Keezell's grandfather, George Keezell, was the 
founder and patron of Keezletown (see pages 193, 194) ; his 
father, George Keezell, was a soldier in the War of 1812. 
In 1886 Mr. Keezell married Miss Kate M. Hannah, who 
died in 1902, leaving four sons and two daughters ; in 1903 he 
married Miss Belle C. Hannah, one of the best known teachers 
of Rockingham. 

Many of the men who have gone out from Rockingham 
to other counties and States have become eminent; a few 
examples are given. 

William Taylor, born in Alexandria, began the practice of 
law in Rockingham; was elected a representative for Virginia 
to the 28th and 29th Congress; he died Jan. 17, 1846, in 

Thomas H. Ford, born in Rockingham, Aug. 23, 18 ; 

went when young to Ohio; became a lawyer; in 1855 was 
elected Lt. Governor; died in Washington, Feb. 29, 1868. 

In 1871 Andrew J. Kearney, son of Martin L. Kearney 
of Rockingham, was judge of the parish court of Cameron, 
La., and was connected with the Cameron Times. At the 



same time H, H, Stevens, son of E. H. Stevens, was an 
influential member of the Louisiana legislature. 

In 1880 died Judge Wm. P. Daingerfield, an eminent 
jurist of California. He was born in Virginia in 1824, and 
began the practice of law in Rockingham and Pendleton. — 
See page 126. 

Chas. H. Lewis, secretary of the commonwealth prior to 
1870, and minister to Portugal, 1870 to 1875, was a brother 
to Sen. John F. Lewis, of Rockingham; and Judge Lunsford 
L. Lewis, well known throughout Virginia, is a member of 
the same family. 

Sylvester Lamb, of Toledo, a very distinguished member 
of a recent Ohio legislature, is a descendant of Peter Lam 
of Rockingham. 

The late James W. Marshall, of southwest Virginia, 
famous as "Cyclone Jim," spent part of his early life in this 
county, having numerous connections here. 

Judge Charles Grattan, a distinguished jurist of Augusta 
County, was a native of Rockingham, and a brother of Judge 
George G. Grattan. 

Hon. James Hay, the distinguished member of Congress 
from the 7th district of Virginia, was a Rockingham lawyer 
and teacher from 1877 to 1879. The present circuit judge, 
T. N. Haas, was one of his pupils. Mr. Hay married his first 
wife, Miss Tatum, in Harrisonburg, Oct. 1, 1878. 

Additional matter relating to this chapter is given in the 

We append here a few statements regarding certain sons 
of Rockingham distinguished in fields other than law and 

Col. John W. Dunlap, born here in 1814, lived here till 
1858; then he moved to Iowa; he died in Jackson County, 
Iowa, Nov. 5, 1869. 

Rev. Dr. A. S. Gibbons, president Univ. of the Pacific, 
1852-7 and 1872-9, was born near River Bank, Rockingham 
Co., Va., about 1822. 

About 1871 Nat Ervin, who had gone from Rockingham 



to Iowa some years before, came back on a visit. He had 
increased $1000 to $150,000 in the meantime. 

In 1872 the following Rockinghamers were good citizens 
at and near Kingston, Ga. : James G. Rogers, Jonathan Speck, 
Peter Hollen, and the "Harris Boys." 

In the 70's Dr. J. R. L. Hardesty, son of Isaac Hardesty 
of Harrisonburg, was an eminent surgeon and eye specialist 
of Wheeling. In 1875 the Khedive offered him a position at 

Gen. C. C. C. Carr, of Chicago, was born in Harrisonburg, 
1842.— See pages 120, 269, etc. 

Maj. Walter Reed (1851-1902), surgeon U. S. A., hero 
and benefactor, spent part of his boyhood in Harrisonburg, 
where his father. Rev. L. S. Reed, had his home for many 

Dr. 0. C. Brunk, of Richmond, formerly superintendent 
of the State hospital at Williamsburg, is a native of 

Mr. L. J. Bricker, of St. Paul, a prominent railroad 
official, is also a Rockinghamer. 

Rev. David W. Gwin, A. M., D. D., M. D., LL. D., of 
Columbia, S. C, clergyman, educator, editor, and author, 
was born in Bridgewater, Dec. 6, 1838, the son of David S. 
Gwin, merchant. 

In the blowing up of the Maine, February 15, 1898, 
Frank T. Kelly, of Rockingham, was killed. Dr. Lucien G. 
Heneberger, of Harrisonburg, was surgeon on the ship, but 
escaped with his life. 


The chief wealth of Rockingham is produced in the fields, 
the orchards, the stock ranges, the poultry yards, and the 
dairies. Ours is pre-eminently a county of farms and farmers: 
of productive farms, and of farmers who own their farms 
and live upon them. Of a total of 3528 farms reported 
in 1910, only 489 were operated by tenants and managers, 
while all the rest, 3039, were operated by the owners. Of 
the latter, 2480 were free from mortgage debt. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that Rockingham as an agricultural 
community holds front rank in the State and in the nation. 

One of the most interesting phases of this subject is to 
be found in observing the changes that have taken place from 
earlier to later times in the kind and character of agricultural 
products. For example, tobacco for several generations was 
an important crop in Rockingham. In 1844 Gen. S. H. Lewis 
(page 127) began to cut tobacco on the 21st of August, and 
continued on September 4, 5, 6, and 7, finishing on the 
16th. In February, 1861, he was preparing beds for tobacco 
plants. As late as 1876 much tobacco was raised in E. Rock- 
ingham and the southern part of Page. Most of it was hauled 
to Harrisonburg and shipped via the B. & 0. railway. From 
the statements in the current press it appears that tobacco 
raising in the county was a common thing, but that the 
quantity that year (1876) was greater than usual. At present 
no tobacco, almost, is raised. In 1910 only 3 acres in the 
whole county were devoted to it. 

One of the most interesting experiments was made in 
grape culture. A hundred years ago, perhaps, the Scherdlins 
(page 238), who lived on Paul Street, Harrisonburg, in the 
house now occupied by Mrs. Converse, had a vineyard on the 


hill eastward. In November, 1866, Hockman and Forrer 
were planting a 6-acre vineyard on the same hill. Within 
the next few years grape culture was undertaken on a large 
scale in many parts of the county. In 1867 Forrer and Hock- 
man had about 5000 vines. In November, 1867, Col. John H. 
Hopkins, Dr. W. D. Hopkins, A. S. Byrd, and Francis Staling 
had formed a company for setting out large vineyards near 
Mt. Clinton, and had ordered 65,000 grape slips. They were 
also going to raise various fruits. Firebaugh & Company, at 
Mt. Clinton, were also preparing to set out a large vineyard. 

By May, 1868, the following varieties of grapes had been 
planted about Mt. Clinton: Delaware, Concord, Norton's 
Virginia, lona, Ives' Seedling, and Hartford Prolific. At the 
same time Simeon Woods had planted out a large tract in 
grapes near New Market, Shenandoah County. 

In August, 1871, it was reported that Capt. A. S. Byrd 
had a vineyard near Hopkins' Mill and the North Mountain, 
planted in 1868, containing 5400 vines, of 14 different 
varieties. In September (1871) Dr. J. C. Homan had a 
vineyard of 15 acres near Timberville. In 1873 a quantity 
of v/ine was being made from G. T. Hopkins' vineyard, near 
McGaheysville; and Samuel Shank had 4^ acres in grapes on 
Linville Creek, near Broadway. In 1874 G. W. Berhn sold 
his vineyard at Bridgewater to J. W. F. Allemong (page 232). 

At present there are a few grape vines on nearly every 
farm; but so far as known, no attempt is being made any where 
in the county to raise grapes on a large scale. 

But some things have come in while others have gone 
out. The most striking instance of this sort is doubtless to 
be found in the development of fruit-growing. A century 
ago Dr. Peachey Harrison wrote that the apples of Rocking- 
ham were few and inferior (see Chapter 28). Now fruits of 
all kinds adapted to our latitude, especially apples, are 
produced regularly in immense quantities (see page 181). 
Four miles west of Harrisonburg stands a single apple tree 
(York Imperial) that produced in one season, a year or two 
ago, 15 barrels of fruit, which sold for $2.75 a barrel. The 



chief varieties grown are York Imperial (Johnson), Winesap, 
Ben Davis, Jonathan, Dehcious, Rome Beauty, and Grimes' 
Golden. The Smokehouse and some other old varieties are 
going out. In November, 1911, T. N. Thompson and W. J. 
Dingledine were elected president and secretary, respectively, 
of the Rockingham Horticultural Society, a growing organi- 
zation of over 100 members. The great fruit growers' 
convention and exhibition (16th annual meeting of the Virginia 
Horticultural Society) , held in Harrisonburg in January, was 
one of the features of the year 1912. 

About 1843 Joseph Funk, as shown by his letters, was 
cultivating apple sprouts at Mountain Valley, in order that 
they might be ready for his daughter to carry to Missouri for 
planting, when she should return from a visit to him. This 
may have been the beginning of the nursery business in 
Rockingham. From 1860 to 1866, perhaps longer, John 
Niswander was proprietor of the Rockingham Nursery, at 
Dayton. In 1869 Coff man & Son, near Dayton, were operating 
Cook's Creek Nursery. It was said: 

The elder Mr. Coffman is one of the early pioneers of superior fruit 
growing in the Valley. i 

For a number of years past the Wenger nursery, near 
Dayton, has been well known. Mr. C. D. Wenger is the 
present proprietor. Greenhouses have been known in the 
county for the past 30 or 40 years; but the one advertised at 
Harrisonburg by John H. Bell in 1875 was referred to as a 
"new enterprise." 

One of our most interesting and significant agricultural 
enterprises is the seed growing business of D. M. Wetsel & 
Son. In 1897 Mr. Wetsel, formerly a blacksmith, bought 15 
acres of land near Port Republic, and began to raise superior 
seed corn. His business grew, so that in 1905 he purchased 
160 acres further down the river, 120 acres lying on Green 
Island. Continuing his corn growing, Mr. Wetsel developed 
several new varieties, which are among the best yielders in 

1- Rockingham Register, Nov. 11, 1869. 



the eastern States. He has enlarged his work, now growing- 
many seeds for garden and field. His exhibits have taken a 
number of high prizes in the Roanoke, Richmond, Hagers- 
town, and Baltimore fairs. The trade of the firm extends 
over nearly every State east of the Mississippi River. 

The leading grains of Rockingham are corn (994,436), 
wheat (719,090), oats (45,140), and rye (25,165); the figures 
indicating the respective numbers of bushels, for the year, 
reported in 1910. Practically all the wheat is grown from 
fall sowing, and different varieties, both smooth and bearded, 
are cultivated. Leap's prolific smooth wheat is extensively 
grown in the eastern parts of the county. This variety is 
regarded by competent authorities as probably better suited 
to Virginia soils and climate than any other known; and 
therefore it is of special interest to recall that this wheat 
was given to the world from East Rockingham. Mr. Leap, 
the original cultivator, now lives near Charlottesville. 

In 1839 R. Kemper, of Cross Keys, was advertising 
"Italian Spring Wheat" for sale. In 1852, Gen. S. H. Lewis 
cut Zimmerman wheat on June 25; "purple straw," June 29, 
and following; Poland rye, July 8; and commenced sowing 
Mediterranean wheat on September 22. From 1852 to 1861 
he was also raising "white wheat." 

Judging from advertisements in the Register, Rockingham 
farmers were using "plaister" for fertilizer as early as 1833. 
In 1852 (March 31) Gen. Lewis sowed plaster on a clover field; 
on April 2, following, he sowed it on another field. In 1864 
Nova Scotia plaster was being used in the county; in 1866 H. 
Heller & Son, of Harrisonburg, were selling raw bone phos- 
phate and super phosphate of lime. During the years fol- 
lowing much bone dust was used, large quantities being 
ground in the county. In 1866 it was reported that plaster 
had been found on the farm of Capt. D. S. Jones, near 
Harrisonburg, and also on the farm of Emanuel Rhodes. In 
1867 Peruvian guano sold in Harrisonburg at $115 a ton; bone 
dust, at $70; wheat, at $2.25 a bushel; sugar, at 15 to 25 cents 
a pound. In 1868 G. W. Berlin was paying 50c a hundred 


Senator I. S. Pennybacker 
(Pages 354, 355) 


for dry bones (in Harrisonburg), and $15 a ton (delivered at 
his mill near Bridgewater), and was grinding them into bone 
dust for farm fertilizer. In 1871 he paid $20 a ton for bones, 
and sold the bone dust at $50 to $55 a ton. In 1880 he said 
that Maj. George Chrisman had bought from him from two 
to ten tons of pure ground bone nearly every year during the 
preceding 10 or 12 years. 

The number of bushels of potatoes raised in 1910 was 
122,116; of sweet potatoes and yams, 5058. In certain sec- 
tions of the county, particularly about Spring Creek, Bridge- 
water, Mt Crawford, and Timberville, thousands of fine 
watermelons, etc. , are grown every year. August court is 
known as "watermelon court," the reason being much in 
evidence all around the public square. The color scheme is 
red, white, and green, with black for variation. In 1901 — 
the first time in many years— August court was melonless, 
owing to lateness of the crop. 

Rockingham is a great country for hay and forage. In 
1910 over 45,000 tons were reported. Timothy and clover, 
usually mixed, are the staple hay-grasses. Crimson clover and 
alfalfa are being introduced. The lands along Smich's Creek, 
Linville Creek, and other streams are excellent for grazing, 
and in consequence the cattle, horses and sheep of the county 
are numbered by thousands (see page 181). It is said that 
in 1903 Rockingham took first rank in livestock values in the 
U. S. census report. 

By common consent, Geo. W. Rosenberger, who lived at 
Rosendale, on Smith's Creek, is regarded as the pioneer in 
bringing fine stock into Rockingham County. In 1842 he 
began raising improved breeds of cattle, sheep, and hogs; 
later, he secured the better breeds of chickens, turkeys, and 
ducks. 2 About 1860, a herd of 26 Durhams of his raising, 21 
bullocks and 5 heifers, averaged a weight of 1773 pounds; the 
heaviest weighing 1985, the lightest 1500. From lb66 to 1876, 
etc., he was selling full-bred Cotswold sheep, as well as 

2. Rockingham Register, Jan. 3, 1867, Jan. 31, 1878. 



shorthorn cattle. In 1874 he bought in Kentucky a Cotswold 
buck weighing 385 pounds. In 1876 he sold to John F. Lewis 
two sheep weighing 200 and 300 pounds, respectively. 

In the 70's Peter S. Roller and Samuel Frank, of the vi- 
cinity of Mt. Crawford, had for sale Berkshire pigs and short- 
horn calves. For many years past John S. Funk, John B. 
Bowman, and others, of the Singer's Glen neighborhood, 
have won numerous prizes at Staunton, Winchester, Wood- 
stock, and elsewhere on Shropshire, Cotswold, and Southdown 
sheep, etc. 

In January, 1867, Ephraim Wenger, near Dayton, killed 
a beef "which weighed over 1255 lbs. nett!" In April follow- 
ing. Col. John H. Hopkins, "of the North Mountain region," 
sold 25 head of fat cattle, to Mr. Hahn, of Shenandoah, at 
$95 a head. In 1871, D. H. Landis, near Harrisonburg, was 
raising Ohio Chesters and Berkshires. In 1880 Geo. W. 
Adams, of Linville Creek, bought of Daniel Byerly four cattle 
averaging 1802 pounds each; in March, 1891, Dr. E. A. Her- 
ring, of Cross Keys, sold two Durham cattle (twins), named 
Tom and Jerry, 4 years old the preceding December, that 
weighed respectively 2040 and 2155 pounds; and in January, 
1895, John F. Myers shipped to Roanoke a hog (| Poland- 
China, J Chester) that weighed 855 pounds. (See page 89.) 

After Mr. Rosenberger, the man who deserves most 
gratitude in Rockingham for the high standards set in stock- 
raising, etc., is doubtless Maj. George Chrisman. For forty 
years or more he has pointed out the best in these lines, and 
has shown how and why it i& the best. It was he who intro- 
duced Poland-China and Berkshire hogs into Rockingham, 
following the war, bringing them from Illinois.^ From 1877 
to 1885 his thoroughbred cattle were awarded premiums at 
Staunton, Winchester, Culpeper, Richmond, and Washington; 
from 1875 to 1896 he contributed to the Rockingham Register 
no less than two dozen articles on such subjects as hog-raising, 
cattle-raising, Percheron horses, farming, fertilizers, etc. 

3. Rockingham Register, May 9, 1878. 



As early as 1867, perhaps earlier, Sen. John F. Lewis 
was also engaged in raising fine stock. In the year named 
he brought into Rockingham the thoroughbred race-horse, 
Engineer, for the improvement of his own stock, with that 
of his neighbors. He also raised Durham cattle and full- 
bred sheep. His son, John F. Lewis, president of the Virginia 
Pure Bred Live Stock Breeders Association, keeps saddle and 
Percheron horses. Shorthorn cattle, and Berkshire hogs. 

The first "thoroughbred" horse I have heard of in Rock- 
ingham was Sir Rubycon, advertised in March, 1833, by John 
W. Dunlap; the most famous one was doubtless Sam Purdy, 
brought to Harrisonburg in 1880 from the Pacific slope, a 
present to Capt. F. A. Daingerfield from his brother-in-law, 
James R. Keene. Sam Purdy had been at different times the 
property of Leland Stanford, and Keene had paid $50,000 for 
him. He was in Rockingham about ten years, but died in 
Culpeper in 1891, aged 25 years. General Miles, a Kentucky 
saddle-bred horse, the property of Dr. John A. Myers of 
Harrisonburg, has been in the county about 16 years, and has 
a great progeny. Thomas Herring and Joseph Clatterbuck, 
of Dayton, keep fine horses. St. Lorimer, owned by Mr. 
Clatterbuck, was sired by St. Blaze, owned by J. R. Keene 
and F. A. Daingerfield, and sold for $100,000. One of St. 
Lorimer's colts recently took blue ribbon in the free for all 
heavy jumpers' contest in France. Among other Rocking- 
ham gentlemen who have done notable things in promot- 
ing stock standards, specially of horses, are M. M. Jarman, 
Elkton, and Garber Brothers, of Harrisonburg. Harrison- 
burg is probably the greatest horse market in the Valley. 
In the Register of March 31, 1881, it was stated: "About 
500 head of horses have been bought on our streets within 
the last two months. " Every court day brings horses and 
horse buyers. 

As may be supposed, the dairy and poultry products of 
Rockingham are very large— the quality keeping pace with 
the quantity. In April, 1866, it was announced in the 
Register that, since the preceding October, Forrer & Clip- 



pinger, local merchants, had shipped to Baltimore and Wash- 
ington 25,000 pounds of butter, which had won such a 
reputation as to secure for the said firm a contract to supply 
$200's worth of butter, eggs, etc., per week, to the White 
House. During the two years ending July 1, 1871, there 
were shipped from Linville Depot 16,361 barrels of flour, 
504,743 pounds of mill feed, 16,769 bushels of wheat, and 241 
car loads of live stock. On a single day, in the fall or winter 
of 1873, 600 pounds of butter were received at the Cross 
Keys store. The annual shipment of butter from the same 
place amounted in value to $7000 or $8000. On April 13, 
1877, J. B. D. Rhodes & Co., merchants at Spartapolis, had 
on hand 2000 dozen eggs. During the month of March, 1878, 
10,000 dozen eggs were shipped from Broadway. May 22, 
1894, "Egg Day" at the Harrisonburg express office, 371 
cases, containing 11,406 dozen eggs, were shipped north. For 
the year ending December 31, 1894, the following express 
shipments were made from Bridgewater: 50,970 dozen eggs; 
17,613 pounds of butter; 80,555 pounds of dressed poultry; 
36,014 pounds of live poultry; 1721 pounds of chestnuts and 
dried fruits. And this was before the railroad came. In 
December, 1895, it was reported that over 8500 pounds of 
poultry had been shipped from Broadway and Timberville in 
one day. At present, the J. A. Burkholder Produce Co., 
Harrisonburg, is shipping about 50 cars of poultry and 75 
cars of eggs a year: 5000 chickens and 6000 dozen eggs in a 
car. In other words, they send off each month over 20,000 
chickens and 450,000 eggs. 

At this rate something must be done to keep up the 
supply; and it is being done. Nearly everybody in the county 
raises chickens — people in the smaller towns and villages, as 
well as those on the farm. S. H. Blosser & Son, Dayton, 
have a hatchery with a capacity of 9900 eggs, tri-weekly be- 
coming chicks. There is only one other in the State (the one 
at Riverton) of equal size. Near Dayton are also the large 
poultry yards of Senger Brothers; and there are many others, 
of varying sizes, over the county. A yearly poultry show is 
one of the delights of the county-seat. 



There was a formal movement for agricultural societies 
in the Valley as early as 1825-6, the General Assembly records 
showing; and closer or looser organization has existed among 
Rockingham farmers, from time to time, up to and into the 
present. From 1874 to 1878 the Grange was active in the 
county. In 1874-5 local organizations were perfected at 
Bridgewater, Mt. Crawford, McGaheysville, Port Republic, 
Conrad's Store, Zirkle's School House, Melrose, North Moun- 
tain, and Harrisonburg. On May 21, 1875, a great demon- 
stration was made in Harrisonburg by the several granges of 
Rockingham and adjoining counties. Dr. J. B. Webb, of 
Cross Keys, was installed Master of the county grange; M. M. 
Sibert was made secretary, and H. B. Harnsberger, treasurer. 

In March, 1878, the McGaheysville grange passed resolu- 
tions acknowledging the services of Geo. Chrisman, John F. 
Lewis, and Geo. Rosenberger in improving the herds and 
flocks of Rockingham. From 1890 to 1893 the Farmers' 
Alliance was much in evidence. G. T. Barbee of Bridge- 
water was president of the State organization in 1890. 

At present there is an active Rockingham Farmers' Asso- 
ciation. C. B. Kiser of Bridgewater is president; C. W. 
Wamplerof Dayton is secretary; there are five directors, one 
from each magisterial district: D. C. Acker (Plains), W. S. 
Armentrout (Linville), Harry Forrer (Central), C. T. Callen- 
der (Ashby), and J. C. Armstrong (Stonewall). Another 
healthy and growing organization is the boys' corn club. 

April 14, 1870, "Agricola, " writing in the Register, pro- 
posed an agricultural fair for Rockingham. In November, 
1892, the first annual agricultural fair of the county was held 
at Assembly Park, just north of Harrisonburg. In Septem- 
ber of the next year, and perhaps for a year or two longer, 
this movement was kept up. In August, 1898, the first ex- 
hibition of the Rockingham Horse and Colt Show Association 
was held in Assembly Park; in 1901 the annual exhibition was 
first held on the new grounds, just west of town. These 
horse and colt shows were discontinued a few years ago; but 
now, upon the same grounds, while these lines are being 



written, a new county fair is being held (October, 1912). 
Maj. Geo. Chrisman is president; Mr. Paul Rhinehart is 
manager; and H. M. Strickler, Esq., is secretary. 

For about ten years past an annual horse and stock show 
has been held at Lacey Spring; Mr. J. S. Sellers is president, 
and Mr. L. B. Morris is secretary. 

There are dozens of particular farms in Rockingham so 
well situated and so well kept as to make the observer, what- 
ever he is, long to be a farmer. Perhaps the most famous 
of all these farms is the one two miles west of Harrisonburg, 
on the Rawley Pike, until recently owned by James E. Reherd, 
now the property of Frank B. Showalter. This farm has been 
"written up" for at least three world's fairs: Chicago (1893), 
St. Louis (1904), and Jamestown (1907). 

Organization, co-operation, and increasing efficiency are 
marking the progress of farming and farm life in Rocking- 
ham. Farm houses are being constructed and furnished with 
more regard for convenience and comfort, and the people are 
learning to get more pleasure and culture, as well as more 
money, out of their farms. Intensive farming and better 
selection and adaptation of farm products will soon double 
results on our farms and for our farmers. The following 
instance is presented to show what is possible in Rockingham 
on a very small farm. 

A. J. Anderson of Bridgewater has a farm of seven 
acres. The land is river bottom— sandy loam. He plants 
field corn and potatoes in three acres; the remaining four 
acres he uses as a truck farm, making specialties of toma- 
toes, cucumbers, cantaloupes, beans, and sweet corn. Prac- 
tically the whole output is sold at retail in Harrisonburg and 
other nearby towns. In 1911 he cleared $1100.00. This 
year (1912), up to August 15, his sales amounted to $600.00. 
He regards the total receipts from the four acres of vege- 
tables as clear profit, since the corn and potatoes raised on 
the other three acres pay expenses for the whole farm. 



In regard to manufactures, the same general conditions 
have existed and the same general changes have occurred in 
Rockingham County as in the country at large. Early times 
were marked by a great many and a great variety of manu- 
factures in small establishments and in the homes of the 
people; the civil war stimulated these local enterprises, and 
called forth certain ones unknown before; the boom periods 
produced larger establishments than were operated before, 
but which were usually short-lived; the last two or three 
decades have seen most of the small factories give up their 
business to a few large ones. 

The number of different industrial enterprises in our 
county during the last century or more has been so great that 
nothing more than a desultory catalogue can be attempted 
here, except in a few cases. 

Some of the first manufacturing establishments, and 
some of the most important of all, were flouring mills, built 
on the banks of the numerous power-giving streams. The 
Bird, Zirkle, and Strickler mills, on Smith's Creek, Plains mill, 
below Timberville, Bowman's mill, on Linville Creek, Paul's 
mill, on Beaver Creek, Carthrea's mill, at Port RepubHc, 
and other mills on South River and tributary streams, were 
all likely built a hundred years or more ago. The 40 mills 
now in the county form one of our most important branches 
of industry. 

Tanners, shoemakers, harness and saddle makers, cabinet 
makers, tailors, weavers, and blacksmiths were on the ground, 
of necessity, from very early days. In 1839 Wm. J. Ford 
was a saddler in Harrisonburg; in 1840 Henry Smals was a 


shoemaker in Bridge water; for 50 years, beginning in 1850, 
John W. Jacobs was a shoemaker at the same place. In 1826 
Jacob Houck and Samuel Liggett were hatters in Harrison- 
burg; Liggett had perhaps been at McGaheysville beforehand. 
The same year (1826) John Crummey had a gunshop in 
Harrisonburg; other gunsmiths in the same town, about 1850, 
were Alex. McGilvray, Geo. S. Logan, and Wm. W. Gibbs. 
In 1854 Isaac Stone, in Dayton, J. M. Irvine, 0. C. Sterling, 
and J. C. WilHams, in Harrisonburg, were making chairs, 
bedsteads, and other furniture. 

A large number of tanneries were operated from time to 
time in various parts of the county. Soon after 1800 the 
following men were tanning at the places indicated: John 
Zigler, Timberville; Michael Wise, Bridgewater; Francis A. 
Hite, James Clarke, Abraham Shue, Abner Fawcett, and 
Jesse Bowlin, Harrisonburg. In 1870 the Zigler Tannery, 
at Timberville, declared to be one of the best in the Valley, 
was still running. Later tanners at or near Bridgewater 
were Geo. F. Dinkle, Philip Phares, and A. R. Hollen. In 
1842 George Conrad had a tanyard in Harrisonburg; and later 
tanners here were H. J. Gray, Jos. Cline, J. A. Loewenbach, 
and Houck & Wallis. Between 1860 and 1880 the following 
were tanners: Jas. 0' Brian, McGaheysville; S. P. H. Miller, 
Conrad's Store; S. Burtner, Keezletown; V. H. Lamb, near 
Bloomer Springs; Simon Smith, Edom; Wm. S. Downs, Port 
Republic; John Shutters, Cootes' Store; and somebody at 
Peale's Cross Roads. 

In 1826 Henry Tutwiler made buckskin gloves in Harrison- 
burg, and kept postoffice. About the same time John Zigler 
had a hemp mill at Timberville. At the same time and later 
Nelson Sprinkel had a shop in Harrisonburg in which he 
made all sorts of spinning wheels, at times working 25 hands. 
He would send out these wheels by wagons into all the 
adjoining counties, trading them for flax seed, bacon, etc., 
as well as money. In 1839 J. Meixell & Co. were making 
threshing machines, corn shellers, etc., at Harrisonburg; in 
1841 P. A. Clarke was manufacturing air-tight stoves at Mt. 



Crawford; in 1844 C. S. Weaver was advertising threshing 
machines and cloverseed boxes from his shop ' 'one mile below 
Davie Kyle's mill on Mill Creek"; in 1854 John W. Showalter, 
near Mt. Crawford, was making an improved sausage machine; 
in 1858 Col. Henry Miller of E. Rockingham invented and 
patented a corn harvester; in 1866 W. H. Karicofe invented 
and patented the Virginia Corn Planter, a half interest in 
which he sold to H. J. Gray for $5000; in 1871 Miss Mary E. 
Long, of Lacey Spring, made a skein of fine white sewing 
silk, from cocoons of her own raising; in 1873 S. Loewner, at 
Harrisonburg, was manufacturing combs of different styles? 
the same year, at the same town, F. Staling was making 
paint; in 1877 R. H, Snyder (Hbg.) was making a specialty 
of grain cradles; in 1892 Calvert McGahey, of Elkton, invented, 
made, and patented a steam engine; in 1911 the Miller device 
for train control, invented by H. B. Miller, formerly of 
Harrisonburg, was proved a success. 

For many years J. G. Sprinkel, Harrisonburg, was a 
skilful metal worker. In 1857 he and Basford invented and 
patented an engine. He made engines under his patent, and 
four of his make were in use in Rockingham in 1861— one of 
them driving the press of the Rockingham Register. He also 
made circular-saw mills. In April, 1863, he was advertising 
for six men to make cavalry steel spurs. 

In 1862-3 Isaac Reamer, Conrad's Store, was making (by 
machine) shoe pegs of all sizes for sale; at the same time J. 
H. Long, Harrisonburg, was offering 5c each for old blacking 
boxes, to be used in marketing his Ivory Paste Blacking. In 
1840-41 Berger & Pope, in the 60's, 70's, and 80's Chas. 
Eshman, and later others, all of Harrisonburg, were manu- 
facturing cigars, etc. ; and in 1888 it was stated that the town 
manufactured more cigars than any other in Virginia, 
except Richmond. Peter Bolinger, at McGaheysville, and 
Young & Cox, Harrisonburg, were brewers early last century. 
Peter Dinkel, Mt. Stevens (p. 201), in 1822, and John 
Bowman, Jr., near Timberville, in 1870, had distilleries; in 
1867 J. R. Koogler and W. P. McCall erected on Muddy 



Creek, near Rushville, a steam distillery, with a capacity of 
200 to 250 gallons of whiskey a day. In the Register of April 
8, 1875, it was said: So far this season, about 6000 lbs. of 
Maple sugar has been made in the upper end of Brock's Gap. 

Wagon makers and potters were important in earlier 
days. The Rohrs made carriages and wagons in Harrison- 
burg for half a century; Joseph Dinkle was a pioneer carriage 
maker at Bridgewater. In 1826 G. Cline had a pottery in 
Harrisonburg; in 1830 John Zigler established one at Timber- 
ville; between 1860 and 1880 J. H. Kite, near Elkton, Ire- 
land, Duey, & Shinnick, at Mt. Crawford, Emanuel Suter, 
at New Erection, and J. D. Heatwole (Potter John), on Dry 
River, were making all sorts of earthen ware. About 1890 
large potteries were started at Harrisonburg and Broadway. 

During the Revolution Coonrad Hansberger (page 93) 
had a woolen mill on Elk Run, site of Elkton. Prior to 1815 
Jonathan Shipman owned a woolen mill at or near the site of 
Spring Creek; Abram Whitmore and Thomas Tousey suc- 
ceeded him in ownership.' In the 40's Michael B. Cline, of 
Dayton, was doing much wool carding; Patrick Kelly was a 
Rockingham carder and fuller; and the Blossers, at Dayton, 
were operating a *'Silk, Cotton, and Woolen Dyeing Estab- 
lishment." Between 1860 and 1873 no less than 12 factories 
for carding, spinning, weaving, or dyeing wool were operated 
in the county: at Riverton, near Conrad's Store; Port Re- 
public; River Bank; on Cub Run; on Beaver Creek; Hollen's 
Mill; Berlinton; Mt. Crawford; Bridgewater; and elsewhere. 
The leading promoter of these industries was J. H. Larkin; 
some others prominent in the business were C. M. Harlow, 
A. B. Tanquary, D. C. Anderson, and J. F. Bradburn. 

In 1880 the Massanutten Organ Company was organized 
at McGaheysville, and organs were manufactured for awhile. 
In September, 1882, the Virginia Organ factory, at Dayton, 
was started in a 2-story building, 40 x 60 feet. In 1886 the 
factory burned, about 70 organs being destroyed. A few 

1- S. H. W. Byrd has an old advertisement of this mill dated June, 
1815. Probably this was the same mill operated later by Daniel Thomas. 



years ago S. A. Myers built at Dayton a large pipe organ, 
which was first used there in the United Brethren church, 
and which is now in the Presbyterian church of Waynesboro, 

In different parts of Rockingham large iron furnaces 
have been operated: In Brock's Gap, by the Penny backers; 
at Paulington, by Faussett and others; east of Elkton, by 
Daniel and Henry Forrer and others; Mt. Vernon Furnace, 
in Brown's Gap: etc. Faussett probably started the furnace 
at Paulington prior to 1800; the Forrers were in control east 
of Elkton for many years before 1866; Mt. Vernon Furnace, 
built about 1848, was operated by the Millers, John F. Lewis, 
and others at intervals until 1878.2 Mt. Vernon Forge was 
at Grottoes; and there have been foundries at Port Republic 
and elsewhere for many years. In the 70's J. Shickel & Sons 
had a foundry and machine shop near Rushville; from 1877 
to 1885 Jos. Shickel was superintendent of the Broadway 
foundry and machine shop; in 1877 a foundry and machine 
shop were built at Natural Falls above Bridgewater. 

Among the different manufacturing enterprises in Rock- 
ingham at present are the woolen mill, the canning factory, 
the carriage factory, and the plow factory at Bridgewater; 
the harness factory, working about 30 hands, the creamery, 
and the Shrum Brick factory at Dayton ; the Fravel Sash and 
Door Factory, Houck's tannery, and Bradley's foundry at 
Harrisonburg; Paxton's lime kiln at Linville; the Timberville 
creamery; Cover's tannery, at Elkton, and the Elkton 
creamery; the Whitesel poultry coop factory, at Pleasant 
Valley, from which more than 65,000 coops have been sent out. 

The Bradley foundry was operated in the 50's by Nelson 
Bradley and others; from 1866 to 1878, by P. Bradley and J. 
Wilton; since 1878, by P. Bradley and his sons. The Houck 
tannery has been developed from the earlier establishment 

3. I acknowledge information concerning Mt. Vernon Furnace re- 
ceived from Messrs. J. H. Mace, J. W. Blackburn, and R. T. Miller; and 
concerning Faussett's furnace, from Messrs. John A. Armentrout and 
J. H. Mace. 



of J. A. Loewenbach and others. The Elkton tannery was 
built by John Cover in 1872. Its present output is 220 sides 
of heavy sole leather daily. The Miller cannery at Bridge- 
water, the first in the county, dates from 1888. Its products 
take high rank. The Bridgewater woolen mill, which alone 
survives of all the Rockingham woolen mills, was started in 
1872. J. F. Bradburn was superintendent for many years. 
H. G. Miller is president; J. A. Fry secretary and treasurer. 
The output of its products is inadequate to the demand for 
them. The Bridgewater plow factory, with John P. Burke, 
J. A. Fry, and D. S. Thomas as president, secretary, and 
manager, makes a specialty of the Superior garden plows, 
turning out about 10,000 yearly. The Timberville creamery, 
E. M. Minnick president, W. C. Hoover secretary, was making 
100 gallons of ice cream and 1000 pounds of butter a week 
during the past summer. 

Besides the things already mentioned, brooms, barrels, 
etc. , by the thousands, tanks of apple butter and bergs of ice 
are made in Rockingham every year. 

The extent and variety of our local manufactures having 
thus been indicated, a detailed account is now presented of 
that particular manual art in which our mothers and grand- 
mothers have most excelled. This account is a special 
contribution to this work. 

Hand- Weaving in Rockingham County. 

By Professor Cornelius J. Heatwole. 

.... The piece prepare 
And order every slender thread with care; 
The web enwraps the beam, the reed divides. 
While through the widening space the shuttle glides, 
Which their swift hands receive, then poised with lead 
The swinging weight strikes close the inserted thread." 

Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

A century or more ago hand-weaving was the usual 
means of making the cloth used in the colonial homes from 
the Carolinas to New England. The hand-loom formerly 



used in the colonies, and occasionally still used in some homes 
in Rockingham county, is an historic machine of great 
antiquity and dignity. It is perhaps the most absolute 
bequest of the past centuries, which we have had unchanged 
in domestic use, to the present time. In some of the famous 
paintings of the year 1335 you can see just such looms as 
many of our grandparents had in their homes in Rockingham 

The whole process of converting the wool or flax into 
yarn went on often in close proximity to the loom, and was 
carried on by some member of the household as a by-industry. 
The term "spinster" has come down to us from this occu- 

' 'The first half of the present century saw a race between 
spinning and weaving. The first found its evolution to 
machinery; and then led the way for similar means of carry- 
ing on the weaving industry. By 1850 combers, spinners, 
and weavers were no longer individual workers, but became 
a part of that great monster the mill machinery."^ 

When the pioneer settlers came to Rockingham county 
from 1730 to 1750 to make their homes, one of the first 
machines they set up was the old loom. It found its abiding 
place in one of the rooms of the main house or in a shed 
attached to the house; sometimes in the attic; and often a 
house was built especially for the loom. There are at pres- 
ent, particularly in the western part of the county, many 
homes that have a building about the premises known to this 
day as the "loom house." If one were to look carefully 
about in one of these buildings, one could find here the old 
loom resting in peace, as a relic of bygone days. It is some- 
times even now called into service for the making of a piece 
of rag carpet. 

The operating of the loom, together with the accessory 
occupations, such as spinning and carding, were duties 
assigned to the women of the household. The mother took 

3. Earle's Home Life in Colonial Days, page 231. 



the weaving side of the work, while the daughters did the 
spinning and spooling. During the spring months the loom 
was occupied with the making of rag carpet, while in the fall 
it was used for making the requisite amount of clothing and 
linen for the household— jeans (usually grey) for suits for 
the men and boys; linsey (chestnut browns, dull blues, and 
Scotch plaids) was the material used for the wearing apparel 
for the women and children. Sometimes a piece of linen for 
the table, towels and counterpanes, were made during the 
fall. The flax used in making these articles was grown in 
a little patch near the house, and was harvested and prepared 
for the loom by the women. 

During one generation the old loom would turn out a 
number of those rare products of the weaver's art, the cov- 
erlets. The size of the family usually determined the num- 
ber of these; for every ambitious housewife desired that each 
one of her children should have at least one of these inter- 
esting, and in many respects artistic, bed covers. These 
were made and carefully stored away in a chest, and were 
presented to the children on their wedding day. The coverlet 
is probably the highest form of the hand-weaver's art. 

The woolen blanket was a product also of the hand-loom. 
Each member of the family fell heir to one, when she left 
the old homestead to establish a new home of her own. All 
the work attending the preparation of the wool for these 
fabrics, such as washing, combing, carding, and spinning, 
was done on the premises by the women. 

The various colors used in dyeing these household fab- 
rics, particularly the carpets and linseys, were usually the 
bright, warm colors: red, yellow, green, and blue; though 
sometimes the more delicate shades were obtained. These 
colors were arranged in patterns of stripes either in the warp, 
or chain, or in the woof, and sometimes in both. The sources 
from which these dyes were obtained were largely vegetable, 
and procured according to the most primitive methods. The 
hickory bark furnished the yellows, walnut bark or hulls made 
the rich browns, sumac berries produced the deep warm reds, 



oak yielded the shades of purple, and the cedar berries fur- 
nished the delicate dove, or lead color. The simplest method 
of extracting the coloring matter from these vegetables was 
employed. The bark was put into a large kettle and boiled 
for several hours, and then the wool and rags were immersed 
in this liquid and hung upon the line or fence to dry. 

The work preparatory to the actual weaving was prob- 
ably the most difficult phase of the whole process. The per- 
son planning the article to be made on the loom must have 
skill in handling the instruments, mathematical accuracy for 
grouping threads and determining the size and proportion of 
the piece. The aesthetic taste of the individual was shown 
in the choosing of the patterns and in the selection and com- 
bining of colors. 

After coloring the chain, which was usually on sale at 
all country stores, and known as "prepared chain," the 
skeins were placed upon the swift and run upon spools or 
quills. These spools were generally made of corn cobs, and 
the quills of the stalk-part of the weed known to the German 
people as "Boova Strahl," but to others as teasel. The main 
reason for using these was because the pith was easily 
removed. Sometimes these quills were made of rolls of paper 
and paste. 

These spools, filled to the requisite number, were placed 
in the spool-rack or, in the parlance of the weavers of some 
sections of the country, the "skarne." This is a large frame, 
with every few inches small sticks or wires running through, 
upon which the spools were placed. A thread is gathered 
from each one of these spools and run through holes in a 
paddle so that the weaver can gather the threads into 
"bouts" and run them upon the warping bars. The warping 
bars are an upright frame revolving with one end of the axle 
on a pivot on the floor and the other at the ceiling. The 
bars upon which the warp-threads were wound were one 
yard apart, and so the length of the threads, and also the 
length of the piece of cloth, was determined. One takes off 
twenty yards of thread if one wants to weave twenty yards 



of cloth. Forty warp-threads make what is called a "bout,'^ 
and a warp of two hundred threads was designated as a warp 
of five "bouts." 

From the warping bars these bouts were wound upon 
the warping beam of the loom. The bouts however were 
first passed through the "wrathe," or rake, a wooden bar 
with rows of closely set wooden pegs. This rake kept the 
bouts from becoming entangled, and gave the warp the 
proper width as it was wound upon the beam. This particu- 
lar process of winding the warp upon the beam was known 
as "beaming the piece." It took two persons to do this, one 
to turn the beam and the other to hold and guide the warp. 

The next process in the order of placing the warp upon 
the loom was called "drawing in." The end of each thread 
or group of threads was "thumbed in" with a warping needle 
through the eye or mail of the harness, or "heddle." The 
harness was commonly called "gears" by the weavers, and 
consisted of two rows of twine or cord stretched vertically 
between two horizontal bars, which were fastened above to a 
pulley and below to a foot-treadle. 

The warp-threads were next drawn through the inter- 
spaces of the reed, or sley. This was done with a "reed- 
hook." Two or more warping threads were drawn through 
each space. The reed, or sley, was composed of a row of 
thin strips of cane arranged somewhat like comb-teeth, and 
called "dents." There might be fifty or sixty of these dents 
to an inch for weaving very fine cloth. The number of dents to 
the inch determines the fineness of the cloth. The reed when 
filled was placed in a groove in the heavy batten, or "lathe," 
which hung by two side bars and swung from an axle, or 
"rocking- tree, " at the top of the loom. The swinging of 
this batten "strikes close the inserted thread," as Ovid puts 
it, and produces that thwacking sound heard in hand-weav- 
ing. All the threads thus drawn are brought over the 
front frame of the loom and fastened in the cloth-beam and 
wound round it. By means of ratchets connected with the 
cloth-beam and the warp-beam the warp is stretched up and 
the piece is ready for weaving. 


Hand-Woven Coverlets (Pas-e 382) 


The temples are adjustable bars with sharp teeth-like 
pegs in the ends to catch in the selvage to keep the cloth 
uniform in width. The shuttle is an instrument that contains 
the woof, and is thrown from one side of the loom to the 
other by the weaver's hand, and by moving the harness with 
the foot the shuttle goes over every alternate thread. With 
the motion of the batten the weft-threads are crowded into 
place, and thus the operation continues till the piece is 

Some one has calculated that in weaving three yards of 
close woolen cloth, which was regarded as a day's work, the 
shuttle was thrown three thousand times, and the treadle 
pressed down and the batten swung the same number of 
times. The number of yards regarded by the housewife as 
a day's work depended upon the kind of cloth. With the 
finer fabrics, such as linen and jeans, three or four yards 
was a good day's work; while with carpets as many as ten 
yards have been woven in a day, though six or eight yards of 
carpet was regarded as a good day's work. In an old copy of 
the Rockingham Register, dated March 2, 1871, it was reported 
that a married lady living in Harrisonburg, age fifty-seven, 
had woven in the past three years, on an old fashioned-loom, 
1800 yards of carpet, besides attending to her domestic duties. 
It is safe to say there were hundreds of these old looms in 
Rockingham county during the last half of the nineteenth 
century, and thousands of yards of the various kinds of cloth 
and carpets were turned out annually by them. The price 
paid for the weaving of carpet was from ten to twelve cents 
per yard; for jeans, linseys, and linens the price was 
considerably more, probably from twenty-five cents to fifty 
cents per yard. 

The loom was made of heavy timber, and the ordinary 
carpenter in the community could make it. Sometimes it 
happened that one person specialized in this particular line, 
and made looms as a business. It is known that Samuel 
Weaver made many looms in the western part of the county, 
on the farm now owned by Mr. Elias Brunk. A man by the 




name of Lamb made looms in the section locally known as 
"The Brush." John G. Heatwole also made many looms on 
the farm now owned by Mr. Abram Heatwole, a few miles 
north of Dayton. These men got any where from eight to 
ten dollars for doing the carpenter work on one of these 

Just how many of these old looms may be found now 
within the bounds of Rockingham county is hard to say; and 
how many are now and then brought out for a piece of rag 
carpet can hardly be ascertained without a great deal of effort. 
The people in the county of German extraction are still given 
to making rag carpets, to a great extent. The hand-looms 
are probably never used any more for the making of such 
fabrics as linen, wool blankets, coverlets, linseys, etc. Now- 
adays one often notices in bills of sale, particularly where an 
old household is being broken up, the "old loom" mentioned 
as one of the articles for sale, and when put up it generally 
goes for the meager amount of seventy-five cents, or at most 
for a few dollars. One was sold a few months ago at a 
public sale for fifty cents. 

The old Rockingham county loom is fast approaching the 
period of its history when it will be regarded as a relic of the 
past. Its products, such as linen for table cloths, coverlets, 
and blankets, are already being treasured by the present 
generation, and valued for their associations. In almost 
every household, if you should speak of these rare products 
of the old loom, the housewife would go to a chest of drawers 
and bring out, from a safe keeping place, pieces of the 
various kinds of cloth woven on the old ancestral loom. It 
is to be hoped that some one who has a proper appreciation 
of the things of the past will make a collection of the old 
looms, their accompanying paraphernalia, and their inter- 
esting products, and preserve them in a suitable museum for 
the information and interest of the coming generations. 


First, let us notice briefly the Rockingham banks that are 
not now in operation. 

By Act of Assembly, March 16, 1850, the Rockingham 
Savings Bank was chartered, being authorized to discount 
paper and do a general banking business. The capital stock 
was not to exceed $100,000. John Kenney, Ed. H. Smith, 
Robt. M. Kyle, Peachy R. Harrison, Robt. Grattan, Wm. G. 
Stevens, Abraham Smith, M. Harvey Efflnger, Isaac Hardesty, 
and John H. Waterman were named as incorporators. 

In 1852-3 several Acts were passed to establish branches 
of certain banks at Harrisonburg. 

February 24, 1860, an Act was passed incorporating 
the Harrisonburg Savings Bank. The commissioners named 
were Saml. Shacklett, Isaac G. Coffman [page 139], Alfred 
Sprinkle, L. W. Gambill, Wm. D. Trout, John D. Penny- 
backer [page 295], Thos. L. Yancey, Saml. R. Sterling, 
David Kingree. 

In the 60's and 70's Jonas A. Loewenbach (Dec. 25, 1828 
— Dec. 22, 1907) did a good deal of banking business in 

On April 2, 1873, an Act was passed incorporating Rock- 
ingham Bank, Ed. S. Kemper, B. G. Patterson, J. W. F. 
Allemong [page 232] , M. Y. Partlow, Chas. A. Yancey, Jos. 
A. Hammon, J. A. Lowenbach, Jas. L. Avis, Jacob Gassman, 
and Wm. McKeever being named as commissioners. The 
bank was opened for business, July 1, 1874, in a portion of 
A M. Effinger's bookstore, south side of the public square, 
Harrisonburg. This was probably in the Switzer building. 
Henry Shacklett was president, Wm. Rice Warren cashier; 
the directors were W. D. Hopkins, J. A. Hammon, C. A. 


Yancey, Jas. L. Avis, E. S. Kemper, Andrew Lewis, J. S. 
Harnsberger, and G. M. Effinger.^ Mr. Warren was cashier 
till his death in 1883; from 1883 to 1886 Mr. W. J. Dingledine 
was cashier; he was succeeded by Mr. C. D. Beard. About 
1889 Rockingham Bank was succeeded by the Commercial 
Bank of Harrisonburg, which was in business for several 
years. Messrs. J. J. Hawse, Eugene West, and Wm. Loeb 
were connected with these institutions during the later years 
of their history. 

In 1878 the Farmers Bank was organized at Bridgewater. 
A building was erected for it in 1883, at the corner of Bank 
Street and Main. At first the officers were; J. W. F. Alle- 
mong, president; J. S. Loose, cashier; 0. B. Loose, teller. 
In 1889 S. H. W. Byrd was made cashier. In 1891 the 
directors were Jas. F. Lowman, J. W. F. Allemong, and B. M. 
Rice. This bank closed business in 1892 - 

In March, 1891, a bank was opened at Shendun (Grot- 
toes), W. P. Roberts and James Martin, of Lynchburg, being 
president and cashier, respectively This bank was still in 
operation in December, 1892, 

Let us next take a glance at the nine banks now doing 
business in the county. 

In 1853 an Act was passed authorizing the establishment 
of the Citizens' Bank of Virginia, in the town of Harrison- 
burg. Robt. Gray, Harvey Kyle, and ten other gentlemen 
were named as commissioners. The next Assembly changed 
the name to Bank of Rockingham. In 1854 A. B. Irick was 
president; C. C. Strayer, cashier; A. E. Heneberger, clerk 
and teller. It "commenced operation in the stone building 
next door to the Post Office" (the Waterman house— see 
page 192) . This is said to have been the first bank in the 
county; but if any of those projected in 1850-3, noted above, 
were actually started, it may not have been the first. 

In April, 1863, the Bank of Rockingham was located in 

1. Rockingham Register, July 3 and Aug. 27, 1874. 
3. Information given by Mr. S. H. W. Byrd. 



the Exchange Hotel building (C. C. Clapp, propr.).=^ This 
was the house on the north side of the public square, built by 

A. Bt Irick, in which Dr. Frank L. Harris till recently had 
his office. In August, 1865, it was reorganized as the First 
National Bank of Harrisonburg, the officers continuing as 
named above. C. C. Strayer was cashier from 1854 to 1888; 
then he was succeeded by L. C. Myers.^ Mr. L.H. Otthas the 
first safe used by the bank. The total on each side of the 
financial statement published April 13, 1866, was $247,148.11. 
In October, 1866, the bank was moved into its new building 
opposite Hill's Hotel. The present building was erected in 
1903. L. C. Myers is president, Geo. E. Sipe vice-president, 
C. H. Chandler cashier, and C. D. Beard assistant cashier. 
The total on each side of the financial statement published 
Sept. 4, 1912, was $1,648,894.34. 

The Planters Bank of Bridgewater was opened for 
business February 3, 1898. Jos. H. Craun was president; John 
W. Cline, vice-president; Jas. R. Shipman, cashier. The 
original board of directors were J. H. Craun, J. W. Cline, 
John W. Wise, Robt. J. Miller, and John S. Garber. 

The present officers are: J. W. Cline, president; W. H. 
Sipe, vice-president; J. R. Shipman, cashier; S. H. W. Byrd, 
assistant cashier. The present directors are J. W. Cline, W. 
H. Sipe. J. Newton Wilson, J. S. Garber, G. Ed. Miller, N. 

B. Wise, and ICd. G. Crist. Miss Ida Thomas has been a 
valued assistant in the bank for a number of years. 

Business was begun with a paid up capital of $4000. 
The balanced total in the published statement of April 18, 
1912, was $145,014.57. 

The Rockingham National Bank, Harrisonburg, was 
organized December 21, 1899. The shareholders present 
elected the following directors: Andrew M. Newman, Jr., 
Geo. G. Grattan, Aaron H. Wilson, Jesse R. Cover, and Jacob 
Funkhouser. These directors held their first session on 

s. Rockingham Register, April 24, 1863. 
4. Idem, Feb. 2, 1866; Apr. 30, 1897. 



January 10, 1900, and elected A. M. Newman, Jr., president* 
and A. H. Wilson, vice-president. They also elected W. J. 
Dingledine cashier and Ernest S. Strayer teller. The bank 
opened for business on March 15, 1900, with a capital of 
$50,000. The directors are: Geo. G. Grattan, Samuel Forrer, 
Samuel M. Bowman, A. H. Long, Jno. B. Peale, J. R, Cover, 
Jacob S. Sellers, T. N. Haas, Jno. I. Harnsberger, F. M. 
Stinespring, C. G. Harnsberger. 

The officers and employees are: G. G. Grattan, president; 

C. G. Harnsberger, vice-president; W. J. Dingledine, cashier; 
S. D. Myers, assistant cashier; C. H. Mauzy, teller; E. R. 
Lineweaver, A. R. Ruff, R. L. Coffman, bookkeepers; A. J. 
Crawn, Clerk; Miss Flavia Converse, stenographer. 

The capital of the bank is now $60,000: surplus and 
profits, $65,000; deposits, $600,000; loans $600,000; resources, 

The First National Bank of Broadway was opened for 
business April 24, 1903, with $25,000 capital stock. The 
directors were Geo. S. Aldhizer, B. F. Helbert, J. P. Miller, 

D. B. Sites, D. F. Geil, J. W. Grim, and T. J. Pennybacker. 
Mr. Aldhizer was president, Mr. Helbert vice-president, and 
Mr. Grim cashier. The following gentlemen now constitute 
the board of control, with organization as indicated: D. F. 
Geil, president; B. F. Helbert, vice-president; T. C. Aldhizer, 
cashier; G. S. Aldhizer, A. R. Miller, Jos. Shank, J. M. Kline, 
and A. M. Turner. The balanced total in the financial state- 
ment made Sept. 4, 1912, was $104,828.28. 

The Bank of Elkton was organized in November, 1903, 
and opened for business February 8, 1904. James E. 
Leebrick was president, C. G. Harnsberger vice-president, 
and I. L. Flory cashier. The directors were J. E. Leebrick, 
C. G. Harnsberger, J. T. Heard, W. E. Kite, M. M. Jarman, 
W. J. Dingledine, and Geo. G. Grattan, Sr. The present 
officers are, C. G. Harnsberger, president; J. T. Heard, vice- 
president; and W. H. McVeigh, cashier. The present board 
of directors is composed of the following gentlemen: C. G. 
Harnsberger, J. T. Heard, W. E. Kite, A. P. Yancey, and L 



h. Flory. The balanced total in the financial report published 
Sept. 4, 1912, was $99,213.77. 

The Bank of Dayton was organized in 1906, by the people 
of Dayton, with Jno. M. Flory as principal solicitor, with a 
capital stock of $10,000. This was increased to $20,000 in 
1910. Doors were opened for business March 2, 1906. The 
original officers were, E. C. Ralston, president; J. M. Kagey, 
vice-president; N. R. Crist, cashier; directors: E. C. Ralston, 
J. M. Kagey, J. M. Snell, J. M. Flory, J. Wilton, J. H. 
Rhodes, Jos. F. Heatwole. The present officers are E. C. 
Ralston, president; J. M. Kagey, vice-president; N. R. Crist, 
cashier; present directors: E. C. Ralston, J. M. Kagey, J. H. 
Rhodes, J. H. Ruebush, Joe. K. Ruebush, L. M. Hollen, E. 
W. Burkholder, J. N. Shrum, Jno. T. Wright. The balanced 
total in the financial statement published Sept. 4, 1912, was 

The Bank of Grottoes was opened for business February 
17, 1908, J. M. Koiner, J. S. Pirkey, D. E. Ham, J. D. Alex- 
ander, G. R. Root, M. D. Eutsler, W. A. Leeth, W. C. Patter- 
son, C. L. Weast, D. H. Patterson, and J. F. Miller being 
directors. Mr. Koiner was president, Mr. Pirkey 1st vice- 
president, Mr. Geo. M. Nicholas 2d vice-president, and Mr. 
Root cashier. At present the officers and directors are the 
following. M. D. Eutsler, president; E. L. Weast, vice- 
president; G. R. Root, cashier; Philip R. Cosby, assistant 
cashier; J. S. Pirkey, J. M. Pirkey, D. H. Patterson, W. A. 
Leeth, C. S. Craun, J. D. Alexander J. L. Cosby, G. K. 
Foster. The balanced total published Sept. 4, 1912, was 

The Peoples Bank of Flarrisonburg was chartered in 1907, 
and opened its doors for business April 20, 1908, The 
incorporators and original board of directors were: James E. 
Reherd, Isaac N. Beery, John N. Mohler, James 0. Stickley, 
Thomas J. Martin, Eugene X, Miller, Thomas P. Beery, and 
A. P. Filer. 

The business has increased steadily during the four years 
of the bank's existence, until it now has total resources of 



nearly $400,000. The capital stock is not held in large blocks, 
but is distributed among over 250 share-holders, who, with 
few exceptions, are residents of Rockingham County. The 
present officers, who have held their respective positions 
from the first, are: Jas. E. Reherd, president; I. N. Beery, 
J. N. Mohler, A. S. Kemper, vice-presidents; T. P. Beery, 
cashier; D. B. Yancey, assistant cashier. 

The Farmers and Merchants Bank of Timberville was 
organized in March, 1908, with John H. Hoover, president; 

E. M. Minnick, vice-president; J. A. Garber, cashier. It was 
opened for business Aug. 24, 1908. The directors are John 
H. Hoover, W. C. Hoover, F. H. Driver, J. A. Zigler, D. S. 
Wampler, W. E. Fahrney, E. M. Minnick, E. E. Jones, M. 

F. Garber, Geo. E. Sipe, Wm. A. Pence, E. A. Andrick, and 
R. S. Bowers. The balanced total in the financial report 
published Sept. 4, 1912, was $142,061.74. 

All of the Harrisonburg banks, probably some of the 
others in the county, have savings departments. 

It is deemed appropriate, in closing this chapter, to 
present a few facts regarding local insurance companies. 

In the early 50's several Acts of Assembly were passed 
chartering and amending the charter of the Rockingham 
Mutual Insurance Company. In 1854 the Rockingham Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company was granted the powers and 
privileges of a savings bank. E. T. H. Warren (page 139) 
was secretary. In 1868-9 the Rockingham Insurance Com- 
pany, capital stock $100,000, was in operation. A. M. 
Newman was president; G. F. Mayhew, secretary; R. N. 
Pool was general agent for the State; Jos. H. Shue was agent 
for Rockingham County. It was a fire insurance company. 

In January, 1869, the General Assembly chartered the 
Rockingham Home Mutual Fire Insurance Company, to do busi- 
ness in a circle radiating seven miles from Cross Keys. The 
original officers and directors were: Wm. Saufley, president; 
Ed. S. Kemper, secretary and treasurer; Jos. B. Webb, Saml. 
Good, Jonathan Miller, Peter Showalter, Isaac Long, Geo. W. 
Kemper. In 1881 G. W. Kemper was president; Geo. B. 



Keezell was president-elect, and J. B. Webb was secretary 
and treasurer. The number of members was 432; amount of 
property insured, $615,000. At present (1912) there are 
1442 members and the amount of insurance is $3,010,000. 
G. B. Keezell is president; John G. Fulton, vice-president; 
C. T. Callender is secretary and treasurer. The plans and 
methods of this company have attracted wide attention. 

On January 6, 1872, the West Rockingham Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company was organized, with David A. Heatwole 
(page 224) president, J. W. Minnick secretary, A. Andes 
treasurer. The directors were B. M. Rice, John Geil, J. H. 
Ralston, David Garber.-^ In the Act of incorporation, March 
22, 1872, Saml. Firebaugh, Geo. Chrisman, Saml. A. Long, 
Jos. Click, Hugh Swope, Jas. C. Heltzel, and John H. Ralston, 
Jr., were named as directors. In 1886 D. A. Heatwole and 
H. A. Heatwole were president and secretary, respectively, 
and the amount of insurance was $800,000. At present John 
S. Funk is president and H. A. Heatwole (Mt. Clinton) is 

In January, 1874, R. H. Spindle, secretary, called a 
meeting of the Farmers* Mutual Fire Insurance Company at 
Conrad's Store. Nothing further is known of this company. 

In 1897 the Cross Keys Home Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company was chartered and organized under the state laws 
of Virginia, with the following directors: C. T. Callender, 
T. P. Yager, G. B. Keezell, W. H. Long, J. R. Filler, A. B. 
Miller, and J. R. Bowman; C. T. Callender® being president 
and T. P. Yager secretary. The purpose of the company is 
defined in the charter as follows: 

* 'To make insurance upon the contents of dwelling-houses, 
stores, barns, and all other buildings, except mills, against 
loss or damage by accidental fire." 

This company supplements the Rockingham Home Mutual; 
the one insuring buildings, the other, contents of buildings. 

5. Rockingham Register, Jan. 11, 1872. 

6. C. T. Callender died Oct. 27, 1912, aged 53. 



The inspiring elevations, the splendid mountain scenery, 
the health-giving waters, and the historic associations of 
Rockingham have long made it attractive to persons on tide- 
water and in the cities, specially in the days of summer. 
Not only do hundreds of people come hither every year, 
seeking health and pleasure, but many others seek to have 
the good things sent to them — piecemeal, of necessity, but in 
as large measure as possible. Not to mention other things, 
thousands of gallons of Rockingham mineral waters are 
shipped annually to many distant points. 

The oldest well-known summer resort in Rockingham is 
located four miles east of Harrisonburg, and is now called 
Massanetta Springs. The old name is Taylor Springs. The 
original name-givers were Jonathan and William Taylor, 
owners at the beginning of the 19th century. They were of 
Irish descent, and their graves are at Cross Keys. In olden 
days, according to tradition, Taylor Springs were resorted to 
by many of the East Virginia notables — the Madisons and 
Monroes, among others. In 1816 they were selected as a 
permanent place for the annual campmeeting by the quarterly 
conference, Rockingham Circuit, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; and were leased at that time for ten years. On 
the death of the Taylors, the Springs passed into the posses- 
sion of Evan Henton, who was proprietor in 1854, and there- 
abouts. Later, they were sold to Abraham Miller. In the 
early 60's they came into the hands of Geo. E. Deneale, and 
in 1870 Leneas Woodson became owner. In 1872 they were 
purchased by a company made up of John F. Lewis, Dr. 
Burk Chrisman, and others, and the name was changed to 
Massanetta. In July, 1909, they were purchased by J. R. 

Rawley Springs (Pages 395, 3S«) 

Hotel Massanetta, LoukinK West from the Grove (Pages :',1U. :W5) 


Lupton, and in January, 1911, the Massanetta Springs 
Company, J. R. Lupton, manager, became the owners. The 
waters contain calcium carbonate, magnesium, and other 
valuable elements, and are widely celebrated. The hotels are 
filled with guests, permanent and transient, during the 
summer months, and large quantities of the water are sent out 
upon order.' 

For a number of years past the most famous summer 
resort in Rockingham, and one of the most celebrated in 
Virginia, has been Rawley Springs, located 11| miles west of 
Harrisonburg, 2000 feet above the sea level. Rawley is also 
old in story. The following extracts from a letter written 
September 24, 1881, by Benjamin H. Smith, of Charleston, 
W. Va., will be of interest, as to beginnings. 

My father resided in Rockingham county in the year 1810. In the 
early part of that year my mother became diseased with chronic diar- 
rhoea, and although she had the medical services of Drs. Harrison and 
Cravens, eminent physicians of that time, they failed to relieve her. My 
father, being much alarmed at her dangerous condition, made earnest 
inquiries into all the remedies from which relief could be hoped. He had 
for years herded his cattle in the North Mountain, and during the year 
before stated, or some previous year, heard of the medicinal springs on 
Dry River, in the mountain. Early in July of the year 1810 he resolved 
to try the waters of that spring. For this purpose he had a shanty of 
plank constructed at the Spring, and supplied with comfortable furniture 
and suitable cooking utensils, taken from home by wagon. To this place 
in July of that year, my mother was removed, with competent servants. 
All members of the family were occasional visitors, but I was deputed 
as her constant attendant, and stayed with her during parts of the months 
of July and August, altogether about six weeks, at which time my mother 
had thoroughly recovered, and her health was perfectly restored- She 
lived 27 years thereafter, without any recurrence of the disease. 

The road from the river to the spring went up a point of the moun- 
tain next above the spring branch, and was made by the hands of my 
father, by cutting out the brush only, to enable our wagon to approach 
the bench of the mountain from which the spring issued. When we went 

1. For information regarding the history of Taylor Springs, I am 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. R. L. Myers. His account has been 
supplemented by records found in the Methodist minute books and in the 
Rockingham Register of January 18, 1872, and other dates. 



there no improvement of any kind existed, and all was a primeval lorest. 
My father's shanty was the first dwelling ever erected on the premises, 
and we (my mother and myself) were the first resident visitors of the 
spring. Before we left the spring we had an accession of some four or 
five families in shanties and tents. The spring then had no name; but I 
recollect a Mr. Rawley lived at or about the gorge of the mountain 
through which Dry River runs, and I have always thought the name 
the spring bears was derived from this farmer, Rawley, the nearest resi- 
dent of the place. 

I have not visited the springs since 1810. I was nearly 13 years old 
at the time, and the recollection of the incidents connected with my resi- 
dence there is clear and distinct. 

The waters of Rawley Springs are said to be almost 
identical with those of Pouhon, the most noted spring of 
Spa, Belgium, — those of Rawley containing more carbonic 
acid, those of Pouhon more iron. 

In 1825 Joseph Hicks was advertising "Rawley Springs"; 
in 1836-7 and in 1877 acts of incorporation were passed; in 
1845 Miller, Sites, & Fry were proprietors; in 1861 the man- 
agers were John Sites & Son; in 1872, and thereabouts, A. B. 
Irick was president of the board, and Jos. N. Woodward was 
manager. In 1874, 1875, etc., the number of guests at Raw- 
ley frequently reached 500. In 1884, etc, , J. Watkins Lee 
was the popular manager. In 1886 many of the buildings 
were destroyed by fire; and a remarkable coincidence was ob- 
served in the fact that Anthony Hockman, who had con- 
structed the main building, died the same night. 

The popular proprietor of Rawley in more recent years 
was Hon. D. M. Switzer; and the property is still in the hands 
of his heirs. It is needless to say that modern progress is 
found exemphfied in the present equipment. 

As one stands on Lover's Leap, at Rawley, and looks out 
eastward across the Giant's Grave upon the smiling valley, 
he has Union Springs two miles upon his right, and Liberty 
Springs two miles upoft his left. The water at Union is among 
the best in Virginia, and the view at Liberty is one of the 
finest in Virginia and West Virginia. 

Union Springs were resorted to as long as forty years 
ago; and in 1878 Miss Kate Croushorn, of Ottobine, was ad- 



vertising summer boarding at Union Springs. The water is 
chalybeate. Every year, until recently, at least a few fami- 
lies of the county spent part of the summer there; but a steep, 
stony road, with a defective title to the property, has by this 
time made visitors rare. 

Some one writing of Liberty Springs in 1889 said that on 
the south side of the springs old chimneys were standing, 
marking the sites of cabins built before the war by William 
Ewing, John Beery, Abe Beery, Archibald Hopkins, Peter 
Good, John Gordon, and others. In connection with this, the 
following paragraphs from a letter written December 14, 1911, 
by the late Mr. D. B. Showalter, will be of interest: 

In the burnt records, Deed Book 16, page 325, you will see that 
Augustus Waterman sold in 1843 210 acres of mountain land to Jacob 
Bowman, who, with his family, lies buried in the family burying ground 
on the farm now owned by S. F. Showalter, the said Bowman's old home 
farm. ... In 1845 (Deed.-Book 18, page 123) Jacob Bowman sold to 
the Liberty Springs Company 52 acres of the 210 acre tract. The com- 
pany then was composed of John Swank, John Beery, Peter Good, Joseph 
Burkholder, several of the Hopkinses, Henry Showalter, Jacob Dundore, 
an old Mr. Ewing, John and Peter Eversole, Joseph Showalter, Samuel 
Driver [?], and others, all of whom have passed away, and many of whom 
had cabins built there before the civil war. All these cabins were burnt 
during the war to prevent persons hiding there to keep out of the Confed- 
erate army. There are some 20 cabins there now, all of which have been 
built since the war. The company is now composed by our home people, 
who spend some time there. . . . A. H, Long is president, Frank 
Ralston, secretary and treasurer. The springs are near the top of the 
mountain; the water is fine chalybeate. The place can be reached by 
a good public road, built by the company in the last 12 years. 

A short distance east of Liberty Springs, two miles west 
of Singer's Glen, at the base of Little North Mountain, is the 
popular resort called Sparkling Springs. The old name is 
Baxter's Springs. The company now in control was organized 
in September, 1886, and among the promoters of the enter- 
prise were Messrs. David A. Heatwole, J. W. Minnich, Isaac 
N. Beery, John Funk, Timothy Funk, Daniel F. Heatwole, 
Lewis Driver, Michael Showalter, David Lineweaver, Henry 
A. Rhodes, Samuel Brunk, Abraham Weaver, Abram B. 



Wenger, Noah W. Beery, and Emanuel Suter. The company 
was incorporated in 1900. The grounds in 1911 comprised 22 
acres, and upon them were located 24 cottages, a boarding 
house, a fountain house, a dairy, two stone wagon bridges, 
one foot bridge, and a good road connecting with the county 
road. Among the minerals contained in these springs are 
iron, magnesia, and sulphur. ^ 

At the western base of the Massanutten Mountain, about 
three miles east of Lacey Springs, are the well-known Brock's 
Springs, called also the Yellow Massanutten Springs. After 
important improvements in June, 1874, they were opened the 
next month to visitors. Chas. J. Brock was proprietor; W. 
R. Carrier, general superintendent. The waters are chaly- 
beate and blue sulphur. ^ 

Three miles north of McGaheysville, at the eastern base 
of the Massanutten, are Rockingham Springs, known also as 
Hopkins' Springs. The surroundings are beautiful, and the 
waters contain health-giving properties in various combi- 
nations, springs of chalybeate, sulphur, and magnesium- 
alum being found there. These springs, under the proprie- 
torship of Messrs. G. T. and Edwin B. Hopkins, have been 
a popular resort for many years. Mr. G. T. Hopkins had 
made extensive improvements there as early as 1874, or 
earlier. In the summer of 1879 the poet Sidney Lanier, with 
his family, was among the no cable guests. 

Not far from Rockingham Springs are Bloomer Springs, 
opened as a health resort in or about the year 1852 by Col. 
Henry Miller, Dr. S. B. Jennings, and Maj. John C. Walker. 
Soon ten or twelve cottages were on the grounds. Frequently 
as many as a dozen or more families from the neighborhood 
would spend the summer there, and persons from a distance 
would endeavor to secure accomodations, but no equipment 
for general entertainment seems to have been provided. On 

2. For aid in securing information concerning Sparkling Springs, I 
acknowledge special favors by Messrs. I. N. Beery and J. W. Minnich. 

3- Rockingham Register, June 12, July 10, 1874; etc. 



special occasions, however, a hundred or two persons would 
be present for the day. The springs have not been regularly 
attended for the past twenty years, owing mainly to change 
in the ownership of the property. During the years the 
springs were used the land about them was owned by Mr. 
Henry Brill." 

In the vicinity of Bridgewater and in other sections of 
Rockingham not specially mentioned in the foregoing pages, 
are fine springs of medicinal waters. The Bear Lithia Spring, 
below Elkton, must be mentioned particularly. It is con- 
nected by a special track with the Norfolk & Western Railway, 
and thousands of gallons of water are shipped from it every 
week. Elkton is a favorite summer resort, and the Elkton 
Hotel, in beautiful surroundings and under skilled manage- 
ment, affords excellent accommodations to visitors. 

Another place that may properly be noticed in this 
chapter is Assembly Park, just a mile north of Harrisonburg. 
A company was chartered for managing it in March, 1892, 
and at frequent intervals ever since it has been the scene of 
large and important gatherings, such as temperance rallies, 
religious conferences, chautauquas, farmers' encampments, 
etc. The present manager is Dr. A. P. Funkhouser. 

*■ For information concerning Bloomer Springs, I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. John W. Brill, Elkton, Va. 


First, let us take a walk through some of the underground 
palaces. Rockingham has a dozen or more beautiful caves. 

In point of discovery, Harrison's Cave, six miles north- 
east of Harrisonburg, is perhaps the oldest. Few persons in 
the county now know of its existence. I found a reference 
to it in Kercheval's old history of the Valley, and, upon 
inquiry, succeeded in locating it. It was discovered by David 
Harrison (born in 1775), and is in a cedar-covered rocky hill 
a short distance northeast of Melrose, and a few hundred 
yards west of the Valley Pike. The hill is in plain sight 
from the pike, and is a part of the farm of Mr. Thos. A. 

Wednesday afternoon, September 20, 1911, 1 visited Har- 
rison's Cave. My guide was Mr. Daniel Harrison, a grandson 
of the man who found the cave, so many years ago. William 
Harrison, a son of David, put a building over the entrance, 
but this went into decay before the civil war, and now the 
opening is altogether without protection. In fact, we had 
some difficulty in getting down the first ten feet, so much 
mud and so many leaves had washed in ahead of us. 

Once in, there was plenty of room. Several of the 
apartments are very large. One room, near the end, is 
larger in circumference, I think, than any room in any other 
cave I have visited except, perhaps, the Grand Cathedral in 
Weyer's. The ceiling, however, is not higher than 15 or 20 

Vandals have defaced Harrison's Cave shamefully— have 
broken off tons of stalactites; and the smoke from candles 
and torches has blackened the whole interior; yet in spite of 
all this it is a great wonder, and presents many striking 

Washington Profile, Rawley Springs 
By per. of E. G. Furry 

The Giants Grave 
( .'age ^05) 

Cedar Cliff Falls 
Photo by Hammers (Page 40o) 

Formation in Massanutta Cave 

Diamond Lake, New Market Endless Caverns 


features. It contains a column thicker, I think, than any 
I have seen elsewhere. One great column is severed about 
midway from floor to ceiling. The grand "organ" has had 
its pipes broken off about half way up. 

Hundreds — perhaps thousands— of names are to be found 
on the walls, ceiling, and columns. Some are cut into the 
stone, others are made with the smoke of candle or torch. 
Most of the legible dates after names fall in the year 1862. 
In April of that year a large number of Federal soldiers, per- 
haps from the army of Banks, were in the cave. I saw the 
names of many men from the 4th and 8th regiments, Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 

The earliest date I saw was 1818. This was smoked on 
the wall in large figures, plainly, and apart from other dates. 
In all probability, 1818 was the year in which the cave was 

About 200 yards southwest from the cave just described 
is a grotto called "Wide-mouth Cave." It is about 40 feet in 
diameter — a single vaulted chamber — opening widely to the 
surface of the earth. 

On Smith's Creek, a mile or two above Rosendale, on a 
farm now owned by Dorilas Driver, is a cavern known as 
Strickler's Cave. When it was discovered is not known, but 
it is called an old cave. 

In 1879, Reuben Zirkle and his sons, following a dog 
which had chased a rabbit into the rocks near the foot of the 
Massanutten Mountain, found a cave which is now known as 
the New Market Endless Caverns. It is in the rugged slope 
between the mountain and Smith's Creek, a short distance 
below Strickler's Cave, and is opposite the site of the old 
Zirkle mill. Rosendale is within sight. 

On September 16, 1911, Mr. Harry Strickler and I visited 
the Endless Caverns, having for guide the owner, Mr. Harvey 
J. Rosenberger. Going down abruptly at the entrance for 20 
or 30 feet, we entered the Anteroom, one of the handsomest 
apartments in the cave. Other apartments deserving special 
mention are Centennial Hall, Alexander's Ball Room, St. 



Paul's Cathedral, the Alpine Pass, and the Brown Room. 
For profusion, variety, and beauty of formations the Brown 
Room is unexcelled by any other I have seen. 

There are many large apartments and passage ways, 
from which dark openings lead off, and around which bottom- 
less chasms yawn. Many of these corridors are not covered 
with stalactites, but the massive limestone arches and vaulted 
ceilings, the huge dependent crags, with the ponderous boul- 
ders piled up on the floor or projecting in ledges, combine to 
form a rugged beauty and grandeur that are unusual. Inter- 
spersed with these rugged gorges come splendid apartments 
rich in mural and overhead decorations. 

A striking feature of these caverns is found in the 
numerous huge, fluted columns, many of them supporting the 
ceiling, some cut finely off just below the ceiling, and one or 
more fast above and extending far downwards, but separated 
from the floor by the space of only a few inches. These 
splendid columns, large and small, make up what is perhaps 
the most characteristic feature of the caverns. 

Among particular curiosities of special interest and 
beauty are Diamond Lake, the Montana Snowdrift, Snow on 
the Alps, the Negro Campmeeting, and the Gypsy Tent. The 
last and the Montana Snowdrift are unsurpassable for wonder 
and beauty. In the Tent is a huge horror that looks like the 
open jaws of a mammoth crocodile. The jaws must be three or 
four feet long, and the teeth are like the guards on the cutter- 
bar of a mowing machine. At another place is a nearly per- 
fect ear of corn, about as tall as the average man, and 
weighing several hundred pounds. Not far away is a giant 
plowshare, which may easily be connected in imagination 
with the great ear of corn. 

We were in the caverns two and a fourth hours, and did 
not go into all the apartments. They are truly endless. 

Three strong, clear, cold springs gush out at the foot of 
the hill, only 200 or 300 yards below the cave mouth; and 
from the hill the prospect across the Valley, westward and 
northward, is glorious. The Alleghanies are in full view at 



the farther side of the Valley, 12 or 15 miles away, while the 
massive ridge of the Massanutten looms up at one's back. 

In 1871 or 1872 J. Harvey Taylor discovered a cave on the 
land of Mrs. Clary West, about 3i miles northeast of Har- 
risonburg, one mile east of the Valley Pike. It was explored 
for 200 yards or more.^ 

From public notices that appeared in 1874, it may be 
inferred that Newman's Cave, at or near Roadside, East 
Rockingham, was at that time being visited. 

In 1890 a cave was discovered on the land of Hon. Chas. 
E. Fahrney, three-fourths of a mile north of Timberville. 
One morning Mr. Fahrney noticed a hole in the ground, such 
as might have been left by a stump entirely decayed; but he 
also noticed vapor issuing from the opening, and so made 
further investigation. This cave is said to contain a number 
of beautiful formations,— an archway hung with sparkling 
stalactites, a small lake, and a good-sized flag, mounted on 
a staff. The ceiling at some places is 30 or 40 feet high. 

On November 5th, 1892, hands blasting rock for lime 
on the farm of Augustine Armentrout, near Keezletown, 
discovered the beautiful wonder now widely known as 
Massanutta Gertrude Cave. It contains 28 apartments, the 
ceilings of many being 15 feet in height, and the decorations 
in stalactites and stalagmites are of great profusion and 
variety. The illumination by means of gas and magnesia 
tape enhances the splendid interiors. Scientists and scholars, 
as well as less purposeful tourists, have come many miles to 
see this gem of nature. Clubs, societies, and all sorts of 
picnic parties find Massanutta Cave both accessible and 

In Februray, 1893, a cave was discovered on the lands 
of Mrs. Peter Pence, adjoining Long's Hill, in East Rock- 

In the winter of 1901 it was reported in the local papers 

1. Rockingham Register, January 25, 1872. 
3. Rockingham Register, February 10, 1893. 



that boys of the Weaver's Church neighborhood had explored 
numerous interesting cavities in the limestone of the sur- 
rounding hills. 

There are caves in Round Hill, west of Bridgewater, in 
a hill near Linville, and in the Roudabush and Armentrout 
neighborhood, between Edom and Singer's Glen Indeed, 
Rockinghamers feel like claiming a share in Weyer's Cave, 
since it is so near the county line. Many go every year to visit 
it, at any rate. 

One of the places in Rockingham long celebrated for a 
combination of rugged scenery and interesting associations 
is Brock's Gap, located in the northern part of the county, 
and affording a giant's gateway through the first ranges of the 
Alleghanies. The mountain walls on either side, the trees 
and shrubbery springing from the slopes and cliffs, and the 
sparkling waters that rush down fresh from the heights and 
hollows beyond, all lend a charm and beauty to the place that 
must be seen to be appreciated. Descriptions and pictures 
are both inadequate to convey a just impression of the varied 
and splendid forms in which nature has here enthroned 
herself. — See page 21. 

What has just been said of Brock's Gap is equally true 
of Massanutten Peak, or Peaked Mountain, to which attention 
has already been directed in several connections. The Peak 
must be seen to be appreciated. Perhaps one should say, 
other things about it must be seen from it. The Peak is a 
great natural wonder, and it is unexcelled as an observatory. 

Within the Peak is the Kettle. This is a great, deep 
basin, or trough, with a narrow outlet at the eastern part. 
This outlet is called Harshberger's Gap, and through it flow 
the waters gathered from the springs in the basin. One of 
these is far up near the head of the trough, and for a con- 
siderable distance the waters roar down through subterranean 
passages between the huge rocks that are heaped over the 
channel in wild profusion. The stream that thus heads in 
the Kettle is called Stony Run, or Stony Greek, and flows 
through McGaheysville into the South Shenandoah. 



On the mountain side, a short distance east of the Kettle, 
and just above Rockingham Springs, is White Rock. This is 
a high, broad-faced cliff that can be seen for miles as one 
passes Elkton, McGaheysville, and other places in East Rock- 
ingham. On the opposite side of the Valley, high up in the 
Blue Ridge, may be seen the silver arc of Cedar Cliff Falls, — 
the waters of Wolf Run leaping down a hundred feet or more 
in their hurried descent to join Elk Run, and then the 

Before leaving East Rockingham, a word must be said of 
Indian Rock, which, if it is not a natural curiosity, is never- 
theless set on a wondrous pinnacle of nature. It is described 
by "G. T. H,," writing from McGaheysville under date of 
March 27, 1864, as follows: 

Deeply cut in a large, flat rock that forms the extreme western 
projection of the peak of the Massanutten mountain can be seen the print 
of a moccasined foot, with the toe pointing due West. This was no doubt 
executed by order of an Indian covmcil, to direct the wandering members 
of their tribes to the path their leaders had taken. Judging from the 
weatherbeaten appearance of the track, it must have been cut hundreds 
of years ago. 

About half way between Broadway and Singer's Glen is 
Tide Spring, which flows out only at intervals, but whose 
intermittent stream is of sufficient volume to run a mill. In 
a wet season it flows three or four times in an hour; in a dry 
time, only once, perhaps, in a day. 

On one of the cliffs near Rawley Springs — perhaps at 
Lover's Leap— is the remarkable Washington Profile; and out 
in the Valley a mile or so, in plain view, is the long, low 
ridge called the Giant's Grave. 

Until comparatively recent years a great wonder was to 
be found on Second Mountain, about half way between 
Rawley and Liberty Springs. It was a huge rock, about 
forty feet long, thirty feet v/ide, and six feet thick, almost 
perfectly balanced on a ledge near the mountain top. About 
1893 some young men dislodged it with dynamite, and thus 
destroyed one of the most remarkable curiosities in the county. 

On the Rawley Pike, about two miles west of Dale Enter- 



prise, is a chinkapin tree which is, so far as is known, the 
largest of its kind in the world. It is about 40 feet high, and 
two feet above the ground the trunk measures 10 feet six 
inches in circumference. At the ground the girth of this 
vegetable giant is 19^ feet. 

Near Dayton until lately was a large sugar-berry tree, 
which was regarded as very unusual because of its size. 

So much for natural curiosities. We shall now take the 
liberty of appending to this chapter a few notes regarding 
various minerals, etc., found in Rockingham County. 

Tradition has it that lead was mined near Broadway and 
Timberville during the Revolutionary War. In 1894 signs of 
old workings were found about two miles west of Timberville, 
and specimens of lead and zinc were secured. In October, 
1894, the Colonial Lead and Zinc Company, made up of W. 
H. Ritenour, Thompson Lennig, R. R. Douthatt, N. G. 
Douglass, and David B. Sites, got a charter to work these old 
lead mines. In 1886 a lead mine on the farm of D. P. Show- 
alter, near Chrisman, was being worked by Pennsylvania 

In 1833, Phihp Miller and J. N. Ball were advertising a 
"superior quality" of marble quarried on Smith's Creek, and 
were manufacturing it into tombstones, hearths, mantel- 
pieces, steps, sills, etc. In 1880 marble was reported in 
Brock's Gap. Two years later marble was being quarried at 
or near Timberville by Messrs. Moffet & Moore. It seems 
probable that black marble may be obtained just north of 
Harrisonburg. At present Dr. E. D. Davis is making 
developments in that section. 

In 1854 gypsum was reported near the line of the 
Manassas Gap Railway; and coal in Brock's Gap; both in 
Rockingham County. The Dora Coal Fields in Briery Branch, 
Gap have already been mentioned. The presence of coal 
there was known as early as 1866. From 1870 to 1880 a good 
deal of development work was done. In January, 1880, the 
editor of the Register reported that he was using some of the 
Briery Branch coal, and found it "first-class." 



In April, 1866, it was announced that plaster beds existed 
on the farm of Peter Wine, two or three miles west of Tenth 
Legion. Plaster was being sold there at $6 a ton. It was 
said that certain farmers on Linville Creek had been using 
this plaster for the past five or six years. 

In 1866 a bed of blue paint was discovered in Brock's Gap. 
In 1872 and 1880 finds of mineral paint were reported in East 
Rockingham, and serious attempts were made in the manu- 
facture and sale thereof, but the enterprises were not 
permanently successful. 

In 1868, as recorded by Mr. S. H. W. Byrd, John W. 
Click discovered onyx on the farm of John C, Miller, near 
Bridgewater. From time to time the onyx quarries at 
Bridgewater have been worked more or less successfully. 
There are indications of roofing slate on the river below 
Bridgewater. In 1894 onyx was being shipped to New York 
City from quarries near Hinton. 

Iceland spar exists in large quantities near Broadway and 
Timberville. In 1889 J. P. Houck, in boring a well, presumably 
at or near Harrisonburg, found evidence of oil. Gold and 
silver in small quantities have been found at various places 
in the county. The late Mr. David A. Heatwole, of Dale 
Enterprise, records the fact that in Adams* geography, 
published in the earlier part of last century, it was stated 
that nuggets of gold had been found a short distance west of 
Harrisonburg, on the farm lately owned by Mr. Daniel J. 

But every golden age is largely dependent on iron; and 
Rockingham is rich in iron. From early times iron has been 
worked in various parts of the county, particularly in the 
vicinity of Paulington, in Brown's Gap, in the districts east 
of Elkton, and in Brock's Gap. It is said that iron ore used 
to be hauled to Mossy Creek iron works from the neigh- 
borhood of Dale Enterprise. 

The limestone, blue and gray, in which the county 
abounds, is fine for building. Some of the oldest, as well as 
some of the newest, houses are constructed of this native 



limestone, which is also converted, at many places and in 
large quantities, into valuable lime. At Pleasant Valley is a 
quarry of gray limestone, which was opened about 1873, and 
which has been worked regularly since 1890, tons of stone 
from it being sent by rail to Staunton and other places at a 
distance, to be used for lintels, sills, bases of monuments, 
etc. Mr. C. E. Loewner is the present owner of this quarry. 

About two and a half miles southeast of Elkton extensive 
operations are now being carried on in the mining of 

In 1891 parts of the skeleton of a mastodon were found 
one mile north of Singer's Glen, by Henry Frank, while 
digging out an old pond. The remains were identified by Dr. 
M. S. Zirkel of Edom, and were sent, probably, to the National 
Museum, at Washington. The find attracted a good deal of 
attention among scholars and scientists over the country. 
On July the 25, 1912, while at Singer's Glen, I saw parts of 
one of the great teeth, preserved by Mr. Edward Funk. 

In April, 1899, two mammoth teeth were discovered in 
an excavation being made in Harrisonburg for Mr. Herman 
Wise's new store building. They weighed over a pound apiece, 
and were found 15 feet below the surface of the street. 



Near the end of the French and Indian War, to wit, in 
the year 1762, one of the families that moved into Rocking- 
ham from Pennsylvania was the Custer family. The head of 
this family was Paul Custer; and he had a young son Rich- 
ard, born in Pennsylvania some five years before: that is, on 
June 1st, 1757. The Custers (or Kiisters) settled in or near 
Brock's Gap, where Nature called in stirring echoes from the 
wooded heights, and Diana no less than Mars claimed many 
a rugged glen. Small wonder, therefore, that soldiers and 
hunters should spring from the Custer line. 

Even to-day the mountains of western Rockingham often 
sound to the huntsman's horn, and echo to the deep baying 
of his dogs or the sharp crack of his rifle. Enough of the 
past is with us yet to make a chapter of hunting stories both 
interesting and appropriate; they form an integral part in the 
history of this great county where once the buffalo stalked 
the plains while the deer, bears, wolves and panthers shel- 
tered in the hills and mountains; and we are peculiarly fortu- 
nate in having this chapter mainly from the pen of a living 
member of that same Custer family. The line of genealogy 
may be briefly indicated thus: Paul Custer, Richard Custer 
(1757-1837), Richard Custer (1790-1858), Jacob Custer (1817- 
1892), Samuel Custer (1842- ), Milo Custer (1880- ). 

Milo Custer is custodian of the McLean County Historical 
Society, with offices in the city of Bloomington, Illinois; but 
when he heard that a history of Rockingham County, Vir- 
ginia, — the prolific land of his ancestors, —was being prepared, 
he had his father, Mr. Samuel Custer, to recount the hunting 
stories given below, that he might write them down and con- 
tribute them to this work.' 

1- Early in the year 1781 Richard Custer, Sr., enlisted in the Virginia 


Tradition has it that Paul Custer, founder of the Custer 
family in Rockingham, once shot a buffalo at one of the salt 
licks in the adjacent mountains. His great-grandson, Jacob 
Custer, was a mighty hunter. From 1830 to 1850 he frequently 

troops under Col. Nail for service against the British in the war of the 
Revolution. He served as a private soldier three months under Capt. 
George Huston, and three months under Capt. Anthonj-- Rader. He was 
in the skirmishes at Williamsburg, Va., and Hot Water Creek. In 1788 
he married Jane, the 17-year-old daughter of Conrad Humble. They were 
the parents of Richard Custer, Jr., Mrs. Sarah Fulk, Susan Custer, 
Gabriel Custer, Mrs. Johannah Wevner, Strawder Custer, and George 

Richard Custer, Sr., received a pension for his service in the Revo- 
lution, and his widow also drew a pension after his death. He died Feb- 
ruary 14, 1837. The date of his wife's death is not knov/n; but she was 
still living in Rockingham and drawing a widow's pension as late as 1841. 

Richard Custer, Jr., was born on his father's farm in Rockingham 
about 1790. This farm lies about 4 miles north of Cootes' Store. He 
was by trade a gunsmith, but also farmed to some extent, and operated 
a sawmill. The latter was on the farm of his son-in-law, Isaac Ween, 
and was situated about 13 miles nw. of Cootes' Store, in the valley of 
Dry River. His wife, whom he married March 28, 1810, was Elizabeth 
Trumbo, born August 21, 1791. The Trumbos and Custers, as well as 
the Hesses and others in the vicinity, were of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Stock. This Richard Custer served from August 29, 1814, to Decem- 
ber 8, 1814, in the war of 1812, as a member of Capt. Thomas Hopkins' 
company of Virginia militia. He and his wife, who lived till 1871, are 
buried on the old Custer homestead, 4 miles north of Cootes' store. This 
farm is now owned and occupied by their son-in-law, Abram Hess. 

Jacob Custer, son of Richard Custer, Jr., married Isabella Miller 
in 1838, who bore him five children. In 1852 he moved to McLean County, 
111., where he died in 1892. In writing of him his grandson (Milo Custer) 

"His early life was spent among the mountains of his native county, 
and was in many respects typical of that rugged locality. . . . He 
lived upon his farm (near the Pendleton mountain) about fifteen years. 
Most of his land was covered with a fine growth of pine and poplar tim- 
ber. Some of the trees were over a hundred feet high, and logs 60 feet 
long and entirely clear of limbs were cut from many of them. In the fall 
of the year 1852 he sold his farm to Anthony Rhodes for $800, and moved 
with his family to McLean County, 111. He also owned one negro slave, 
a young man named Wesley, whom he sold to Samuel Cootes, the founder 
of Cootes' Store, for $200." 



ranged the mountains in the northwestern portions of the 
county, a terror to the fierce no less than to the fleet The 
killing of deer and bears was a favorite occupation with him. 

Prior to the year 1852 he owned 400 acres of land, on 
which he resided, at the head of Dry River, near the Pendleton 
Mountain. On one occasion, while at work clearing a part of 
his land, he heard a sharp squeal from one of his hogs. 
Looking up, he saw a large black bear seize one of his best 
brood sows in its huge arms, rear upon its hind legs, and 
walk away. Being some distance from his house, without 
his gun, and knowing he would not have time to get it, he 
called his dogs, seized his axe, and started after the bear. 
Incredible as it may seem, the bear, although hampered with 
the burden of the sow, whose weight was upwards of 250 
pounds, could still walk about as fast as the man. The bear 
had seized the sow from behind; and as it walked along would 
gnaw her back, actually eating her alive. Custer and his 
dogs followed the bear up the steep sides of the mountain for 
nearly a mile, and finally compelled it to release the sow. The 
latter was able to return home, but died next day. The bear 
had eaten away nearly all the flesh from her back. 

Each fall, during the hunting season, Mr. Custer would 
kill from fifteen to twenty deer. His family was always 
well supplied with venison. Many times he would return 
from a hunting trip with a deer v/eighing upwards of 175 
pounds slung over his shoulders. He was very stoutly built, 
and in his younger days was a man of great physical en- 
durance. He and his neighbors would frequently take their 
rifles and hunting dogs, and "run" deer on Pendleton 
Mountain. This mountain was then covered with heavy 
timber, and was a favorite haunt of wild animals. 

The deer v/hen pursued had a peculiar way of running at 
a gradual angle down the mountain side to the valley, and if 
not overtaken they would cross the Valley, swimming the 
stream, and then run up the side of the next mountain, 
taking the same gradual course as they ran. They would 



sometimes run as much as ten miles before they were 
overtaken and killed. 

On one particular occasion Jacob Custer, in company 
with his brother Conrad, went up on the mountain to run 
deer. Conrad took up his station near the foot of the 
mountain, on the east side, to watch, and to shoot the deer 
as they ran by; while Jacob took the dogs and went up into 
the timber to chase them out. He soon started a fine buck, 
got him headed toward the east, the dogs giving chase; he 
himself followed them on the run, down the mountain side, 
some three or four miles. The buck soon came within the 
range of Conrad's rifle, and fell. Jacob, who was following, 
reached the animal before it ceased kicking, so closely had he 
followed the entire distance. 

On another occasion Jacob Custer came near losing his 
life on one of these hunting trips. His two dogs had 
chased a large buck into a stream of water, and the one of 
them that was in the lead had overtaken and seized him. Mr. 
Custer coming up laid down his gun and, with his knife 
in hand, ran into the v/ater and seized the deer, intending to 
cut his throat. But no sooner had he laid hold of the animal 
than the dog let go. In less time than one may tell it the 
enraged buck turned, dropped his head and savagely pushed 
Mr. Custer against the bank of the stream. Holding the 
animal by the horns, between the prongs of which he was 
pinned fast, the man pitted his strength against that of the 
infuriated beast. It was a life and death struggle. In the 
nick of time the second dog came up and seized the buck, 
thus turning the scale in his master's favor. Many years 
later, when he was an old man of more than seventy, Mr. 
Custer stood before the gate of the deer pasture at Miller 
Park in Bloomington, and told the park keeper, who was 
somewhat timid about coming near a fractious buck, how he 
had killed many a larger deer in his early days, back in the 
mountains of Old Virginia. 

One of the well known early hunters of Rockingham was 
Frederick Kiester. An account of his many hunting exploits 



and thrilling encounters with wild animals, and a list of the 
number of bears and deer he had killed, was published in the 
Rockingham Register about the year 1855. He was out 
hunting once some where in the mountains of Rockingham, 
when he was attacked by a panther. The animal had hidden 
upon the limb of a tree which overhung the path, and had 
dropped down upon him as he passed underneath. Had it 
not been for his dogs, Kiester would have been killed. Their 
attack upon the panther caused it to turn its attention toward 
them, and give the man a chance to shoot it. As it was, he 
was badly injured. His clothing was torn to shreds; his body 
was covered with blood. The beast's claws had cut his back 
and the calves of his legs like knives. He bore the marks of 
this encounter during the remainder of his life. 

Two other hunters, whose names the writer's father does 
not remember, once had a thrilling experience with a she-bear. 
One of these hunters found a couple of bear cubs, and 
promptly shot them. One of them made an outcry which was 
heard by the mother bear. She came rushing to the assistance 
of her young, and attacked the man before he could reload 
his rifle. Using his gun as a club, he managed for a while 
to beat her off, calling at the same time for help. His 
partner, who was with the dogs some distance away, was 
deaf and could not hear him; but the dogs heard him, came 
to his rescue, and held the bear at bay until the other man, 
who had followed the dogs, came up and shot the bear. The 
stock of the gun which the first man had used as a club 
against the bear was badly broken, and the weapon was 
almost ruined. He said that the bear had stood up on her 
hind legs and struck at him with her great fore paws, warding 
off his blows like a man. He was a large well-built man, 
and managed to get in a few terrific blows upon the animal's 
head and fore arms; but he said that after she was killed and 
skinned the places where his blows had fallen were not 
discolored, and seemed hardly bruised. When we take into 
consideration the fact that most of the guns used by those 
«arly hunters were flintlocks, which could not be loaded excep 



at the expense of several minutes of time, we can readily 
understand how those men were exposed to risks such as are 
not shared by huntsmen of the present day. 

Richard Custer, Jr., the father of Jacob Custer, was a 
^nsmith, as elsewhere noted; and the site of his gun shop is 
still pointed out as one of the old landmarks near Cootes' Store. 

Sometimes a deer that was started in Pendleton County 
would be chased across the mountains into Rockingham, the 
hunters who started it not caring to follow it so far. Under 
such conditions the animal might be shot by some Rocking- 
ham party; and vice versa. Occasionally the dogs would follow 
the deer long after their masters had given it up, and v/ould 
be fed and cared for by strangers, some not getting back 
home for several days. 

Many a hunter of those early days valued his dogs as 
highly as his horses. There were two classes of hunters; one 
class that hunted with dogs; the other without. The latter 
were known as "private hunters." They were much opposed 
to running deer with dogs, and sometimes resorted to ex- 
treme measures— destroying dogs with poison. Such pro- 
ceedings of course led to much hard feeling between the two 
classes. Two dogs that Jacob Custer prized very highly fell 
victims to some "private hunter's" poison. Long afterwards, 
when his anger had perceptibly cooled, Custer by mere chance 
learned the name of the poisoner. Meeting the man one day 
he accused him of killing the dogs. Reluctantly the guilt 
was admitted. "Well," said Custer, "it is past and gone 
now; but if I had known it was you, then, I'd have shot you. "^ 

The foregoing stories are not only true of the particular 
incidents recounted, but are also typical of their class, and 
enable us to realize vividly what the actual and frequent expe- 
riences of the mountain hunters were in days long past. Now 
and then a bear or deer is still found in these mountains; and 

2. I am indebted to Mr. Milo Custer for much other interesting 
matter, which is withheld here only for lack of space. 



now and then, it may be at increasing intervals, the hunts- 
man's horn still is heard: 

'Sweet and far from cliff and scar, 
Like horns of Elfiand faintly blowing. ' 
But the sounds to-day are mostly echoes. 

In connection with the foregoing paragraphs the following 
incidents have appropriate significance. They give specific 
information of various beasts and birds found or seen in 
Rockingham at various times. 

The two incidents first given are related by Messrs. J. 
R. Shipman and S. H. W. Byrd of Bridgewater. 

About 1794, when St. Michael's Church above Bridge- 
water was building, a young girl, later the grandmother of 
Mr. Jacob H. Wynant, was employed carrying dinner each day 
to the workmen. One day, in going from Bridgewater to 
the church— a distance of only 2J or 3 miles— she saw seven 

About 1850, Mr. Wynant's mother, a daughter of Rev. 
John Brown of the Reformed Church, found a panther in 
the cow stable, and narrowly escaped with her life — the beast 
so nearly catching her as he sprang that he tore off part of 
her clothing. 

In the winter and spring of 1865-6, James Steele and his 
associates killed in Rockingham County 17 red foxes and one 
gray fox. 

In February, 1866, Mr. Geo. W. Rosenberger, who lived 
on Smith's Creek below Tenth Legion, shot and killed a bald 
eagle that measured 6 feet 8 inches from tip to tip of wings. 

In December, 1867, Mr. Derrick Pennybacker killed a 
black eagle, measuring 6 feet 8 inches from tip to tip, on 
Linville Creek. 

In January, 1870, William Minnick of Broadway reported 
that he had been in at the death of no less than 33 deer in 
the mountains of Brock's Gap and Rawley Springs during 
the past season, October 1 to January 1. 

In March, 1876, a large black eagle was committing 
various depredations between Harrisonburg and Dayton. 



In June of the same year a black bear was killed in the 
vicinity of Cross Keys, and two cranes were killed elsewhere 
in the county. 

Not always, however, were the Nimrods of Cross Keys 
so successful. In January, 1891, the near presence of a bear 
was reported at Yager's store, and there was instant com- 
motion. The hunters sallied forth, fierce and fast. There 
was "racing and chasing" o'er woodland and lea; but, as in 
the hunt for the lost bride of Netherby, the object of dear 
desire ne'er did they see. The incident was made the subject 
of a really fine set of humorous verses by J. W. Tyler, and 
published in the Register of January 30, 1891. 

In the Register of October 18, 1877, appeared the follow- 
ing paragraph: 

A few days since a gentleman in Brock's Gap went out squirrel 
hunting, and taking his seat upon a log, killed one hundred squirrels with- 
out moving from the spot. He says at least five hundred more passed by 
where he was sitting, during the day. It was not a first class day for 
squirrels, either. They all seemed running eastward. 

In the same paper, issue of November 29, 1877, was 
printed a sketch of James Todd, lately deceased, who lived 
at or near the southwest corner of Rockingham. One para- 
graph of this sketch is given herewith: 

He was the most remarkable hunter in the Valley of Virginia, having 
killed over 2700 deer up to 1860, with one old muzzle-loading rifle, which 
had been bored so often that you could get your thumb in it. He had 
killed bears without number. He was a dead shot, and could perform the 
feat of putting a bullet through a hat on the opposite side of a tree every 
time, by placing an axe blade for the ball to glance. 

From June 30, 1878, to June 26, 1879, sheep were killed 
in the county to the number of 165, and were paid for at the 
rate of $3.50 each. During the same period the county paid 
$129 for 86 red fox scalps, $72 for 90 gray fox scalps, and 
$50 for 20 wild cats scalps; not a cent, so far as reported, for 
the scalps of worthless dogs. 

March 31, 1879, Jacob Fawley caught the "boss otter" of 
Brock's Gap, the said otter weighing 15 pounds, and measuring; 
3 feet 10 inches from end of nose to end of tail. 



In 1879 a big crane was killed in the county. 

In February, 1880, seven bears were killed in Peaked 

In Januray, 1881, Samuel Smith and his two sons killed the 
"daddy bear" in West Rockingham. He weighed 300 pounds 
dressed. In the following February a 160-pound bear was 
killed by Geo. W. Long in Dayton. The next month a large 
bear was killed near Rawley Springs. 

In 1882 deer were frequently seen in the vicinity of Mt. 
Clinton. One was killed not ten feet from the kitchen window 
of one home, and another in a nearby field. 

In January, 1891, it was reported that Wallace B. Minnick 
of Broadway had killed, during the past season, 13 bears, 
several of them weighing over 300 pounds each. 

In February, 1891, Messrs. Wittig & Son, of Dovesville, 
were said to have shipped to Washington 1643 rabbits, from 
November to January, inclusive. 

The same year Robt. Higgs shot an eagle, near Lacey 
Springs, which measured 5 feet 7 inches from tip to tip of 

During the winter of 1892-3 A. M. Turner of West Rock- 
ingham killed 10 black bears, ranging in weight from 100 to 
500 pounds. The skins were sold at an average of $20 each. 

In March, 1893, a gray fox attacked a child, then a 
woman, near McGaheysville. The woman finally killed it 
with a piece of scantling. 

In 1897 J. C. Funkhouser shot a bald eagle near Keezle^ 
town. It weighed 9^ pounds, and measured 6Jfeet 10 inches 
from tip to tip. 


All of us have heard or known of the days of ' 'wagoning, ' ' 
when the farmer or his son would load the flour, bacon, or 
other products of his labor in the great wagon, and set out 
for Fredericksburg, Scottsville, Alexandria, or some other 
important market. It may not be generally known, however, 
that for many years hundreds of tons of flour, lumber, iron, 
and other articles of trade were taken down the Valley in 
boats on the main streams of the Shenandoah River. Con- 
cerning this river trade Mr. Richard Mauzy, a venerable 
citizen of McGaheysville, writes as follows: 

' 'Between 1830 and 1840 Zack Raines^ as leader, or 'boss, ' 
with the soubriquet 'Commodore,' and a number of others 
made their living by boating to Harper's Ferry. There — the 
flour having been disposed of — the boats were sold for the 
lumber in their construction, and the boatmen would walk 
back to their homes. 

' 'The floatboats used were made of heavy undressed lum- 
ber, and were guided by rudders at each end. At the dams in 
the river, next to the shore, chutes were placed, constructed of 
strong timber, for the passage of the boats. When the rise 
in the river was sufficient, the boats would go over the dams." 

An idea of the magnitude of this river trade from Port 
Republic and other points in the eastern part of the county 
may be obtained from the following advertisement, which 
appeared in the Rockingham Register of January 16, 1841: 


The subscriber takes this method of informing his customers and the 
public, that he still continues the business of Boating Flour and other 
produce of this country to market; and, owing to the failure of crops, 
his terms hereafter will be— 

1- "Commodore" Zachariah Raines died February 3, 1871, aged 59. 


For Flour taken from the neighborhood of Mt. Crawford to George- 
town, $1.25. 

From Port Republic and his own neighborhood, $1. 20. 

And an additional charge of 12^ cents per barrel when taken to 
Baltimore. He will also deliver Flour at Harper's Ferry, on the Canal 
or Rail-road, at $1.00 per barrel. 

Having a saw-mill of his own, to enable him to build his own boats, 
and having hands of his own to go with the water,— he will take Flour 
from his own yard at $1.12^ per barrel. All barrels delivered in good 
order— no cooperage to be charged. Last season he and his hands took 
through the Shenandoah locks 5,623 barrels. He was not forgotten when 
there was a great deal of business to do, and he flatters himself that his 
customers will not forsake him when there is a little to do. He avails 
himself of this opportunity to return his thanks to those who have here- 
tofore encouraged him in his business, and flatters himself that his long 
experience and success in his business will enable him to give general 
satisfaction. He leaves as security for his returns, 1,492 acres of real 
property, and between .... and $4,000 worth of personal property. 
The public's humble servant, 

Jacob Sipe. 

This notice makes the fact obvious that Mr. Raines was 
not the only man in the river trade w^orthy to be called 

About twelve years ago a gentleman who signed himself 
"Gabriel" wrote an exceedingly interesting article on the 
subject before us for the Page Courier, published at Luray, 
Va. We give herewith his account in full. 

Old Boating Days on the Shenandoah. 

The Shenandoah River used to be the great commercial highway of 
this Valley, and boating in those days gave employment to many 
men. My first recollections of the River date back to the day that 
my father moved on its banks near the old Columbia Bridge. The sec- 
ond day after we moved my father and three uncles went up the River to 
the Furnace (now Shenandoah City) and in a few days we heard that the 
fleet was in Kite's dam, so my grand-mother took me to the High Rock 
to see the boats come through the shoot. We got in sight just in time to 
see the first boat go thro, strike a great rock, split in twain, and the 
whole cargo of pigiron went to the bottom. Each boat was manned by 
six men, and when the boat broke those on it were carried to such deep 
water that they had to swim. There were 18 boats in this fleet, and soon 
the men began to wade in and gather the iron together in a pile. The 
broken boat was then taken to the bank and repaired, reloaded and started 



on its way again. This was in March, I think, so you can see that a River 
sailor had his perils and hardships. William Lowry was, I think, the 
steersman on the broken boat. 

Nearly all boats were provided with tin horns about 8 feet long, and 
when they would start from stations on the River, all would blow. War 
songs were the favorite tunes, and the music they made would make your 
hair stand on end. These horns could be heard for five miles. 

These boats were 9i x 76 feet. In low water they carried 8 tons and 
flush water 12 tons of iron; 8 to 12 thousand feet of lumber or 110 barrels 
of flour made a load. Iron was then worth $60 per ton; lumber $1.80 to 
$2.25 per 100; flour $8 per barrel. A great deal of bark, hoop-poles, rails, 
shingles, posts, apples, brandy, potatoes, and corn was boated off also; 
tho iron, flour, and lumber were the principal exports in those days. 

Boats sold at the journey's end for from $18 to $25. Boatsmen got 
from $14 to $18 for the trip. It generally took from 5 to 7 days to make 
the trip— 3 or 4 to take the boat down and 2 or 3 to walk back. 

The stations along the River had names just like our railroad stations. 
Here are some of them: Starting at Shenandoah, we came first to Wel- 
fley's Mill, then Wm. Kite's Mill, Roland Kite's Mill, and so on, each 
of which all the way down the River old boatsmen and residents along 
the River will remember; but I have not space to mention them here. 
The deepest water in the River those days between Port Republic and 
Harper's Ferry was at Gray Horse Eddies, below Castleman's Ferry. 
[Castleman's Ferry is in Clarke County.] 

These are the names of some of the old boatsmen: Hamp Miller, 
Frank Rucker, Coronee Comer, Billie Melton, Alec Kite, Bud Cave, Wm. 
Strickler, Merrell Comer, Bud, William, Cap, Dick, Dan, George, Ben, 
John and Al Dofflemoyer; Ben and Dug Dovel; Columbus Kite, Jack 
Kite, Commodore Turner, William, Reuben, Dick, and Henry Lucas; 
Fred Phillips, Wm. and Jack Alger; M. V. Louderback, John Gaines, 
Bogus Lucas, James Bateman, Shinnol Croft, Bax Bugan, Ton 
Morris, James, Sim, and Davy Keyser; Chris, Aleck, Charley and Jacob 
Hilliard; W. M. Lowry, Reuben, Joseph, Peter, Martin, John, Isaac and 
Abram Painter; James W. Foltz, Sharp Good, Adam, John W., Noah, 
David, Jacob, and Newton Seakford; Joel Decker, Joe and John Burner, 
Wm. Price, Jas, and George Webster; John and Dan Martin; W. M. 
Martin, Sr., Wm. Martin, Jr., George W. Seakford, Buck, Dick, Harrison 
and Hutch Cameron; Wm. Stoneberger, Alf Kite, and Robert, Isaac, 
and Billy Aleshire. 

The last three boats that ever went down the River were built fw 
Adam Seakford on the James Bumgardner place, three miles southwest 
of Rileyville, about 11 years ago. They were loaded with plank, which 
was sold at Riverton. They were nin off by Adam Seakford, James 
Webster, and J. R. Seakford, the stern hands being Martin Painter- 
Buck Cameron, and Newton Seakford. 



This ended the boating business in Page. 

There may more occur to me later on this subject, and if it does I 
may write another chapter about it, as it covers an important era ia 
the history of our county. 2 

From Mr. J. H. Mace of Port Republic the following 
facts relating to transportation on the Shenandoah have been 
obtained. For some time in the early days Port Republic 
was the highest point on the river from which boats started. 
Later, the channels being sufficiently cleared, they started 
farther up: on the South River, at Mt. Vernon Forge, now 
Grottoes; on Middle River, at Mt. Meridian; and on North 
River, at Bruback's Mill. 

The boats were called "gundalows," the accent being on 
the first syllable. They were frequently or generally nine 
feet wide and 90 feet long. The main side board was 2 inches 
thick and 14 inches high, this height being increased — perhaps 
doubled— by a second board on top, one inch thick, called the 
"splash board." 

Occasionally, perhaps frequently, boats started on North 
River as high as Mt. Crawford and Bridgewater. Gen. John 
E. Roller tells me that he used to see Com. Raines and his 
men taking flat boats down the river past Mt. Crawford. In 
Martin's Gazetteer of Virginia (1835), it is stated in the 
sketch of Mt. Crawford, ' The North River is navigable for 
flat boats, about three miles above this village." A point 
three miles above Mt. Crawford is almost exactly the site of 
Bridgewater. Henry Howe, in his history of Virginia (1852), 
says that Mt. Crawford was near the head of boat navigation. 
The fact that Bridgewater was formerly called "Bridgeport" 
is thus explained. 

Hon. Geo. E. Sipe tells me that he has seen as many as 
1000 barrels of flour in one convoy on the Shenandoah. He 
also states that the government expended some money in 
opening the river for navigation. As early as 1798 the feasi- 

2. From the Page Courier of May 24, 1900. The paper from which the 
above was copied was loaned to the author by Ed. S. Conrad, Esq., of 
Harrisonburg, Va. 



bility of making it navigable was being discussed in the 
Virginia General Assembly. In 1824 and 1831 Acts were 
passed declaring certain parts thereof a public highway. In 
1831 an Act was passed directing a survey of the Shenandoah 
River to the highest points of navigation, for the purpose of 
determining the practicability and expediency of improving 
the said river by means of dams, locks, etc., or of building a 
railroad through the adjacent valley.-^ 

April 11, 1867, some one, who evidently knew a good 
deal of the subject, was writing in the Rockingham Register 
urging that steps be taken to open North River for navigation 
from Port Republic to Bridgewater. This could be done, he 
thought, for about $2400.'' 

Doubtless the improvement of the river, like the making 
of fords and the building of bridges, had to be repeated 
from time to time, owing to destructive freshets. 

What Rockingham Boatmen Can Do. 

The following will show what our hardy, persevering boatmen are 
capable of doing: 

A fleet of boats, loaded with iron, was taken down the Shenandoah 
River, from Port Republic to Harper's Ferry, 165 miles, by the following 
named .boatmen, viz. : Zachariah Raines, Capt. ; Samuel May, Henry 
Pirkey, Alexander Pirkey, Jacob Raines, Reuben Raines, Jacob Hudlowe, 
George Rodeheffer, Henry Raines, Wm. Jones, Wm. Knight, James Ander- 
son, privates, 12 in number. The boats were run through in four and a 
half days, and had in them one hundred and ten tons, (110,) making over 
nine tons to each man. They lashed the boats together, in twos, which 
were thus taken down the river. A portion of the trip was accomplished 
when the river was very high, making the management of the boats very 
difficult and dangerous. The fleet was commanded by that veteran nav- 
igator and sailor, Captain Zachariah Raines, living at the head of naviga- 
tion, whose knowledge of the dangerous reefs and shoals and quicksands 
of the raging Shenandoah is perfect, he having passed over the same 
watery path for many years past, making several hundred trips. 5 

3. See Hening's Statutes and the Acts of Assembly, 

4. In the Rockingham Register of March 8, 1888, is an article relating 
to Port Republic, headquarters of the old "Flatboat Brigade," and point- 
ing out the natural advantages of the place. 

5. From the Rockingham Register of March 21, 1867. 



The following item, copied from the Register of January 
27, 1870, will show that navigation was not unknown in days 
of yore on the north fork of the Shenandoah. So far as is 
known, however, the trade in Rockingham on this branch of 
the river never reached large proportions. 

A New Era! 

Messrs. Editors: — Navigation has been opened on the North Branch 
of the Shenandoah River, from Brenneman's saw-mill, in Brock's Gap, to 
Cootes' Store. First boat. King Fisher, Capt W. F. Turner, laden with 
shingles, deer-hides, furs, &c., also passengers, arrived to-day at the 
latter place, at 3 o'clock, P. M. Hurrah for the first improvement on 
the admission of the old State! 
Jan. 20, 1870. Brock's Gap. 



Court day in Rockingham has been a great day in the 
calendar for more than a century. Even now, after the 
absorption of the county court by the circuit court, court day 
is still perpetuated and religiously observed. All who have a 
horse to sell, a horse to buy, a man to see, — anything to be 
seen: those with business of all sorts, and chiefly those with 
none of any sort, —those and these all come to town on court 
day. Court day may be termed an institution : a social and 
economic institution. It doubtless has an educational as well 
as a general social value. To be on court square, or near it, 
on court day makes one dream of the agora at old Athens 

and the forum at Rome. 

In the following paragraphs, taken from Mrs. Maria 
Graham Carr's charming reminiscences, on^ gets a vivid 
idea of the court square and the court days of 1820, and 


About eighty feet in front of her [Mrs. Effinger's] cor- 
ner house was located the Court House, nearly in the 
middle of the square. I think I remember a log or frame 
court house, that stood in the same place. I certainly remem- 
ber a stone building with a large door on the east end, as 
well as a large bull's-eye, or round window, near the roof, 
and other windows on the second floor to light the jury rooms. 
A stone jail with grated windows stood a few paces southeast 
of the court house. Mr. Fletcher, an old man, was the jailer 
then. Behind the court house, about 20 feet from it, was a 
small one-story building called the clerk's office. Between 
it and the court house was a roof of shingles, supported by 
wooden pillars. Under this beef was sold; it was called the 
market-house. A whipping post was near the east end of it. 
The whole was enclosed by a strong wooden fence, made of 


three horizontal rails set into posts securely planted in the 
ground, all painted Spanish brown. I do not think the color 
was ever noted for its beauty, but for its durability. 

The lawyers of that day were Robert Gray, David 
Steele, and Thomas Clark, and some younger ones I do not 
remember. Court day once a month was looked upon as a 
great event; every one that could leave home was on hand. 
It was a day of great interest; farmers coming in with their 
produce, such as butter, eggs, and other articles which they 
exchanged for groceries and dry goods. The streets around 
the court house were thronged with all sorts of men; others 
on horse-back, riding up and down trying to sell their horses. 
Men in home-made clothes, old rusty hats that had seen 
several generations, coarse shoes and no stockings, some 
without coats or vests, with only shirts and pants. I have 
seen a rich man come in from his country home, riding a fine 
horse. The man was dressed in home-spun linen shirt and 
pants, coarse shoes, no stockings, and an old slouch hat or 
straw hat. He had a large yellow silk bandana handkerchief, 
with a pocket-book filled with bank-notes rolled in it He 
placed the handkerchief under his arm, with the two ends 
tied over his shoulder. He made money by buying deeds and 
other papers, or loaning money on notes — this was called 
shaving paper; and many men got rich by this business. 

This was also a day to settle all grudges. When a man 
got too much whiskey he was very quarrelsome, and wanted 
to fight. Others would follow suit, and go in pell-mell. It 
was a dreadful sight to see them beat one another — I used to 
run off and hide. 

It was also a great day for ginger-bread and molasses 
beer. The cake sellers had [tables] in front of the court 
house, spread with white cloths, with cakes piled high upon 
them, and kegs of beer nearby. I have seen the jurymen 
let their hats down from the window above, get them filled 
with ginger-bread, and a jug of beer sent up by a rope. About 
four or five o'clock the crowd began to start for home. 




Spotswood's Expedition of 1716 and the University 
Pageant of 1909. 

All Virginians, and doubtless all Americans, are familiar 
with the expedition Gov. Alexander Spotswood, with a 
party of 20 or 30, made across the Blue Ridge in 1716, leaving 
Williamsburg August 20, and reaching Williamsburg, on the 
return, September 17. 

John Fontaine, one of the party, tells in his journal of 
the party drinking the health of the King and the royal family 
on top of the mountain, Sept. 5, and of their coming down into 
the valley in the evening. On the 6th they crossed the river; 
on the 7th they went back over the mountain. 

There is some confusion in Fontaine's account; but it is 
generally agreed that Spotswood and his party came over 
the Ridge at Swift Run Gap, and down to the river at or near 
Elkton. Says Fontaine: 

We crossed the river, which we called Euphrates. It is very deep; 
the main course of the water is north; it is fourscore yards wide in the 
narrowest part. We drank some healths on the other side, and returned; 
after which I went a swimming in it. We could not find any f ordable place, 
except the one by which we crossed, and it was deep in several places. 
I got some grasshoppers and fished; and another and I, we catched a dish 
of fish, some perch, and a fish they called chub. The others went a 
hunting, and killed deer and turkeys. The Governor had graving irons, 
but could not grave any thing, the stones were so hard. I graved my 
name on a tree by the river side; and the Governor buried a bottle with a 
paper inclosed, on which he writ that he took possession of this place in 
the name and for King George the First of England. We had a good 
dinner, and after it we got the men together, and loaded all their arms, 
and we drank the King's health in Burgundy, and fired a volley, and all 
the rest of the Royal Family in claret, and a volley. We drank the 
Governor's health and fired another volley. We had several sorts of 


liquors, viz. , Virginia red wine and white wine, Irish usquebaugh, brandy, 
shrub, two sorts of rum, champaign, canary, cherry, punch, water, cider, 
etc. —From John Fontaine's Journal of Sept. 6, 1716. 

In 1724 Hugh Jones wrote of the Spotswood expedition 
as follows: 

Governor Spotswood, when he undertook the great discovery of the 
Passage over the Mountains, attended with a sufficient guard, and pioneers 
and gentlemen, with a sufficient stock of provision, with abundant fatigue 
passed these Mountains, and cut his Majesty's name in a rock upon the 
highest of them, naming it Mount George; and in complaisance the gen- 
tlemen, from the Governor's name, called the mountain next in height 
Mount Alexander. 

For this expedition they were obliged to provide a great quantity of 
horse shoes, (things seldom used in the lower parts of the country, where 
there are few stones;) upon which account the Governor, upon their return, 
presented each of his companions with a golden horse shoe, (some of 
which I have seen studded with valuable stones, resembling the heads of 
nails,) with this inscription on the one side: Sic juvat transcendere 
mantes; and on the other is written the tramontane order. 

This he instituted to encourage gentlemen to venture backwards, 
and make discoveries and new settlements; any gentleman being entitled 
to wear this Golden Shoe that can prove his having drunk his Majesty's 
health upon Mount George. 

Tradition says that Stephen Harnsberger came over with 
Spotswood, or shortly after him. The Harnsbergers were 
among the early settlers about Elkton. Stephen Harnsberger, 
it is said, gave his gold horseshoe to a younger Stephen 
Harnsberger, who went to Georgia in 1792 or 1793. Jos. M. 
C. Harnsberger, late of Port Republic, saw this horseshoe 
while on a visit to Georgia.^ 

In 1909 the teachers of Rockingham, in attendance upon 
the University of Virginia summer school, personated Spots- 
wood and his knights in the 4th of July historical pageant, 
participated in by 1000 persons from more than 20^different 
States. Prof. C. J. Heatwole played the Governor. A song 
written for the occasion, "Rockingham," was sung to the 
tune, "Die WachtamRhein."3 

1. Related to me by Capt. J. S. Harnsberger (page 360). 

2- On Spotswood's expedition, see Wayland's "German Element," pp. 



The Coming of the Lincolns. 

In 1903 Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Lincoln Pennybacker 
(page 295) told me that some time prior to the Revolution 
John Lincoln came from Pennsylvania and bought land on 
Linville Creek. The place is a short distance below Wenger's 
Mill. The house now occupied by Mr. S. M. Bowman, built 
about 1800 by Capt. Jacob Lincoln (1751-1822) , is at or near 
the original Lincoln homestead. The old Lincoln graveyard 
is nearby on the hill. 

John Lincoln had five sons, Abraham, John, Jacob, Thomas, 
and Isaac. Jacob (Capt. Jacob), grandfather of Mrs. Penny- 
backer, was the only one of the five to remain in Virginia. 
Abraham, with his little son Thomas, aged about 4, went in 
1781 or 1782 to Kentucky. Abraham Lincoln, later President, 
was born in Kentucky Feb. 12, 1809, when Thomas was 
about 31. 

Daniel Boone on Linville Creek. 

In the spring of 1750, when Daniel Boone was 15 or 16, 
his parents left Pennsylvania for North Carolina. It was 
autumn, 1751, a year and a half later, before they reached 
their destination. Tradition says they tarried for a year or 
more in what is now Rockingham County, Va. — on Linville 
Creek, six miles north of Harrisonburg.^ It is understood that 
the Boones and the Lincolns were acquaintances in Pennsyl- 
vania. If the Lincolns had already come to Virginia, the 
Boones were doubtless their guests on Linville Creek; if the 
Lincolns followed, they may have been directed to Linville 
Creek by the Boones. The Bryans were also early residents 
on Linville Creek, and the William Bryan who married Boone's 
sister probably went to North Carolina from this section. 
There is also a tradition that Henry Miller, founder of Miller's 

7, 8; on the 1909 pageant see Charlottesville Daily Progress, July 9, 1909; 
Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 11, 1909; U. Va. Alumni Bulletin, 
October, 1909. 

3. Thwaites' Daniel Boone, pp. 15-17; Bruce's Daniel Boone and the 
Wilderness Road, pp. 13, 14. 



Iron Works on Mossy Creek, was a cousin to Boone, and 
hunted and trapped with him over this region about 1750.* 

Valentine Sevier's Sale Bill. 

Reference has already been made (p. 349) to Valentine 
Sevier's numerous land sales on and near Smith's Creek and 
Long Meadow from 1753 to 1773. The following document, 
recorded at Staunton, is apropos. It shows, for one thing, 
that Sevier (father of Gen. John Sevier) was in 1763 a resident 
of what is now Shenandoah County. Possibly this was about 
the time his son founded New Market. 

Know all men by these presents that I Valentine Severe of Frederick 
County & Collony of Virginia farmer for & in Consideration of the sum 
of forty two pounds Ten Shillings and Seven pence Current Lawfull 
money of Virginia to me in hand paid by Andrew bird of Augusta County 
in Colony af oresd. Miller5 where of I do hereby acknowledge the Receipt 
and my Self therewith fully & Entirely Satisfied have Bargained Sold 
Set over & Delivered and by these presents in plain & open market — 
according to the just and true form of Law in that case made and 
provided do bargain Sell Set over and Deliver into the sd. Andrew Bird 
and his heirs Exrs. admrs. and assigns The Following Cattle Goods and 
Chatties Viz five Cows one with a young calf a two year Old heifer & 
three yearlings four feather Beds with all their Coverings & furniture to 
them belonging withall my hogs and all my wearing apparral and all the 
Pewter and all other my housefumiture withall my Iron pots and pans & 
three Smooth Bore Guns And every part and parcel of my movable Estate 
too tedious to mention in particulars all my Tools and Implements of 
Husbandry &c To Have and to Hold the said Bargained premises unto 
the said Andrew Bird his heirs Exrs. Admrs. & Assigns to the only proper 
use and Behoof of the said Andrew Bird his Exrs. Adminrs. and Assigns 
forever And I the sd. Valentine Sevire for myself my heirs Exrs. & 
adminrs. the said Bargained Premises unto Andrew Bird his heirs Exrs. 
& Administrators and assigns against all and all manner of persons Shall 
and will warrant and for ever Defend by these presents In Witness 
whereof together with the Delivery of these premises I have hereunto 
Set my hand and Seal This Eighteenth Day of April in the year of our 
Lord one Thousand Seven hundred and Sixty three 1763 

Sealed and Delivered Valentine Sevire (L. S.) 

in presence of 

Nicholas Zeehon 

John Phillips 

4. See Wayland's "German Element," page 206. 

5. Bird's mill was on Smith's Creek, a short distance above New 
Market, just across the line in what is now Rockingham County. 



The Influenza of 1807. 

In December, 1807, Dr. Peachy Harrison, of Harrisonburg, 
wrote a scientific paper for the Philadelphia Medical Museum. 
More than a hundred years later, without my searching for 
it, or even having known of it, a copy of this paper came to 
my hand. It deals mainly with the influenza epidemic of 
1807, but also gives many interesting facts about Rocking- 
ham a hundred years ago. Accordingly, certain paragraphs, 
chiefly the first, are herewith presented. 

Rockingham, of which Harrisonburg is the county-town, and distant 
from Philadelphia about 260 miles, is bounded on the north-west by the 
North Mountain, from which the Shenandoah River derives several im- 
portant branches; and on the south-east by the Blue Ridge, which are 
distant fi'om each other between twenty and thirty miles. The soil, 
throughout a great portion of the county, is calcareous, and is well 
adapted to the cultivation of wheat, rye, maize, red clover, and, in the 
low grounds formed by the small creeks, where argil predominates, timothy 
and blue grass constitute excellent meadows. This district of country 
abounds with perennial springs; but the water they yield holds so much 
lime in solution, or, to use the common phrase, is so hard, as to require 
breaking, before it is fit to be used in washing clothes; for, when this 
precaution is not taken, the soap is decomposed, and its cleansing power 
entirely destroyed. Fruit of every kind is an uncertain crop, except 
along the mountains, and there, apples in many orchards are rendered 
unfit for use, by what is called the bitter rot, a disease of which the cause, 
so far as I have been able to learn, has not been well ascertained. 
Whether the default in the fruit arises from some cause inherent in the 
tree, or some external source unconnected with the condition of the tree, 
is matter, it seems to me, of great doubt. The evil, however, is a 
serious one; and one that renders the rearing of an apple orchard, in this 
country, at this time, a labour of uncertain advantage. 6 This disease of 
apple orchards was unknown till of late years. Orchards are said to have 
been much less injured by it this season than they were several seasons 


South winds are generally the precursors of our rains; northeast- 
wardly winds bring our deep snows; and those from the north-west ac- 
company dry, and are perhaps the cause of our coldest weather; these 
prevail through a large portion of the year. All our hurricanes come 

6. Science, or blind chance and time, controlled by a beneficent Provi- 
dence, has certainly wrought encouraging changes in Rockingham orchards 
since 1807. 



from this direction; they were more frequent and destructive last spring 
than they were ever known before in this country. Bilious fevers are 
not natives of our soil. We had our share of them, however, in the ex- 
traordinary autumn of 1804. In common seasons, pure remittents and 
intermittents are scarcely known, at least as generated by causes existing 
in our own country: they have been caught in other places. We are occa- 
sionally visited by fevers, but they mostly prevail in cold weather, and 
are of typhous character. In the winter of 1805-6, cases of this fever 
were frequent, and, in every instance of which I had any knowledge, 
they appeared to me to be the offspring of domestic filthiness. They 
occurred, in every instance, in circumstances favourable to the accumu- 
lation and putrification of human excretions, viz: in crowded and unven- 
tilated cabins, and in families not remarkable for their cleanliness.? 

The winter of 1806-7 was among the severest ever experienced in this 
latitude. In the months of March and April, a catarrh, accompanied with 
more or less pneumonic symptoms, prevailed pretty generally through the 
town and its vicinity. It resembled, in almost every important particu- 
lar, the late influenza. The most remarkable differences were, more acute 
pains of the thorax, a more obstinate cough, and requiring a more free 
use of the lancet 

It was remarkably healthy, both in town and country, from the last 
of April until the appearance of the influenza, which was about the 8th 
of September. My colleague. Dr. Cravens, and Mr. Benjamin Smith 
were the first subjects of it, within the circle of my acquaintance and 
observation. They had returned, on the evening of the 5th, from Tyger's 
Valley, distant from this, in a north-west direction, about a hundred 
miles. On the evening of the 8th Dr. Cravens was seized with chilliness, 
soreness in his muscles, pains in his head and bones; coryza, fever, and 
cough soon succeeded. The pain of the head was seated over the right 
eye, and was the most distressing of all his symptoms. On the morning 
of the 9th, Mr. Benjamin Smith, who lives two miles out of town, saw 
him; in the evening of the same day he was seized with symptoms of 
influenza. They saw on their journey no complaint similar to, or what 
they had a right to believe was the influenza. They saw no one labouring 
under it after their return. From this time until the 11th, I knew of no 
other cases in either town or county, and have good reason to believe 
there were none; for at this time we had begun to expect its appearance, 
having heard that it had successively attacked Winchester, Woodstock, 
and New Market. ***** Very soon after its appearance in 
town [Harrisonburg], it fell on the adjoining neighborhoods, and, by the 
12th of October, it was only heard of in the remotest parts of the county, 

7. It is hoped and believed that the progress of a century in Rocking, 
ham has been attended with as much improvement in domestic conditions 
as in fruit growing. 



and had entirely disappeared by tiie 23rd of this month. The comet was 
not observed in this place until about the 26th of September, and was 
no more to be seen after the 12th of November. There was a deficiency 
of rain during the months of October and November. The wind generally 
stood north-west. 

A Case of Body Snatching. 

An extract from the reminiscences of Maria Graham 
Carr. The time referred to is about 1820. 

There were two men hanged in Harrisonburg. Ben Hopkins was 
hung on top of the hill where Sherdlins' vineyard was afterward located. 8 
Sprouce, who killed his wife in Fluvanna Co., was brought to Harrison- 
burg, tried, condemned, and hung in the woods back of Mr. Rutherford's 
house [east of town]. I saw the procession pass on its way to the gallows: 
Sprouce, with several preachers, among them Mr. Smith, who sat 
beside him on the coffin, talking to him. As it was raining, Mr. Smith 
took off his overcoat and put it around Sprouce's shoulders, talking to 
him and trying to make him understand his condition; but Sprouce took 
no heed, but was looking at the crowd. His wagon was surrounded by 
fifty mounted soldiers, well armed. Then came hundreds of men and 
women whipping up their horses, trying to get as near as they could to 
the wagon. I could not bear to look at it, only for a few moments. 
The medical students came from Staunton, with a covered carry-all, 
determined to have Sprouce's body. As soon as the hanging was over 
they buried the body right under the gallows. The Harrisonburg 
students wanted the body and were determined to have it if they had to 
fight for it. The Staunton students took up the body as soon as the 
people were gone, and hid it in some brush wood. The Harrisonburg 
students, after having searched for some time, found the body, put it 
across a horse, and went four or five miles around on the west side of the 
town, and hid the body in Mr. Gibbon's tan house. Afterwards the 
body was taken to the log house where I went to school, where it was 
then skinned and [the skin] tanned. The Presbyterian prayer meeting 
was held every Wednesday evening in this log house, and we did not 
know that Sprouce's body was above us. 

A Rockinghamer's Visit to Philadelphia in 1847. 

We took the cars about 14 miles below Cumberland [they had ridden 
horseback to that point from West Rockingham] and went the same day 
to Baltimore, a distance of 160 or 170 miles: the scenery on the road was 
highly interesting, varied— and sublime. Baltimore is a place of great 
trade — the shipping is very extensive. In the morning when we left 

8. See pages 238, 365. 


Ruins of Mt. Vernun Furnace 
[ Piige STitJ 

Where Meigs Fell I Pages IJU, i:y] 
The spot is marked by the children 

Round Hill, The P'alls, and the Wool Mills, Bridgew ater 
By permission of E. G. Furry 

A Glimps into Brock's Gap 

(Page 21) 

Lincoln (Jraveyard 

Silver Lake, Dayton, and Mole Hill 


Baltimore, we passed many Wharfs with immense shipping, for the 
distance of between one and two miles. — The scenery, from Baltimore to 
Philadelphia was beautiful and sublime. Much of the way you have 
the Chesapeake bay in view, and cross a bridge 1 J miles long over a river, 
or rather arm of the bay; and another Bridge of f miles long. Soon 
after, we crossed the Susquehannah River on a steam boat, and ere 
long came in sight of Delaware River, which we had often in view until 
we arrived at Philadelphia. This is a city— the beauty and grandeur of 
which baffles description— the elegance and size of its houses — the beauty 
and cleanliness of its streets — and the handsome and splendid manner 
which they have in displaying their goods, through window lights of from 
4 to 7 feet long and proportionably wide! Here we also saw ships of an 
enormous size: many more things might be mention (ed) among which are 
the State House, Gerard College and the Fairmount Waterworks, where 
by machinery, the water is elevated up a prodigious height into basons, 
to supply the whole City with water. Should I be spared and blest 
with health a few years longer I think of visiting Philadelphia once 
more: especially if I succeed in selling my Musical Map or Scale. —i^rom 
a letter written March 26, 18^7, by Joseph Funk of Rockingham County, 
Va., to his daughter in Missouri. 

Death of Ashby: 1862. 

On the evening of June 6, 1862, Gen. Turner Ashby was 
shot and killed while leading an infantry charge against the 
Pennsylvania Bucktails. The place of his death, now marked 
by a monument, is about two miles south of Harrisonburg. 
(See pages 141, 179, 318. ) Gen. Thos. L. Kane, commanding 
the Bucktails, a brother of the famous arctic explorer, Elisha 
Kent Kane, was captured; and at the same time, in a cavalry 
fight near at hand, Ashby's men, led by Munford, captured 
Sir Percy Wyndham, whose highest ambition was to capture 

Ashby's body lay next day in the house of Dr. Geo. W. 
Kemper, Port Republic, wrapped in the Confederate flag. 
Col. O'Ferrall says that at evening the flag and bier were 
wet with the tears of strong men. The next day, Sunday, 
June 8, while Cross Keys was being fought, the body was 
taken to Charlottesville and buried. 

On October 10, 1912, when the Daughters of the Confeder- 
acy of Virginia, in convention at Harrisonburg, went out to 
<iecorate the Ashby monument, there was in the company one, 



Mrs. J. E. Alexander, who, fifty years before, had followed 
Ashby's body to the grave at Charlottesville. 

Stonewall Jackson at Port Republic. 

It is said that on the morning of June 8, 1862, before the 
battle of Cross Keys opened, Jackson, who was at Madison 
Hall, the guest of Dr. G. W. Kemper, was cut off from the 
North River bridge at Port Republic by a detachment of 
Shields' men, who seized the village and planted a battery at 
the village end of the bridge; and that Jackson, wearing a 
rain-coat over his uniform, dashed up, ordered the battery to 
another position, and thus got the opportunity to cross the 
bridge to his own men.^ Whether he actually got the Federal 
battery moved by his order or not, there seems to be no 
doubt that he most narrowly escaped capture. 

The KUling of John Kline: 1864. 

Elder John Kline, a prominent minister of the Dunker 
Church (page 250) , was distinguished for high character and 
good works, but his goings and comings upon missions of his 
office aroused the suspicions of an evil time, and when he did 
not heed either the threats of foes or the warnings of friends 
he was waylaid and shot. The deed was committed near his 
home, near Broadway, June 15, 1864. He was a martyr to 
duty and the works of peace. ^^ 

The Death of Meigs: 1864. 

The three Confederate scouts referred to on page 148, 
above, were Frank Shaver, Campbell, and Martin. Shaver, 
who lived near Pleasant Valley, and who died in 1895, was 
the one who killed Meigs. He and his companions were 
planning to get on the high hills between the Warm Springs 
Pike and the Valley Pike, to locate the Federals by their 
night campfires, and would gladly have ridden away from 
Meigs and his companions without firing a shot. Shaver, 

9. See Mauzy's Genealogical Record, pp. 37, 38; also, pp. 142, 143, 

10. See Zigler's History of the Brethren, pp. 143, 144. 


biniNt-Y LANIER. 
Page (4H5) 


Campbell, and Martin left the Pike, by the old east-going 
road, near D. T. Click's. Meigs and his men followed, 
crossed the line now occupied by the C.-W. Railroad, and 
mounted the first terrace of the hill. Then the Confederates 
turned, and in a moment the fight was over. Martin was 
wounded. He was taken by Shaver and Campbell to Robt. 
Wright's, near Spring Creek, where he was attended by Dr. 
T. H. B. Brown (page 316)." 

The Thurman Movement. 

Wm. C. Thurman, who died in Richmond almshouse in 
1906, was a notable figure in Rockingham for many years. 
First a Baptist, he joined the Dunker Church at Greenmount 
in 1865, and was at once put into the ministry. Soon he 
began to preach new doctrines, and to fix a time, near at 
hand, for the second Advent. He won followers — perhaps a 
hundred— chiefly good people; and in time he was expelled 
from the church. He and his followers continued their 
activities, and the movement culminated in September, 1868, 
when, upon the appointed day, the saints assembled at a farm 
house near Dayton, to await the Lord's coming. The day 
passed, the evening came, but not the fulfilment of the 
leader's prophecy. A second time was fixed, and a second 
expectation failed, when, in April, 1875, a small company 
waited long at a well known home near Harrisonburg. 
Thurman was in the county occasionally as late as 1878, 
perhaps later. 

Sidney Lanier at Rockingham Springs. 

Sidney Lanier, the great Southern poet and musician, 
spent six weeks at Rockingham Springs, near McGaheysville, 
in the summer of 1879, and wrote there his splendid book, 
"Science of EngHsh Verse." The cottage he and his family 
occupied is still standing, and the room in which he worked 
is very much as he left it. The summer was full of varied 

11. See Rockingham Daily Record, April 8, 1912; O'Ferrall's Forty 
Years of Active Service, pp. 128, 129. 



incidents that give charm and color to the poet's notable 
achievement. In literature, Rockingham has had no more 
pleasing distinction than that conferred upon her those rich 
summer days by Sidney Lanier. ^^ 

A Fence-Comer Council. 

In 1885, one evening in the dark, eight young men met 
in a fence corner, near Dale Enterprise, and sat on a log. 
They were tired but not exhausted; they were in the dark, but 
were seeking light. They organized a society for mutual 
improvement: they decided to buy books and read them, 
and to talk together of what they read. In Hartman's 
carpenter shop, in Heatwole's wash house, somewhere they 
continued to meet, some walking three miles to the place. 
Their motives were misunderstood, their aims questioned, 
the outcome dreaded, and they were often in straits; but 
finally a man built them a house, and a woman became their 
**god-mother." The society lived about 20 years, and grew 
in numbers and in favor. 

This is history, not a fairy tale. One of the original 
eight is dean of the dental department of the University of 
Maryland; another was lately chairman of the board of 
supervisors of Rockingham County; another is an educator 
known over Virginia. Of those who came in later, one is a 
distinguished pulpit orator, another a writer of national 
reputation; and many are filling honorable places worthily. 
I give as many names as I have been able to find: 

The Eight: T. 0. Heatwole, Frank A. Heatwole, C. J. 
Heatwole, Aldine Heatwole, John J. Heatwole, John R. 
Swartz, Wm. T. Swartz, L. F. Ritchie. 

Of those who came in later: D. Hopkins Ralston, W. J. 
Showalter, D. I. Suter, P. G. Suter, E. J. Suter, Chas. Senger. 
Henry Senger. 

Miss iTyreetta P. Minnich, a teacher, was god-mother; 
and Mr. David A. Heatwole built the house. — See page 224. 

13. See "Sidney Lanier at Rockingham Springs," an illustrated. 
Tolume published in 1912 by Ruebush-ElkinsJCo.,, Dayton, iVa. 



The first piano in Rockingham (John Graham's) was 
bought in London in 1805 for £100. Mrs. M. G. Carr, 
Graham's granddaughter, gave it in 1888 to the Chicago His- 
torical Society. 

It is said that the successful conclusion of the War of 
1812 was celebrated by the people of Rockingham in a barbe- 
cue on the top of Mole Hill. An ox-roast was the chief 
feature, the poor beast having been spared long enough to 
carry his own weight to the summit. ^^ 

In 1842 an Act of Assembly was passed allowing Henry 
Juett Gray, son of Robt. Gray, to have a slave, Randolph, 
taught to read and write. Young Gray was blind. Wishing 
to become a teacher of the blind, he needed a servant who 
could read and write. His father, Robert Gray, undertook 
to indemnify the public against any possible injury which 
might result from the slave's misconduct. 

During the last year 2,000 lbs. of walnut kernels were shipped by- 
rail from Broadway depot in this County. They sold in the Baltimore 
market at 30 cents per pound, bringing the handsome sum of $600 for 
these small and seemingly worthless things. These walnut kernels were 
gathered mainly by poor children in Brock's Gap who had no other way 
in which to turn an honest penny. They are used in making candy. — 
Rockingham Register, January 10, 1873. 

In April, 1875, Lewiston, the brick mansion below Port 
Republic, formerly the home of Gen. S. H. Lewis, was burned. 

In June, 1878, "the crop of hay on the Court House Green 
brought three dollars and the purchaser gathered it." 

On November 27, 1878, Peter Paul was drowned in Dry 
River; four days later William Lewis, brother of Sen. John 
F. Lewis, was drowned in the South Shenandoah River. 

As late as 1879 pig iron was hauled to Harrisonburg from 
Shenandoah Iron Works (Page County). In early days iron 
ore was hauled from Dale Enterprise to Miller's Iron Works 
on Mossy Creek. 

In 1879 the Moffett Liquor Law of Virginia was adopted 
in Texas, and the Moffett bell-punch register was ordered 
from Virginia in large quantities. — Moffett was a Rocking- 
hamer (pages 357, 358). 

13. Rev. L. J. Heatwole, of near Mole Hill, relates this. 



At the January court, 1881, 476 sleighs were reported 
in Harrisonburg. (See page 174. ) 

In the summer of 1909 the annual meeting of the Church 
of the Brethren brought together at Assembly Park, near 
Harrisonburg, over 30,000 people— the largest assembly ever 
in the county. 

In this connection it may be appropriate to chronicle the 
visits of certain famous men to Rockingham County. 

Mrs. Carr heard Lorenzo Dow preach in the northeast 
corner of the court yard, and saw the Grand Duke of Saxe- 
Weimar, Andrew Jackson, and Henry Clay pass through 

In March, 1866, and April, 1881, Dr. Geo. W. Bagby 
lectured in Harrisonburg; in October, 1866, B. J. Lossing 
was in Harrisonburg, at Cross Keys, Port Republic, and 
other places preparing his illustrated history of the war. In 
May, 1868, Gen. D. H. Hill lectured in Harrisonburg on 
"Southern Literature and the Southern People." In Sep- 
tember, 1868, Gen. Th. L. Price of Missouri was a visitor in 
the county; and in September, 1869, Gen. John B. Magruder 
lectured in Harrisonburg on "Mexico, Maximilian, and Car- 
lotta." In June, 1874, President Grant passed through, 
stopping a few minutes at the railway station. In July, 
1879, Gen. Wm. Mahone visited Harrisonburg, and in August 
following Gen. Beauregard was at Rawley Springs and Har- 
risonburg. In September, 1880, Zeb B. Vance made a couple 
of political speeches in Harrisonburg; in October, 1883, Fitz- 
hughLee spoke on Court Square; and in 1884 Dr. J. L. M. 
Curry lectured in Harrisonburg. In 1884 Dr. T. DeW. Tal- 
mage was at Rawley, and on July 29, 1896, he spoke at As- 
sembly Park. Sam Jones was here frequently in the 90's. 
John W. Daniel spoke in the county in 1891, 1894, 1896, and 
1897. In August, 1895, Gen. John B. Gordon delivered his 
lecture, "Last Days of the Confederacy," at Assembly Park. 
On Oct. 15, 1897, Eduard Remenyi played in Harrisonburg. 
In May, 1899, President McKinley passed through the Val- 
ley, stopping awhile in Harrisonburg. 



The best conclusion to any book is doubtless the one that 
the intelligent reader draws for himself after reading the 
book. Accordingly, not many words by the author are 
deemed necessary in this place. It is hoped that the re- 
sources of the County, together with the versatility of the 
people, have been effectively indicated, if not adequately de- 
tailed. The wealth and scope of both have been a growing 
wonder from the beginning of this study to the end. Our 
county has great resources, and our people have great pow- 
ers: both facts have been proved sufficiently to be a stirring 
prophecy for the future, and to set a call of duty and respon- 
sibility ringing in the soul of every man and woman, every 
boy and girl, within these wide borders. 

Not merely our flocks and farms, but our churches, our 
schools, and our homes have made Rockingham a goodly land 
in which to dwell. These are the bulwarks of our safety and 
happiness, and the towers of our strength to help Virginia 
and the world. It was free manhood and true womanhood 
that enabled Rockingham to rise so quickly in new strength 
from "wild war's desolation"; it is free manhood and true 
womanhood that must ever be our best resource, either in 
the face of external foes or in the midst of internal dangers. 


It must be understood that the lists of sheriflfs and members ot the 
General Assembly are more or less incomplete and subject to correction. 
Tke original records are all difficult, and some are incomplete. While all 
the following lists are known to be correct in most cases, it has not been 
possible to verify them in some instances. 


1778: Silas Hart 
1778-9: Josiah Davison 
1779: Abraham Smith 
1780: George Boswell 
1781: Thomas Hewitt 
1782: Isaac Hinckle 
1783-5: John Thomas 
1785: William Nalle 
1786: Robert Davis 
1787: Benj. Harrison 
1788: John Davis 
1789: William Herring 
1790-2: Andrew Shanklin 
1793: Wm. Dunlap 
1794-5: Layton Yancey 
1796-9: Ezek. Harrison 
1800: John Ewin 
1801-2: Benj. Harrison 
1803-4: Andrew Shanklin 
1805: William Herring 
1806-7: Joseph Baxter 
1808-9: Asher Waterman 
1810-12: St. C. Kirtley 
181i-14: Charles Lewis 
1814-16: EEek. Harrison 
1816-18: George Huston 
1818-20: Walter Davis 
1820-22: Arch. Rutherford 

1822-24: George Dove 
1824-26: Peachy Harrison 
1826-28: Giles Turley 
1828-30: Jonathan Shipmar 
1831-32: Joseph Baxter 
1833-34: Daniel Mathews 
1835-36: David Henton 
1837: R. P. Fletcher 
1838: David Henton 
1839-40: R. P. Fletcher 
1841-42: J. D. Williamson 
1843-44: J. H. Campbell 
1847-48: S. H. Lewis 
1849-50: Anderson Moffett (?) 
1851-52: G. W. Kemper 
1853-56: A. S. Byrd 
1857-60: J. R. Koogler 
1861-64: Y. C. Ammon 
1865: J. R. Koogler 

R. Allebaugh 
C. Sterling 
A. Hammen 
J. P. Ralston 
D. H. Ralston 
1883-87: J. H. Shipp 
1887-95: V. H. Lam 
1895-07: J. A. Switzer 
1908 — : E. J. Carickhoff 

1866-68: S. 
1868-70: O 
1870: J 


Prior to 1870 the sheriflts handled the county money. 
1871-76: S. R. Allebaugh 1899-1011: M W. Carpenter 

1877-85: S. R. Sterling 1911: Geo. B. Keezell 

1886-99: P. W. Reherd 1912 — : P. W. Reherd 


From 1778 to 1852 the county court was composed of a number of 
Justices appointed by the Governor; from 1852 to 1869 it was composed ot 
a similar body of justices elected by the people; from 1869 to 1870 the body 
of justices held office by military appointment, under the Reconstruction 
Acts; and in April, 1870, the system of county courts, presided over by a 
single justice, went into operation. 

James Kenney, 1870-1873 Robert Johnston, 1880-1885 

Chas. T. O'Ferrall, 1874-1879 George G. Grattan, 1886-1904 


Hugh Holmes, 1809-1811 
Daniel Smith, 1811-1850 

G. B. .Samuels. 1850-1852 


John Kenney, 1852-1860 Robert H. Turner. 1870-1875 

J. W. F. Allen. 1860-1865 Mark Bird, 1875-1883 

Richard Parker, 1865-1866 J. G. Newman, 1883-1884 

John T. Harris, 1866-1869 William McLaughlin, 1884-1898 

Thomas S. Hargest, 1869-1870 S. H. Letcher, 1898-1906 

T. N. Haas, 1906 


Peter Hog, April 27, 1778, to about Henry Jewett Gambill. 1817-1847 

Jan. 1, 1782 L. W. Gambill (pro tern.). 1848 

Thomas Lewis, pro tem., Feb. 18, Erasmus Coffman, 1848-1852 

1782 L. W. Gambill, 1852-1869 

Richard Mathews, pro tem., Feb. 25, Robert A. Gray, 1869-1870 

1782 A. St. Clair Sprinkel, 1870-1871 

Henry Ewing, Feb. 25, 1782, to 1792 Wm. McK. Wartmann, 1871-1872 

Samuel McWilliams, 1792-1817 Joseph T. Logan, 1872-1885 

Joseph S. Messerley, 1885-1904 


Henry J. Gambill, April 24, 1809, to A. L. Lindsey, 1869-1870. 

May 11, 1847. F. A. Daingerfleld, 1870-1872. 

Littleton W. Gambill, May 11, 1847, L. W. Gambill, 1872-1875. 

to July 1, 1852. Joseph H. Shue, 1875-1883. 

A. St. Clair Sprinkel. 1852-1869. A. N. Black, 1883-1887. 

D. H. Lee Martz, 1887 . 


Oabriel Jones, 1778-1793. Thomas L. Yancey, 1859-1862. 

David Holmes, 1793-1797. John C. Woodson, 1862-1865. 

James Allen, 1797-1804. Wm. H. Efflnger 1865-1869. 

Daniel Smith, 1804-1811. Chas, H. Lewis, 1869-1870. 

Robert Gray, 1811-1847. J. N. Liggett, 1870-1871. 

Herring Chrisman, 1847-1852. John Paul, 1871-1877. 

(Co. Ct.) Geo. G. Grattan, 1877-1881. 

John Kenney, 1847-1852. Chas. D. Harrison, 1881-1899. 

(Cir. Ct.) Geo. N. Conrad, 1899-1912. 

John T. Harris, 1852-1859. Chas. D. Harrison, 1912 . 


1870-2 — Geo. W. Holland. 1876-83— Jasper Hawse. 

1872-5 — Jos. S. Loose. 1883-6 — A. P. Funkhouser. 

1886 Geo. H. Hulvey. 


1778-1789: Thomas Lewis. 1863-1870: J. H. Ralston. 

1789-1825: Alexander Herring. 1870-1872: Geo. J. Kisling. 

1825-1835: Gordon McWilliams. 1873 : A. C. Bear. 

1835-1849: Joseph Mauzy. 1883: Edw. S. Kemper. 

1849 : H. B. Harnsberger. 1883-1887: Wm. B. Yancey. 

1853: Peter Paulsel. 1887-1903: Jasper Hawse. 

1853-1863: H. B. Harnberger. 1903 : Jos. G. Myers. 


1779 — John Smith, Silas Hart. 
1780 — Silas Hart, John Grattan. 
1781-3— Wm. Nalle, Benj. Harrison. 
1784 — Gabriel Jones, John Hopkins. 
1785-7 — Gawen Hamilton, John Hopkins. 
1788 — John Hopkins, Geo. Huston. 
1791 — Francis Kertley, Geo. Baxter. 
1793 — John Hopkins, George Huston. 



1794 — Geo. Baxter, (Seo. Huston. 

1795-7— Geo. Klrtley, John Wayt. 

1797-8 — John Koontz, Walter Davis. 

1799-03 — Geo. Huston, BenJ. Harrison. 

1803-06 — H. J. Gamble, Daniel Smith. 

1807-11— Arch. Rutherford. 

1810-16 — Arch. Rutherford, Wm. Bryan. 

1817-18— J. D. Williamson, Wm. Bryan. 

1818-19 — Jos. Mauzy. Andrew MofCett. 

1820-21 — Daniel Mathews, John Henry. 

1822-23— John Koontz, R. P. Fletcher. 

1824 — Arch. Rutherford, John Koontz. (?) 

1825— Arch. Rutherford, Jos. Cline. 

1826— Jos. Cline. Wm. McMahon. 

1827 — Samuel H. Lewis, Jos. Cline. 

1828— Samuel H. Lewis, Wm. McMahon. 

1829-33- Wm. McMahon, Jos. Cline. 
' ; 1834 — J. J. Moorman, A. Waterman. 

1835 — J. J. Moorman, Jos. Cline. 
; 1836— A. Moffett, J. Conrad. 

1837— A. Moffett, Saml. Cootes. 

1838 — S. Cootes, Isaac Thomas. 

1839 — Isaac Thomas, Ed. H. Smith. 

1840-42— Ed. H. Smith, Jas. C. Shipman. 

1842-3 — S. Cootes. Geo. E. Deneale. 

1844-5 — S. Cootes, Hiram Martz. 

1846 — Hiram Martz, St. C. D. Kirtley. 

1847 — Naason Bare, Brown. 

1848 — Naason Bare. H. Martz. 

1849 — H. Martz, Addison Harper. 

1850-51— H. Martz. W. B. Yancey. 

1852-53— H. Martz, N. Bare, W. G. Stevens. 

1853-55 — H. Martz, W. G. Stevens, J. M. R. Sprinkle. 

1857— J. M. R. Sprinkle. J. G. Brown. W. B. Yancey. 

1858— H. Martz, A. Harper. W. G. Stevens. 

1861 — Chas. Grattan. Reuben N. Harrison. 

1862-3 — Chas. Grattan, John C. Woodson, J. H. Hopkins. 

1864-5 — John T. Harris, John C. Walker, Jas. Kenney. 

1866-7 — J. C. Woodson, H. B. Harnsberger. W. G. Thompson. 

1869-70 — H. B. Harnsberger, Philo Bradley. 

1871-2— Geo. E. Deneale, Chas. T. O'Ferrall. 

1873-4 — T. N. Sellers. E. J. Armstrong. 

1875-6— E. J. Armstrong, W. M. Sibert. 

1877-80— S. H. Moffett, R. N. Harrison. 

1881-2— H. B. Harnsberger, P. Herring. 

1883-4 — Geo. G. Grattan, John F. Soule. 

1885-6 — John Acker, J. B. Webb. 

1887-8— J. B. Webb, J. E. Sanger. 

1889-90 — Thos. K. Harnsberger, W. H. Blakemore. 

1891-93— W. H. Blakemore, C. E. Fahrney. 

1895-96 — B. G. Patterson. W. H. Zirkle. 

1897-8 — W. H. Blakemore, D. M. Switzer. 

1899-00 — B. G. Patterson, W. H. Blakemore. 

1900 — Frank Ralston. 

1901-2 — Geo. E. Sipe, J. T. Robson. 

1903-4 — J. T. Robson. H. M. Rogers. 

1905-8- H. M. Rodgers, P. B. F. Gtood. 

1909-10— P. B. F. Good, A. H. Snyder. 

1911-12 — C. H. Ralston, Geo. N. Earman. 


1780 — Sampson Mathews. 1820 — Daniel Bryan. 

1786-7— Thomas Adams. 1821— Robert Allen. 

17«1 — Sampson Mathews. 1822 — Daniel Bryan. 

1797— Alex. St. Clair. 1823-26— Robert Allen. 

1798 — John Oliver. 1827-30— Moses Walton. 

1799-1800 — Archd. Stuart. 1831-33 — Jos. Cravens. 

1806 — James Allen. 1834-37 — Wm. McMahon. 

1811-17— Chapman Johnson. 1838-45 — A. Moffett. 



1846-58 — Geo. E. Deneale. 
1859-63— J^ohn D. Pennybacker. 
1864-65 — Samuel A. Coffman. 
1866-68— A. S. Gray. 
1869-73— John E. Roller. 
1874-77— S. H. Moftett. 
1878-80— John Paul. 

1881-83— J. B. Webb. 
1884-87— Geo. B. Keezell. 
1888-91- John Acker. 
1892-95— Thos. K. Harnsberger. 
1896-1911— Geo. B. Keezell. 
1912 John Paul, Jr. 


1788 — Gabriel Jones, Thomas Lewis. 
1829— J. D. Williamson. Peachy Harrison. 

1851 — John Kenney, . 

1861— S. A. Coffman, J. F. Lewis, A. S. Gray. 
1867— J. N. Liggett, John C. Woodson. 
1901 — Geo. B. Keezell, Geo. N. Earman. 


The following items are taken from the records of the Peaked Moun- 
tain Church: 

Jacob Kropp 
Peter Miller 
George Shlllinger 
George Adam Mann 
Jacob Schaefer 
Christian Geiger, sr. 
Christian Geiger 
George Schaefer 

The following list 
County Clerk's office. 

Wm. Ireland 
John Brown 
Alexr. Hannah 
Robt. Gamble 
John Clough 
William Hogshead 
Josiah Harrison 
James Harris 
Jos. Haynes 
John Gregor 
Thomas Hughes 
Zerah Osborn 
James Sims 
John Arckenbrlght 
David Hogshead 
Wm. Holeman 
Jacob Lincoln 
Joseph Hall 
James Dyer 
James Allen 
William Bell 
Jno. Hawkins 
John McWilliams 
James Assent 
William Rice 
John Hopkins, jr. 
Samuel Johnston 
James Magill, jr. 
John Hunter, jr. 
John Pulton 
John Lewis 
Thomas Mackelvain 
- Peter Coger 
Jno. Cowan 
Jacob Kester 
Richard Reins 
Henry Nul 

Anna Barbara Metzer March 2. 1762 
Margaret Kropp March 2, 1762 

Anna Elisabeth Horning October, 1762 
Elisabeth Herrmann Dec. 7, 1762 

Daughter of P. Bietfisch June 27, 1796 
Widow Dindore Sept. G, 1796 

Emilia Schmidt Sept. 25, 1796 i 

Elisabeth Vogt Sept. 30, 1796 

is compiled from the records in the Rockingham 

Jennet Miller 
Prances Gartra 
Mary Laird 
Catharine Grattan 
Prances Price 
Sarah Robertson 
Mary Cravens 
Sarah Whitesides 
Jane Young 
Christian Huston 
Jane Lewis 
Mary Doniphan 
Sarah Sommers 
Elizabeth Bowen 
Agness Ralston 
Agness Shepherd 
Da reus Robinson 
Edith Herring 
Jane Rolestone 
Mary Herniche (?) 
Ann Balrd 

Anna Gabriella Jones 
Margaret Coffey 
Christian Swan 
Eleanor Denison 
Elizabeth Hopkins 
Mary Fulton 
Jane Pulton 
Elizabeth Ozman 
Jennet Dunn 
Mary Elsee 
Prances Price 
Mary Mackelvain 
Mary Craig 
Margaret Lear 
Theodisia ICastridge 
Marget Arey 


Aug. 21, 1778 
Aug. 25, 1778 
Sept. 21, 1778 
Feb. 6, 1779 
Feb. — , 1779 
May 25. 1779 
July 23, 1779 
July 26. 1779 
Oct. 9, 1779 
Oct. 26, 1779 
Nov. 6, 1779 
Dec. 10, 1779 
Feb. 19, 1780 
March 28, 1780 
March 28, 1780 
April 14, 1780 
Aug. 29, 1780 
Sept. 26, 1780 
Oct. 13, 1780 
Nov. 17, 1780 
Jan. 1, 1781 
Jan. 15, 1781 
Feb. 22, 1781 
March 5, 1781 
March 9, 1781 
March 20, 1781 
April 27, 1781 
May 28, 1781 
May, 1781 
June 23, 1781 
Aug. 17, 1781 
Sept. 3, 1781 
Sept. 3, 1781 
Sept. 11, 1781 
Oct. 1, 1781 
Oct. 12, 1781 
Nov. 8. 1781 


Arnold Custard 
John Slavin 
Frederick Nesslerod 
Isaac Hankie 
Arnold Kester 
Z^chariah Lee 
Fredrick Boot 
Robert Weeb 
William Leach 
Bngel Bours 
Andrew Shanklin 
Elijah Gartan 
Denis Lanahan 
Philip Hinckel 
William Crow 
Handle Vance 
W^m. Ralston 
Brewer Reeves 
Wm. Dunlap 
Robt. Poage 
David Hogshead 
Benjamin Erwin 
Wm. Devier 
Joseph Dunlap 
Bethuel Herring 
Nathan Lamb 
John Swartz (Black) 
Thos. Karr 
David Garvin 
Thomas Lincoln 
Alexander Gilmer 
George Pence 
Ferdinand Lair 
Stephen Ruddell 
Jacob Custar 
George Argenbright 
Henry Barter 
Samuel Magill 
George Rush 
John Brock 
Henry Gibson 
John Shankling 
William Blaln 
Robert Belshe 
John Pence 
John Rice 
David Rolstone 
Ludwick Stephen 
Peter Ferrel 
Peter Ferrol 
John Heaton 
Christian Rispe 
Robert Henry 
Thomas Gordon 
Frederick Hance 
John McElheney 
Thomas Gilmer 
Jacob Roadarmour 
John Lauk 
James Denison 
Jacob Hammond 
Richard Smith 
Charles McClean 
John Riddel 
Henry Sites 
Adam Bible 
Andrew Johnston 
Benja. Henton 
John Knave 
Danl. Benj. Bailey 

Margaret Woldredg 
Sarah Wade 

'Fulmore (Vallmer) 

Mary Cunningham 
Margaret Lair 
Jean Bright 
Christina Long 
Elizabeth Breeding 
Margaret Marks 
Catren Burckes 
Abigal Herring 
Sarah Boid 
Margaret Cravens 
Barbara Vallmer 
Hester Pettejohn 
Rebeckah Thomas 
Mary Hopkins 
Martha Smith 
Catharine Sites 
Mary Hopkins 
Cathrine Black 
Sarah Bruster 
Elizabeth Ewin 
Mary Black 
Mary Miller 
Nancy Ralston 
Barbara Sanger 
Jean Lewis 
Ann Cloverfleld 
Elizabeth Casner 
Esther Magill 
Margaret Carpenter 
Susanah Custard 
Sarah Bags 
Pheby Cutnar 
Elizabeth Black 
Jane Marshall 
Martha Shannon 
Mary Bushang 
Ann Jones 

Sarah Hester Gilbert 
Cathrine Franklin 
Margret Chesnut 
Mary Claney 
Barbara Zimerman 
Rebeckah Elliott 
Sarah Henton 
Anne Carpenter 
Jane Wilard 
Jean Whyatt 
Sarah Warden 
Mary Spears 
Margaret Magill 
Catherine Davis 
Franey Coffman 
Mary Lewis 
Elizabeth Lewis 
Katy Argabright 
Barbara Woolrige 
Hannah Fulton 
Elizabeth Guise 
Mary Dickey 
Margaret Dictum 
Deborah Bryan 
Mary Dunlap 
Modelean Shumaker 
Else Black 
Sarah Hopkins 
Susannah Shaver 
Lydia Goodpasture 


Nov. 21, 1781 (?) 
Nov. 23, 1781 
Nov. 23. 1781 
Nov. 26, 1781 
Nov. 28, 1781 
Dec. 3, 1781 
Dec. 4, 1781 
Dec. 18, nSI 
Jan. 2, 1782 
Jan. 3, 1782 
March 16, 1782 
March 16, 1782 
March 18, 1782 
April 5, 1782 
April 13, 1782 
April 15, 1782 
April 16, 1782 
April 21, 1782 
May 18, 1782 
June 17, 1782 
June 25, 1782 
lulv 23, 1782 
July 27, 1782 
July 29, 1782 
Aug. 16, 1782 
Aug. 24, 1782 
Aug. 26, 1782 
Sept. 12, 1782 
Sept. 17, 1782 
Sept. 23, 1782 
Sept. 24. 1782 
Oct. 12, 1782 
Oct. 15, 1782 
Oct. 20, 1782 
Oct. 21. 1782 
Oct. 25, 1782 
Nov. 3, 1782 
Nov. 4, 1782 
Nov. 9, 1782 
Nov. 26. 1782 
Dec. 2. 1782 
Dec. 4, 1782 
Dec. 23, 1782 
Jan. 3, 1783 
Jan. 10, 1783 
Jan. 18, 1783 
Jan. 18, 1783 
Feb. 1. 1788 
Feb. 1. 1783 
Feb. 8, 1783 
March 7, 1783 
March 22, 1783 
March 28, 1783 
April 2, 1783 
April 5, 1783 
April 21. 1783 
April 21, 1783 
May 3, 1783 
May 10, 1783 
May 12, 1783 
June 2, 1783 
June 23, 1783 
Aug. 8, 1783 
Aug. 13. 1788 
Aug. 15. 1783 
Sept. 17, 1783 
Oct. 11, 178S 
Oct. 13, 1783 
Oct. 20, 1788 
Oct. 22. 1783 


Isaac Kiser 
David Stephenson 
Michael Foizle 
John Kesterson 
Ebenezer Henton 
George Knave 
Philip Keplinger 
Antheny Alison 
Daniel Harrison 
Michael Harrison 
Jesse Harrison 
Cristian Miller 
Matt. Boyers 
Gideon Harrlsson 
John Devier 
Wm. Liusby 
Charles Sparkes 
Conrad Keller 
John Hair 
Bonj. Wheaton 
John Gristley 
Robt. Harrison 
Robert Young 
Henry Black 
John Hays 
Jacob Argabright 
John Flack 
David Smith 
Hugh Guln 
Jacob Rape 
Robert Harnsberger 
Josiah Harrison 
Blijah Russell 
Michl. Hennesey 
James Doak 
Benjamin Berry 

Mary Harrison 
Mary Davies 
Elizabeth Bush 
Elizabeth Whiteman 
Emele Mathews 
Fany More 
Barbara Mauk 
Mary Hatfield 
Ann Patton 
Margret Ragan 
Elizabeth Wilson 
Dorothy Bradshaw 
Ann Morris 
Mary Brian 
Mary Collins 
Easter Hair 
Jane Neilson 
Elizabeth Helfrey 
Sarah Stinson 
Mary Wease 
Elizabeth Redman 
Polly Harrison 
Jean Burley 
Elizabeth Hammer 
Marey Ragan 
Mary Fifer 
Mary Crow 
Isabella Duncason 
Margret Fairbern 
Cathrine Howel 
Christeny Miller 
Margret Miller 
Katy Armentrout 
Anny Lang 
Jenet Fulton 
Johanna Berry 

Frederick Swartz (Black) Mary Argabright 

Henry Ceplinger 
Abraham Louderback 
David Brumfield 
John Daniel Moyer 
John Rimel 
Mathias Lung 
John Bair 
George Ruddell 
John Wiseman 
William Bryan, jr. 
William Tallman 
Henry Nicholas 
John Blizard 
Henry Hammer 
George Sirkel 
James McMichal 
John Ridenhouse 
Thomas Woodward 
John Johnston 
Spencer Breeding 
Henry Hauk (?) 
John Patton 
John Taylor 
Adam Shlllinger 
William Kiser 
Abraham Beary 
John Geabhart 
George Dice (Tice) 
Henry Armentrout 
John McDonald 
George Springer, jr. 
Jacob McLey 
Jacob Cowger 

Barbary Harpole 
Margaret Ammon 
Patience Tallman 
Nancy Culburt 
Margaret Lincoln 
Elizabeth Munger 
Elizabeth Pup 
Mary Goar 
Sarah Green 
Nancy Celley 
Phebe Henton 
Molly Coffelt 
Catherine Kester 
Mary Davis 
Cathrine West 
Nelly Cranny 
Christian Sumervalt 
Elizabeth Chesnut 
Margret Greimes 
Elizabeth Finney 
Margaret Thomas 
Mary Hopkins 
Ann Gilbert 
Elizabeth Man 
Charety Fridley 
Modlenah Rife 
Rachel Allin 
Mary Dice 

Elizabeth Argabright 
Elizabeth Crawford 
Catherine Earhart 
Catherine Ogan 
Catherine Harpole 


Oct. 23, 1783 
Nov. 11, 1783 
Nov. 16, 1783 
Nov. 29, 1783 
Dec. 12, 1783 
Dec. 19, 1783 
Jan. 1, 1784 
Jan. 17, 1784 
Jan. 29, 1784 
Feb. 9, 1784 
March 5, 1784 
March 18, 1784 
April 3, 1784 
April 24, 1784 
May 24, 1784 
May 24, 1784 
July 19, 1784 
July 21, 1784 
July 27, 1784 
Aug. 9, 1784 
Aug. 18, 1784 
Sept. 11, 1784 
Oct. 5, 1784 
Oct. 16, 1784 
Nov. 22, 1784 
Dec. 4, 1784 
Dec. 6, 1784 
Dec. 13, 1784 
Sept. 27, 1785 
Sept. — , 1785 
Dec. 30, 1785 
Jan. 4, 1786 
Jan. 23, 1786 
Feb. 9, 1786 
Feb. 20, 1786 
Feb. 21, 1786 
March 25, 1786 
March 27, 1786 
April 10, 1786 
April 12, 1786 
April 24, 1786 
April 26. 1786 
April 28, 1786 
April 28, 1786 
May 4, 1786 
May 8, 1786 
May 13, 1786 
May 30, 1786 
June 12, 1786 
June 16, 1786 
June 21, 1786 
July 24, 1786 
July 28, 1786 
Aug. 1, 1786 
Aug. 2, 1786 
Aug. 5, 1786 
Aug. 5, 1786 
Aug. 22, 1786 
Aug. 29, 1786 
Aug. 31, 1786 
Sept. 22, 1786 
Sept. 25, 178? 
Sept. 28, 1781 
Sept. 29, 1786 
Oct. 2, 1786 
Oct. 20, 1786 
Nov. 7, 1786 
Nov. 11, 1786 
Nov. 13, 1786 
Nov. 16, 1786 


Michael Keller 
Thomas Fitzwater 
George Bowers 
Jacob Runkle 
David Garvin 
Stophel How 
James Gamble 
Peter Nicholas 
Christian Leeah 
George Prise 
John Pitner 
John Matheas 
Gulhery Homes 
Andrew Shankling 
Wileam Shaklen (?) 
Samuel Smallridg 
Jessy Oneal 
Jacob Rambo 
John Hoof 

Franses Sanford Settles 
Heanery Caster 
Thomas Harysen 
James Brown 
Edward Bvins 
Rubin Harison 
James Lang 
Thomas Loky 
Bazllia Ragin 
Jephtheh Moore 

James Graham 
George Fridley 

Abraham Nickemon 

Nathaniel Harrisson 
Samuel McWilliaras 

Matthias Long 

Daniel Ragin 

Henry Smith 

Adam Flower 

Benjamin Smith 

James Mohoney 

David Garvin 

Aaron Sollomon 

John Carthrea 

John Travis 

Henry Ewin 

John Reader 

Patrick McGuyer 

Andrews Woolf 

John Swick 

Henry Rolestone 

Charles Wheafer (?) 

Benjamin Grace 

Elias Vicars 

Abraham Crumpacker 

Jacob Johnson 

John Lauk 

Lewis Sheridan 

Henry Kite 

Henery Barrot 

George Brewn 

David Dudley 

Samuel Pullins 

John Kagy 

Alexr. Keran 

John Meineck 

Joel Crumbaker 

John Laundrice 

William Lowry 

Peter Winegord 

Thomas Waren 

Barbary Roadarmor 
Mary Been 
Cathrine Tulee 
Rebeccah Price 
Sarah Bush 
Elizabeth Harman 
Margaret McHenry 
Euly Boshang 
Elizabeth Armentrout 
Mary Runkle 
Elizabeth Fifer 
Elizabeth Lokey 
Sally Cooper 
Sarah Huet 
Ruth Hareson 
Ann Jarrel 
Barbary Rambo 
Cathene Hnlen 
Deaborah Hatheway 
Elisabeth Armstrong 
Hannah Smith 
Sally Oliver (?) 
Nancy Shpman 
Ann Heanicy 
Mary Mathes 
Eleoner Hansford 
Sarah Reaves (?) 
Jean Ditums 
Nancy Ragin 
Jean Beard 
Sarah Woolford 
Mary Stephenson 
Mary Woodly 
Edith Harrison 
Mary Heastand 
Rhebe Harrison 
Margaret Cravens 
Mary Weaggy 
Mary Ewin 
Sarraih Berry 
Barbara Maggart 
Susanah Rader 
Sophia Lewis 
Elizabeth Oliver 
Abigail Davisson 
Sally Spears 
Nelly Huston 
Hannah Kyror 
Catterena Shafer 
Sarah Sempil 
Keatren Shafer 
Catherine Lair 
Phebe Loid 
Mary Rife 
Betsy Church 
Susanna Moore 
Mary Joseph 
Elizabeth Heastand 
Mary Lukes 
Barbara Upleman 
Keziah Short 
Jane Henry 
Margaret Fridley 
Peggy Smith 
Catrin Rader 
Elizabeth Rife 
Catherine Coffman 
Sarah Herrings 
Eve Hooke 
Bllzalaeth Harrison 


Nov. 17. 1786 
Nov. 17, 1786 
Nov. 18, 1786 
Nov. 25, 1786 
Nov. 26, 1786 
Nov. 27, 1786 
Dec. 13, 1786 
Dec. 20, 1786 
Dec. 21, 1786 
Dec. 25, 1786 
Nov. 16, 1788 
Nov. 13, 1789 
Jan. 27, 1790 
Feb. 15, 1790 
Feb. 25. 1790 
March 10, 1790 
July 11, 1790 (?) 
July 19, 1790 
Aug. 24, 179» 
Aug. 30, 1790 
Nov. 24, 1790 
Dec. 22, 1790 
Jan. 4, 1791 
April 24, 1791 
April 26, 1791 
July 24, 1791 
Sept. 13, 1791 
Oct. 3, 1791 
Nov. 14, 1791 
Nov. 24, 1791 
Dec. 20, 1791 
Dec. 31. 1791 
Date illegible 
Jan. 16, 1792 
Jan. 31, 1792 
Mar. 1, 1792 
Apr. 2, 1792 
April 9, 1792 
April 19, 1792 
Apr. 21, 1792 
Apr. 23, 1792 
Sept. 1, 1792 
Sept. 24, 1792 
Sept. 26, 1792 
Sept. 29. 1792 
Oct. 2, 1792 
Oct. 3, 1792 
Oct. 24, 1792 
Nov. 9, 1792 
Nov. 20, 1792 
Dec. 6. 1792 
Dec. 15, 1792 
Dec. 19, 1792 
Dec. 25, 1792 
Dec. 28, 1792 
Dec. 29, 1792 
Dec. 30, 1792 
Jan. 1, 1793 
Jan. 1, 1793 
Jan. 3, 1793 
Jan. 8, 1793 
Jan. 22, 1793 
Mar. 10, 1793 
March 14, 1793 
March 19. 1798 
March 31. 1793 
Apr. 7, 1793 
Apr. 9, 1793 
Apr. 13, 1793 
May 2, 1793 


John Palmer 
Aea Webb 
James Molloy 
Jamea Dickey 
Jacob Chrlstman 
QeoTge Wells 
Wm. Thomson 
George Philips 
WiUiam Kite 
Conrad Helmer 
John Spears 
William Baily 
John ArgTibright 
Henry Funk 
Samuel Chandler 
Joseph Snapp 
Joseph Thornton 
Elliot Rutherford 
John Sellers 
Jonathan Newman 
Philip Royer 
David Noftsinger 
Leonard Berry 
Daniel Spangler 
James Harrison 
William Cravens 
Thos. Pullins 
John Segfried 
Christian Keagy 
James Burgess 
Adam Howard 
George Huston 
David Spangler 
William Reans 
Christian Denice 
John Wright 
George Snowden 
Aron Turley 
James Shanklin 
George Millar 
Philip Kennerly 
Isaac Depoy 
Jacob Twitwiler 
Henry Bear 
George Surphos 
Leonard Oliver 
George Robins 
James Bggs 
Isaac Norman 
Marten Heggins 
David Gilmor 
William Robeson 
James Green 
John Davis 
John Hudlow 
Samuel Day 
Jacob Johnston 
William Mitchel 
Jacob Pulks 
Jacob Percy 
Jacob Deppoy 
John Shafer 
Thomas Travis 
John Armontrout 
Alexander Graham 
John Green 
Christian Pry 
John Johnston 
Joseph Carercy 
Arnold Ford 

Leodosia Eaton 
Mary Shanklin 
Sarah Shepherd 
Eliz. Burges 
Barbara Paulson 
Jane Reagan 
Jennet Shanklin 
Rachel Hinton 
Elizabeth Grims 
Fanny A. Mulatto 
Margret Chrisman 
Elinor Gum 
Anne Smith 
Susenna Frey 
Elizabeth Nezbet 
Margaret Cravens 
Catharine Snap 
Barbara Miller 

Heany Smith 
Hannah Spears 
Keaty Keller 
Hannah Crum packer 
Magdalene Sibeley 
Nancy Dictom 
Anne Mellon 
Jane Harrison 
Jane Henry 
Eliz. Black 
Mary Peepler 
Mary Beard 
Keaty Bumgardner 
Susanna Snap 
Margaret Snap 
Eve Stonebuck 
Barbara Roller 
Elizabeth Erwin 
Elizabeth Rice 
Rebecca Howland 
Hannah Hopkins 
Sarah Custerd 
Jane Carthrae 
Anna Teakley 
Anna Aldoffer 
Barbara Howman 
Christianna Long 
Rosanna Dashner 
Catherine Laulcer 
Marey Custer 
Hannah Herring 
Cateren Ember 
Margrat Smith 
Barbra Cofman 
Nancy Yeates 
Sarah Dokerty 
Elizabeth Croft 
Hannah Bowen 
Freelove Wilcocks 
Eve Nestreete 
Margreat Dispenett 
Abbigail McDowell 
Elizabeth Lemon 
Mary Pence 
Margaret Miller 
Charlotte Helfreegh 
Anna Herdman 
Amelia Mathews 
Elizabeth Minnick 
Mary Wooledge 
Pheby Sheffing 
Mary Runion 


May 13, 1793 
May 16, 1793 
May 26, 1793 
May 27, 1793 
May 28, 1793 
May 28, 1793 
June 13, 1793 
July 22, 1793 
July 28, 1793 
Aug. 8, 1793 
Aug. 30, 1793 
Sept. 8, 1793 
Sept. 9, 1793 
Sept. 12, 1793 
Sept. 25, 1793 
Oct. 1, 1793 
Oct. 3, 1793 
Oct. 21. 1793 

Oct. 28, 1793 
Nov. 1, 1793 
Nov. 5, 1793 
Nov. 14. 1793 
Dec. 31, 1793 
Jan. 2, 1794 
Jan. 27. 1794 
Jan. 29, 1794 
Feb. 18, 1794 
Feb. 24, 1794 
March 17, 1794 
March 20, 1794 
March 20, 1794 
March 20, 1794 
March 20, 1794 
March 24, 1794 
March 27, 1794 
April 3, 1794 
April 10, 1794 
April 12, 1794 
May 13, 1794 
May 24, 1794 
June 19, 1794 
July 8, 1794 
July 9, 1794 
July 24, 1794 
July 28. 1794 
Aug. 1. 1794 
Aug. 9, 1794 
Aug. 28, 1794 
Sept. 2, 1794 
Sept. 3 (?), 1794 
Sept. 3 (?), 1794 
Sept. 3 (?), 1794 
Sept. 3 (?), 1794 
Sept. 19, 1794 
Oct. 2. 1794 
Oct. 22. 1794 
Oct. 23. 1794 
Oct. 26, 1794 
Nov. 2, 1794 
Nov. 6, 1794 
Nov. 11, 1794 
Nov. 25, 1794 
Dec. 16, 1794 
Dec. 16, 1794 
Dec. 30, 1794 

. 1794 

, 1794 

, 1794 

, 1794 

, 1794 



Lists compiled from the Original Manuscripts in the County Clerk's 

The number preceding the name of each individual indicates the militia- 
company district to which he belonged; the number following his najne 
shows the number of acres of land he owned. 


2 Herdman, John, Jr., 572. 

2 Harrison, Jess, Sr., 544. 

3 Herring, William, 516. 

4 Huston, George, 703. 

4 Houlder, Michael, 680. 

5 Harrison, Benjamin, 1024. 
5 Harrison, Robert & Reuben, 1620. 
5 Harrison, Thomas, 860. 

5 Hemphill, Samuel, 653. 

6 Kesler, Woolery, 550. 
1 Miller, John, 748. 
1 Miller, Henry, 671. 

4 Machall, John, 1282. 

5 Miller, Samuel's exrs., 636. 
1 Rice, John, 861. 
3 Roler, Peter, 1033. 

6 Ruddle, Cornelius, 704. 
1 Smith, William, 858. 

1283. 1 Smith, Henry, 1053. 

1 Smith, Joseph, 582. 

2 Shanklin, Thomas, 853. 

3 Shanlilin, Edward, 575. 

4 Snap, John, 629. 

5 Stephenson, Caster, 879. 

5 Smith, Benjamin, 955. 

7 Shoemaker, George, 500. 

6 Thomas, John, 683. 
1 Walker, Thomas, 900. 
5 Winger, Henry, 500. 

4 Amond, Mathias, 1180. 

5 Argabright, Martin, 508. 
2 Berry, Benjamin, 901. 

2 Baxter, George, 1196. 

3 Butt, Windle, 557. 

4 Beard, James, 1365. 

6 Briant, Thomas, Sr., 954. 

6 Burkholder, Peter, 543. 

7 Baker, Michael, 581. 

2 Crawford, Geo. A., 800. 

4 Cathrea, John, 890. 

5 Cravens, Robert, 539. 

1 Douglass, Joseph, 975. 
1 Dever, William, 575. 
1 Dever, Hugh, 506. 

1 Davies, John, 1380. 

2 Davison, Josiah, 980. 

4 Donaghe, Hugh, 734. 

5 Dever, James, Land Co., 
2 Cruins, John, Sr., 875. 

5 Cuins, Henry, 1101. 

4 Fisher, Abraham, 514. 

2 Green, Francis, 703. 

3 Grattan, Jn., 2047. 

6 Grattan, John, 915. 
1 Heart, Silas, 704. 

1 Hamilton, Gawin, 952. 

2 Hopkins, Arch, Jr., 586. 
2 Hopkins, Arch, Sr., 1551. 


Josiah Harrison's Company. 
Ezekiel Harrison's Company. 
Richard Ragan's Company. 
John Rush's Company. 
Casper Hains' Company. 
Henry Miller's Company. 
Michael Rorick's Company. 
Andrews, Andrew, 600. 
Bear, John, Sr., 836. 
Crim, Peter, 516. 
Crow, Walter, 759. 
Crotzer, Joseph, 641 1-2. 
Craig, John, 1314. 
Carsh. Matthias, 680. 
Conrad, Peter, 890. 
Conrad, George, 844. 
Davis, William, 841. 
Fifer, Adam, Sr., 602. 
Harrison, Reuben, 1204. 
Harrison, Zebulon, 575. 
Harrison, Matthew, 900. 
Hoover, Jacob, 516. 
Harrison, John, 938. 
Hagay, Godfrey, 730. 
Harned, David, 795. 

12 Headrick, John, 625. 
11 Jones, Gabriel, 1004. 

10 Kessle, George, 810. 

11 Kislinger, Jacob, 615. 

12 Kirtley, Francis, 824. 
14 Kisore, Michael, 566. 

8 Lokey, Thomas, 530. 
11 Lewis, Thomas, Sr., 2050. 
8 March, Sabaston, 515. 

8 Moore, Thomas, Sr., 1070. 

9 Moore, John Quaker, 1088. 

13 Miller, Henry Ji- Elizabeth, 1215. 

14 Null, Henry, 695. 

8 Phillips, John, Kr.. 540. 
11 Pence, George, 703. 
11 Perkey, John, 515. 
11 Perkey, Henry, 515. 
11 Price, Augusteen, Sr., 531. 

10 Ragan, Richard, 736. 

11 Rush, Charles, 553. 

8 Sircle, Ludwick, 932. 
10 Smith, Jane, Sr., 500. 

10 Smith, Benjamin, 500. 

11 Swisher, John, 676. 

12 Sellers, Adam, 1154. 


A list of Captain William Nail's companv of volunteers from Augusta 
County, In the campaign to Point Pleasant, 1774. 






William Nalle, Capt. 
Martain Nalle, Lt. 
Jacob Pence, Ensign 
William Bush, Ser. 
John Bush, Ser. 
Barnod Crafford, Ser. 
Shadrick Butler 
William Feavil 
Robert Rains 
Moses Smith 
Steven Washburn 
Israel Meader 
Henry Owler 
John Grigsby 
Richard Welsh 
Zacarias Lee 
John Goodall 
Bengaman Petty 

Michael Gurden 
Bruten Smith 
.Tames Todd 
William Spicer 
James Washbun 
Charles Brown 
James Alexander 
George Rucker 
Joseph Roay 
William Scails. /^ 
John Pright ^'"^ 
Yenty Jackson 
John Owler 
George Puis 
James Miller 
George Harmon 
John Chism 
Adam Hansburger 1 

Henry Cook 
John Breden 
Thomas Brook 
Henry Miner 
Chesly Rogers 
Sefniah Lee 
Zacarias Plunkepel 
Mecagh Smith 
William Smith 
John Deek (Deck) 
John fy (Fry?) 
John Williams 
Joseph Butler 
James Selby 
James Reary 
Abraham Rue 
Jacob Null 
John Null 2 


(Entered sei-vice July 7, 1813.) 

Daniel Matthews, capt.; William Woodward, It.; John F. Efhnger, e»- 
sign; Daniel Pickering, 1st ser.; Warner Peters, 1st cor.; William F. Browm, 
2d cor. ; George Hill, 3d cor. ; Fredrick Hartman, 4th cor. ; Elisha Hooke, 
5th cor.; John Henning, 6th cor.; John Haney, drummer; Henry Rader, flfer. 

William Heavener 
William Lacrost 
Thomas Brown 
James Bogers 
Andrew Brown 
Abi-am Bushong 
John Berry 
George Berry 
Kinley Berry 
Elisha Bryan 
Reuben Bogan 
John Bible 
Henry Baker 
Philip Carey 
Mayberry Curry 
Henry Carrico 
Jacob Crim 
Thomas Clemmings 
Thomas Deane 
Philip Eary 
John Feagle 
John Farris 

Henry Fisher 
Isaac F''lemming 
William Graves 
Jacob Groves 
Samuel Huling 
Henry Heddecker 
Peter Hinton 
.Tohn Haudley 
Joseph Holland 
Fredrick Hartman 
Elisha Hooke 
John Heavener 
Silas Hinton 
•John Jack 
Nelson Kimbrough 
Joseph Laten 
William Doyd 
Henry Miller 
John Miller 
James Montague 
Peter Michael 
Jacob Messick 

Andrew Orebaugh 
Stephen Oglesby 
Philip Peach 
Christian Rankle 
John Rust 
Abram Rust 
George Rumsey 
George Rue 
William Rutledge 
David Swisher 
.Jacob Silknetter 
Samuel Suelling 
Mathias Snider 
William B. Smith 
William Souveraine 
John Stubs 
Jesse Thorp 
Alexander Trout 
Mathew Trumbo 
Andrew Wesley 
Jacob Wither 
John Wright 


(Entered service July 7, 1813.) 
Thomas Hopkins, capt.; John McLaughlin, It.; John J. Salvage, lat 
ser. ; Silas Hinton, 2d ser. ; Jesse Harmer, 3d ser. ; William Heavener, 4th 
ser. ; Matthew Snider, 1st cor. ; Jacob Massie, 2d cor. ; Michael Markwood, 
drummer; Henry Rider, flfer. 

Rinley Berry 
Elisha Berry 
Reuben Bryan 
John Berry 
George Berry 

John Bible 
John Crim 
John Faris 
John Fink 
George Pultz 

Joshua Fate 
William Fitzwater 
Isaac Hare 
John Hill 
Nelson Kin^orougl^ 

1. Adam Hansburger was the grandfather of Capt. J. Sam'l Hams- 

2. The above list is made up from the list of Captain Nail's company 
as given on page 405 of Thwaites and Kellogg's Documentary History of 
Dunmore's War; and the company was made up chiefly, if not entirely, 
from what is now Rockingham. — See pages 63, 64, above. 



Isaac Lincoln 
Arthur McCord 
George Messick 
John Miller 
Abram Orebaugh 

Andrew Orebaugh 
John Wright 
John Stiles 
William B. Smith 
John StuUy 

Ciiristlan Souveri«« 
^Vlexander Trout 
JacoD Whetzel 
Jacob Witt 


(Entered service July S, 1813.) 
Robert Hooice, capt. ; James Hooke, It.; Richard S. Emmitt, ensign; 
Charles Burton, 1st sen; Charles Blaine, 2d ser. ; Cliarles Hudlow, 3d ser. ; 
Jacob Fisher, 4th ser.; John Rust, 1st cor.; Jacob Rust, 2d cor.; Thomas 
Rice, 3d cor. ; John Fisher, 4th cor. ; Stephen Oglesby, 5th cor. ; Thomas 
Deane, 6th cor. ; George Baker, 7th cor. 

William Armentrout 
George Armentrout 
John Baker 
George Baker 
John Burnett 
Henry Baker 
Peter Bowyer 
.Jacob Chrisman 
David Crickenberger 
Benjamin Cash 
William Campbell 
William Cline 
Henry Sipe 
John Fisher 
John Feagle 
Joseph Holland 
Jacob Harnesberger 

John Harnesberger 
John Hedrick 
John Hanley 
James A. Hooke 
Christian Hawk 
John Hanna 
Peter Kesler 
Daniel Kesler 
Henry Keller 
Lewis Keller 
John Lammon 
Thomas Lewis 
Geoi'ge Middleberger 
Adam May 
iUexander Ogg 
Henry Probst 
John Pence 

Jacob Pence 
Adam Pence 
Edward Price 
Jacob Ritter 
Michael Ritter 
George Rumsey 
George Reece 
.\bram Rust 
Christian Bowyer 
John Shipp 
.Jacob Shirley 
Samuel Swisher 
Natha.niel Swisher 
Henry Sack 
George Shank 
.Tesse Thompson 
Henry Ulstaw 
Henry Winkle 


Robert Magill, 
Abram Smith, ord. 
John Viger, 1st cor. 
Gilmore, 4th cor. 
Richard Rankin 
Jacob Amole 
Christian Boody 
Aaron Back 
Fredrick Cupp 
John Cahoon 
Benjamin Cove 
Jacob Ditmer 
David Dofflemire 
William Davis 
Adam Howdyshell 
Isaac Hare 
Christian Kite 
David Dosburne 
Peter Freysinger 
George Fultz 
William Fitzwater 
Joseph Gladen 

(Entered service July 8, 1813.) 
capt.; John McLaughlin, It.; Jacob Spader, ensign; 
ser.; George Mallow, 2d ser.; John Lawson, 3d ser.; 
; Augustine Allen, 2d cor. ; John Irwin, 3d cor. ; Henry 

AV'illiam Graves 
Samuel Gross 
John Harnesbarger 
Peter Ryler 
Philip Linsay 
.James Lady 
Simon Lucas 
Matthias Lore 
David Loush 
Isaac Lincoln 
Peter Lindsay 
John Matheny 
Conrad Morrice 
John Morrice 
.Jacob Maiden 
Ephriam Meadows 
Arthur McCord 
.\dam Orebaugh 
Henry Peterfish 

George Peterflsh 
Patrick Reins 
Bennett Reigns 
Abram Roots 
Samuel Rites 
William Rutledge 
Moses Sutton 
John Shank 
Joseph Snider 
Emanuel Sherman 
Emanuel Sipe 
John Stilt 
Joshua Tate 
Jacob Whitzell 
Charles Weaver 
.Joseph Waggoner 
Christian Ulster 
Samuel Utes 
John Yorgea 


(Entered service August 29, 1814.) 

Wm. Harrison, capt.; Peter Sprinkle, 1st It.; Zephaniah Wade, 2d It.; 
John Sheets, 1st ensign; Hinton, 2d ensign; Philip Armentrout, 
1st ser.; Henry Armentrout, 2d ser.; Benjamin Fawcett, 3d ser.; John Cowen, 
4th ser.; David Armentrout, 5th ser.; Daniel Witts, 6th ser.; Moses Cum- 
mlngs, 1st cor.; Abram Flesher, 2d cor.; Martin Martz, 3d cor.; John Wade, 
4th cor.; Joseph Wade, 5th cor.; David Wallace, 6th cor.; Jacob Sheets. 



7th cor.; James Dean, 8th cor 

Miller, flfer. 

Fredrick Armentrout 

Jacob Armentrout 

Jacob Alstat 

Felix Albert 

Christian Argabright 

Philip Armentrout 

Thomas Bachelor 

Augustus Armentrout 

Michael Beaver 

Joseph Blain 

Henry Bare 

Jacob Bare 

R. W. Berkhead 

Voluntine Bolton , 

Thomas Beard 

Henry Cowen 

Thomas Cottrel 

Conrad Cove 

Jacob Crider 

Michael Clinepelter 

William Cherryhomes 

Andrew Doreman 

David Doreman 

Chrisley Doreman 

Thomas Dehart 

James Duffy 

Christopher Eighinger 

George Fridley 

Charles Fridley 

John Fuzet 

Jacob Flock 

John Fogle 

Jacob Fogle 

Caleb Fitzpatrick 

John Fisher 

William Flint 

Abram Armentrout, drummer; Matthew 

Joseph Fifer 
Peter Grout 
David Grout 
Jacob Heidecker, sr. 
Gasper Haynes 
George Hiniker 
Michael Hilbert 
Jacob Heidecker, jr. 
Joseph Huling 
John Huffman 
Bernard liuffman 
George Hammon 
Peter Hinton 
George Hiser 
Samuel Jewell 
George Rifer 
Abram Knopp 
Reuben King 
Henry Kiser 
David Kisley 
William Layman 
John Layman 
David Layman 
Adam Lash 
Fredrick Long 
Paul Long 
Mathias Long 
Abram Lauderback 
Sebastian Martz 
Jacob Martz 
George Miller 
Jacob Miller 
Daniel Moyers 
George Moyers 
John Miller 
John Nave 

John Overholt 
George Overholt 
Henery Peters 
William Pickering 
Henry Pirkey 
Jacob Pirkey 
John Roadcap 
Jacob Rhodes 
Michael Roller 
William Richwlne 
George Rader 
Philip Reedy 
George Spinkley 
George Smith 
John Sellers 
Gasper Stoutmeyer 
George Smith 
Daniel Smith 
Christopher SchooltJ! 
Peter Stone 
George Siles 
John Sheets 
Crisian Sipe 
Joseph Stock 
Rodey Tate 
Moses Tomah 
William Terry 
Jacob Trout 
David Timberlake 
John Whitmore 
John Wise 
Daniel Wise 
David Whitmore 
Peter Williams 
Charles Weaver 
John Zimmers 
Christly Zimmers 


(Rockingham Rifles.) 
James Kenney, capt. ; Isaac G. Coffman, 1st It.; Wm. D. Trout, 2d It.; 
David A. Jones, 3d It.; Wm. H. Waesche, 1st ser. ; Samuel M. Jones, 2d ser.; 
Jos. H. Kelley, 3d ser.; Lewis J. Cordell, 4th ser.; Jos. A. Rice, 1st cor.; 
B. F. Hughes, 2d cor.; .1. H. Helphenstine, 3d cor. 

Thos. W. Basford 
Joseph Bezanzon 
James Bowles 
Wm. Brown 
B. F. Caldwell 
W. McK. Coffman 
A. Crow 
James Curry 
Geo. C. Everding 
Robt. B. Ewan 
Oliver Ferrell 
Francis Flick 
James J. Fultz 
James B. Fultz 
James Furry 
John Gaither 
W. C. R. Gray 
Jacob R. Grove 
W. A. B. Haney 
Wm. P. Kemper 
Wra. M. Kemper 
Geo. B. Kemper 

John Kenney James E. Phillips 

A. Koontz H. J. Pritchard (Fred.Co.) 

Robt. Koontz Robt. B. Ragan 

E. B. Knipple (Aug. Co.) Lewis W. Reherd 

Andrew Lewis 
Geo. R. Lewis 
Jas. A. Lewis 
Wm. M. Lewis 
Chas. T. Liggett 
Robt. Long 
Jno. C. Mauck 
A. B. Martz 
James May 
Wm. Miller 
James Moore 
L. R. McCauley 
John McCrary 
L. Mohler (Aug. Co.) 
Henry Murray 
J. B. Odor 
Asbury B. Payne 
Wm. H. Payne 
James W. Payne 

J. D. S. Reamer 

George Rimel 

James Roadcap 

.John Roadcap 

John Roadcap of P. 

J. K. Ryan (Aug. Co.) 

Geo. W. Salyards 

George Sipe 

David Smith 

J. G. Sprenkel 

R. Steele 

Isaac Timmons 

Joseph Waters 

W. H. H. Wheeler (A.C.) 

John T. Wilklns 

James Williams 

James H. Wolfrey 

C. Yeakle 

Jacob H. Tost 

— From Rockingham Register, August 16, 1861. 




(Bridgewater Grays.) 

Brown, John S., capt. ; Brown, Wm. R., 1st 
rt.; Pool, G. H., 3d It.; Llnhoss, Fred., ord. ser.; 
Berry, D. N., 3d ser.; Childress, M. B., 4th ser.; 
Chandler, R. C, 2d cor.; Thompson. J. L., 3d cor.; 

Brown, M. H. 
Byrd, L. S. 
Bricker, Abner 
Bricker. G. W. 
Berry, S. K. 
Cave, Hamilton 
Click, J. B. 
Cook, John 
CofEman, T. R. 
Coffman, J. S. 
Clopenhaver, G. E. 
Decker, R. S. 
Furry, Wm. J. 
Flemming, Harrison 
Herring, Philander 

Haney, G. W. 
Haney. John 
Hatfield, John 
Howdishell, Jacob 
Holland, Peter 
Jordan, A. J. 
Jones, Thomas 
Kibler, Charles 
Longley, Charles 
Linhoss, D. H. 
Long, John 
Lash, Andrew 
Mowry, J. A. 
Minnick, James 
Minnick, Elijah 

— From Hardesty's 

It.; Smals, Adam H., 2d 
Messick, B. F., 2d ser.; 

Harmon, B. F., 1st oor. ; 

Wheeler, Peter, 4th cor. 

Peterson, J. J. 

Rogers. Albert 

Rohr, Stansberry, 

Srecker, P. W. 

Smals, N. M. 

Sheets, Christian 

Sandy, R. W. 

Shlflett, Noah 

Stinespring, W. H. 

Taylor, G. W. 

Taylor, J. E. 

Terrell, A. J. 

Terrell, St. C. 

Vance, A. H. 

Wise, R. J. 
Encyclopedia, p. 398. 


Robt. C. Mauck, capt. 


Melhorn, John W. 
Brown, Milton 
Riddleberger, H. H. 
Donaghen, John 


Amiss, George 
Armentrout, J. P. 
Ball, James 
Bamber, William 
Berry, Samuel 
Bowman, John R. 
Bowman, Noah W. 
Brown, Frank 
Carroll, James 
Cave, Wesley A. 
Coffman, Wm. McK. 
Crow, John 
Dovel, Daniel D. 

(Organized January, 
Falls, William 
Fearneyhough, Wm. 
Fisher, Burt 
Fletcher. John 
Gaither, Geo. W. 
GIbbs, Charley 
Gibbs, William 
Gowl, William 
Gray, George 
Hern, Samuel 
Hurley, Daniel 
Jones, H. Clay 
Kirkpatrick, John 
Kirkpatrick, Thos. 
Lamb, Allen 
Leehan, Jack 
Logan, N. W. 
Long, Joseph 
Long, Wm. C. 
I>owery. Joseph 
McCreary, Douglass 


Manning, Wm. 
Miller, Benj. 
Monis, Silas 
Moss, Rial 
Nisewarner, John 
Phillips, Frederick 
Phillips, Thad. 
Polen, James 
Ragan, John G. 
Rhinehart, Algernon 
Roadcap, James 
Roadcap, John 
Shifflet, D. 
Shifflet, Robert 
Summers, David 
Swanson, Joseph 
Terrell, Calvin 
Vanpelt, Arch 
Ward, John 
Way, Ferdinand 
Way, Frank 
Way, G. W. 

-From Col. D. H. Lee Martz's roUs. 


(Mustered in June 30, 1863.) 
Yancey, Wm. B., capt.; Kisling, W. G., 1st It.; Hawkins, J. H., 2d It; 
Mauzy, T. G., 3d It.; Rush, J. B., 1st sen; Hammon, C. E., 2d sen; Dunni- 
vln, James, 3d ser.; Wyant, Augustine, 4th sen; Leap, E. A., 1st con; Sipe, 
J. F., 2d cor.; Wyant, D. W., 3d con; May, S. A.; 4th con 

Breedin, Calvin 
Booze, John 
Boyers, Jacob 
Bauserman, Joseph 
Bauserman, G. W. 
Britt, Wm. 
Carikoff, Peter 

Dennet, G. R. Lafferty, Addison 

Davis, John Michaels, W. F. 

Hamer, J. M. Morris, Harrison 

Harman. B. F. Royer, Noah A. 

Johnson, David Whitmer, J. S. 

Lamb, H. J. Wyant, Isaac 

Lilly, H. B. Williams, George 

Williams, Joseph 
— 'From Hardesty's Encyclopedia, p. 398. 





Sprinkel, C. A. 
Martz. D. H. Lee 
Campbell, Chas. F. 


Walker, Samuel T. 
Hardesty, J. N. A. 
Bryan, Pendleton 
Eastham, C. Byrd 
Guiheen, Maurice 
Smith, Dorman L. 
Houck, John W. 
Shank, Gabriel 

Arinentrout, Geo. D. 
Braithwaite, W. S. 
Braithwaite, Jacob N. 
Billhlmer, Wm. M. 
Bowman, Robert 
Black, Josepli M. 
Bear, John 
Blakemore, Wm. H. 
Brown, Wm. G. 
Braithwaite, Newton 
Coffman, M. D. 
Cootes, B. P. 
Crickenberger, Daniel 
Dice, P. H. 
Devler, Newton 
Dice, Thomas H. 
Effinger, G. M. 
Fletcher, A. K. 

(Valley Guards.) 
Funkhouser, David 
Gordon, James H. 
Garrison, James 
Greiner, N. Lee 
Grandstaff, H. P. 
Giles, Samuel N. 
Guyer, Peter 
Gray, James H. 
Good, Wm. H. 
Harrigan, Daniel 
Houston, Jno. W. C. 
Hutchens, Sam'l W. 
Heatwole, David H. 
Heatwole, Gabriel S. 
Hooke, Elisha 
Irvine, A. J. 
Johnson, Eliphalet 
Jennings, Wm. G. 
Kelley, John H. 
Kenney, Robert 
Kavanaugh, James M. 
Long, B. Frank 
Layton, John H. 
Layton, Gibbons 
Landes, James H. 
„ Layman, Preston 
• Layman, .lack 
Lincoln, A. C. 
Lambert, E. L. 
Murphy, James M. 
McGilvray, L. T. 
McAllister, Wm. C. 
Miller, Brown 
Miller, B. Frank 

Miller, C. B. 
Miller, Chas. L. 
Miller, J. Wesley 
Mayhew, Geo. F. 
Martz. Addison B. 
McAllister, J. W. 
Martz, M. J. 
Moon, Jack 
Newman, Wm. A. 
Phillips, George 
Pollock. S. W. 
Pennybacker, J. D, 
Robinson, Wm. H. 
Richards, B. F. 
Rohr, Wm. S. 
Richards, Chas. L. 
Ruff, John J. 
Rogers, Jonathan G. 
Rice, John B. 
Shacklett. Edw. P. 
Simmons, John W. 
Sites, John A. 
Sterling, Thos. O. 
Sterling, Andrew 
Van Lear, Ed. F. 
Wilson, James H. 
Weaver, Rich. W. 
Whitmer, David 
Elderdice, Eugene (Md.) 
Fleming, (Md.) 
Bowers, (Shen. Co.) 
Henkel, D. (Shen. Co.) 
Moore, I. (Shen. Co.) 

-From Col. D. H. Lee Martz' s rolls. 


Chrisman, Geo., capt. 

Rolston, J. p. 
Rolston, John H. 
Myers, Lycurgus 


Mauck, J. W. 
Rolston, M. A. 
Atchison, Wm. 
Heatwole, H. A. 

Showalter, A. J. 
Frank, John H. 

Applegate, Chas. 
Andes, John 
Atchison, Thos. J. 
Bear, A. J. 
Bear, M. H. 
Bennett, Geo. 
Bennett, John 
Burkholder, Ira 
Burkholder, Martin 

(Chrisman's Infantry.) 
Burkholder, John N. 
Brunk, John W. 
Bowers, J. T. 
Coffman, Dan 
Coffman, Samuel 
Custer, Richard 
Miller, Eli 
Dove, Franklin 
Donovan, William 
Flemming, John 
Ford, Reuben 
Firebaugh, .Samuel A. 
Ford, Joseph 
Prank, Jacob 
Gunner, William 
Glick, John 
Gaither, George 
Hughes, Wm. 
Hopkins, Peachy 
Hopkins, Ant. C. 
Hopkins, Archibald 
Hopkins, Jesse 
Gaines, John 
Keiffer, Aldine S. 
Keister, Isaac 
Keesayer, John 
Long, A. H. 
Ixing, John P. 


Lowman, John I. 
McCloud, John 
Minnick, J. Wallace 
McCloud, Nicholas 
McLaughlin, Jos. 
Minnick, John B. 
Minnick, Dallas 
Miller. Henry 
Miller, Peter 
Pifer, Morgan D. 
Pittington, Samuel 
Rice, Joseph 
Rolston, David H. 
Roadcap, Madison 
Rice, James 
Ritchie, Addison 
Rolston, William 
Showalter, Ananias 
Shoemaker, Wesley 
Sheets, Joseph 
Sheets. Strother 
Swartz, George 
Shepp, Solomon 
Secrlst, David 
Secrist, John 
Secrist, Thomas 
Summers, David 


Tan Pelt, Martin 
Van Pelt, James 
"Whitmore, Bowman 

Whltmore, John Wlnegord, John 

Whitmore, Benj. Winegord, Joseph 

Whitmore, James C. Whitmer. Wm. C. 

— From Col. D. H. Lee Martz's rolls. 


Covington, W. D. C, capt 


Kite, Jos. H. 
Miller, J. G. H. 
Crawford, Wm. J. 
Sigler, Wm. 
Huffman, John P. 
Sellers, Samuel A. 
Miller, Hiram H. 
Jennings, W. K. 


Bridges, A. P. 
Bear, N. W. 
Carrier, Henry F. 
Caton, Richard H. 
Coffman, Wm. T. 
Cook, Jeremiah 
Crickenberger, B. F. 
Davis, Wm. H. 
Eppard, Jos. Calvin 
Bppard, Strother 
Eddins, Wm. A. O. 
Elliot, Francis W. 
Grove, Jacob N. 
Grove, John W. 
Grove, Miles M. G, 

(Riverton Invincibles.) 
Hammer, Henry C. 
Hall, Christian 
Harnsberger, Chas. W. 
Harnsberger, Robt. 
Harris, James A. 
Harris, Wm. E. 
Huffman, D. W. 
Huffman, George 
Huffman, James 
Hitt, Silas 
Kiblinger, Wm. C. 
Kite, Chas. N. 
Lamb. Isaac 
Lamb, Lewis 
Lewis, Ellis 
Lewis, John L. A. 
Long, Thomas 
Long, Wm. C. 
Louderback, J. Philip 
Marshall, John H. 
Marshall, Montgomery 
Marshall, Robert F. 
Marshall, Wm. H. 
McCauley, Daniel 
Merica, Geo. S. 
Monger, John B. 
Monger, Joseph 
Phillips, James M. 

—From Col. D, 

Powell, Albert 
Powell, Elias 
Powell, Moses F. 
Price, John H. 
Propst, H. F. 
Pulliam, James, 
Rhine, John 
Secrist, David A. 
Secrist, Philip 
Sellers, John M. 
Sellers, Peter J. 
Sellers, John N. 
Shepp, Chas. N. 
Shifflet, Edmund 
Shifflet, Geo. W. 
Shifflet. Jos. N. 
Shifflet. Sampson 
Shifflet, Theophilus 
Short, Wm. J. 
Smith. John Jeff. 
Southard, John 
Stanley, Isaac N. 
Stover, David H. 
Stover, Joseph H. 
Wimbigler, Geo. H. 
Wolfe, Jos. H. 
Wolfe, Thurston 
Wyant, Alexander 
H. Lee Martz's rolls. 

CO. I, 33RD VA. VOL. INF. 

Jones, John K., capt. 


Huston, George 
Whitescarver, L. C. 
Ea^tham, Geo. C. 
Huffman, Daniel 


ott, L. H. 
Lindon, M. 
Martin, D. A. 


Argenbright, A. A. 
Argenbright, Branson 
Armentrout, Jbhn Adam 
Armentrout, Preston 
Beery, Joseph 
Berry, Bert 
Bertram, Samuel 
Bird, Isaac 
Black, John 


Branner, John 
Brown, Henry 
Calterton, James 
Carroll, John 
Carver, William 

(Stonewall Brigade.) 
Chapman, Milton 
Chapman, Thos. 
Click, Daniel 
Cline, Daniel 
Cook, John 
Crickenberger, A. 
Cromer, Joseph 
Custer, George 
Derrer, Harvey 
Derrer, Robert 
Donahue, John 
Donahue, William 
Donovan, Daniel 
Donovan. Washington 
Fadely, William 
Foley, James 
Foley, W. H. 
Garber, Daniel 
Gilkerson, William 
Glover, Derrick 
Glover, Jack 
Grandle, Emanuel 
Hannah, Samuel 
Harman, Samuel 
Harnsberger, Joseph 
Harvey, Jewett 
Hasler, George 
Hasler, Jacob 
Hasler, Philip 


Hasler, William 
Heatwole, John D. 
Helms, Jacob 
Hinton, Joseph 
Hiser, Edward 
Holcomb, P^letcher 
Hr>i'nnfi, Hsv. George 
Jones, Alb«rt 
Kepiingtr, George 
Kratzer, Christian 
Landis, Washington 
Lewis, William 
Long, John 
Lutholtz, Christian 
Lutholtz, Noah 
McLeod, James P. 
Meyerhoeffer, John 
Miller, Sylvanus 
Minnlck, Wm. 
Nicely, Isaac 
Painter, Johnson B. 
Patterson, John 
Pence, John W. 
Pence, Peter 
Perry, Joseph 
Reed, Griliin 
Riddle, Harrison 
Riddle, James 


Riddle, Thomas 
Scanlon, Bat ("Big") 
Scanlon, Bat ("Little") 
Secrist, Harvey 
Shipp, Albert 
Shipp, George 
Sheets, John B. 
Sheets, Simon P. 
Showalter, Buck 
Simmers, Jacob A. 
Sipe, Archibald 

Sipe, Levi 
Slusser, W. S. 
Summers, William 
Switzer, S. C. 
Switzer, V. C. 
Switzer, Wm. O. 
Taylor, Albert 
Taylor, Harvey 
Taylor, Hiram 
Thomas, John 
Van Lear, Chas. A. 

— Prom Col. 

Vawters, Emanuel 
Wean, John 
Weller, John 
Whitmer, Benj. J. 
Whitmer, James 
Whitsel, Peter 
Wilhlte, Joseph 
Wilhite, Peter 
Wise, Adam 
Wise, Harvey 
Wise, James 
Wise, Wm. N. 
D. H. Lee Martz's rolls. 


(Troop of cavalry from East Rockingham.) 
E. S. Yancey, capt.; C. M. Kemper, 1st It.; A. J. Sigler, 2d It; R. 9. 
Weaver, 3d It.; J. H. Berry, 1st ser. ; J. H. Royer, 2d ser. ; R. B. Ergen- 
bright, 3d ser.; Robt. Hooke, 4th ser.; A. H. Harris, ensign. 

John Burkhard 
J. L. Bocock 
J. J. Bent 
J. B. Burner 
Jonathan Bateman 
Edward Brown 
Peter McCauley 
George W. Davis 
G. R. Ergenbright 
T. M. Groves 
George Tally 
W. W. Hedrick 
Wm. P. Kyle 
Geo. W. Hedrick 

Winfield, John Q. 
Magnider, J. H. 
Humphries, David 

Liggett, J. N. 
Jordan, S. B. 
Pennybacker, J. S. 
Kennon. P. P. 
Acker, Jacob 
Neff, E. R. 
Mason, Henry 
Riddle, J. N. 
Mullen, S. F. 
Stickley, C. 
Funk, T. W. 
Showalter, Jos. 
Moore, John W. 
Pennybacker, D. D. 
Bowers, W. F. 
Ritchie, Isaac 
Taylor, Edwin 
Ritchie, I. F. 
Zirkle, Harvey 

Acker, Peter 
Acker, Isaac 
Anhby, Richard 

C. L. Hedrick 

A. L. Hansberger 

R. J. Hooke 

A. S. Hooke 

J. B. Huffman 

W. F. Harris 

Wm. M. Hansberger 

.1. N. Humes 

Benj. Powell 

.John Keister 

Thos. J. Keran 

S. H. Kayler 

J. H. Larkin 

Warfield Lee 

Harrison Maupin 
S. C. Nicholas 
G. M. Nicholas 
O. F. A. Pirkey 
A. H. Pirkey 
S. H. Pence 
George Powell 
Henry Raines 
Reuben Raines 
Jacob Raines 
Michael Scott 
Emanuel Sellers 
Wm. S. Showalter 
William Scott 
F. H. Weaver 
— ^From Rockingham Register, May 31, 1861. 


Alger, Harvey 
Bowman, George 
Bowman, Michael 
Baker, D. S. 
Burkholder, Geo. B. 
Bull, A. V. 
Beam, John 
Byrd, Jerry 
Bush, Henry 
Baxter, Jacob T. 
Black, Richard 
Brock, Wm. 
Brock, Godfrey 
Beam, Jacob 
Barb, Daniel 
Barb, Simon 
Barb, Noah 
Carpenter, Newton H. 
Custer, Isaac 
Cromer, David 
Coffelt, J. B. 
Carpenter, John 
Coffman, Geo. C. 
Dwyer, A. W. 
Devier, Giles 
Devier, Hiram K. 
Emswiller, Samuel 
Emswiller, W. T. 
Emswiller, J. T. 
Emswiller, Noah 
Fulk, John G. 

Fetzer, Cyrus 
Funk, Milton E. 
Funk, H. N. 
Funk, James 
Funk, William 
Funk, A. B. 
Grabill, C. 
Grabill, N. C. 
Good, Jacob 
Hollar, S. B. 
Helsley, W. G. 
Harris, John A. 
Hupp, C. T. 
Hulva, Jonathan 
Hulva, David 
Hulva, S. B. 
Hulva, Josiah 
Jones, Isaac 
Keyes, Eras. L. 
Lindamood, Sylvanus 
Lindamood, James 
Leedy, John 
Miller, Isaac 
Miller, John 
Miller, William 
Mlnnick, Wm. 
Minnick, Levi 
Messick, Wm. 
May, George 
Miller, George 
Mullen, Emanuel 



Mullen, S. F. 
Moore, George 
Moore, Samuel 
Moore, Joseph 
Neff, John H. 
Neff, Michael D. 
Phillips, J. M. 
Pennybacker, Isaac 
Pennybacker, B. N. 
Pennybacker, John 
Ritchie, Isaac 

Rader, Peter 
Rader, George 
Rader, J. S. 
Rader, C. S. 
Reedy, Isaac 
Ritchie, Solomon 
Swanson, Wm. 
Scott, J. C. 
Stickley, Daniel 
Showalter, Michael 
Simmers, John 

Sylvanus, Uriah ( ?) 
Turner, Jacob 
Thomas, John H. 
Toppln, Wm. 
Wean, B. J. 
West, John W. 
Will, Chas. B. 
Wood, Geo. M. 
Wean. Abram 
Wean, Jacob 
Zirkle, David P. 
Barglebaugh, John M. 


Brock, John P. 
Poage, George 
Pennybacker, Thos. J. 
Dovel, Jos. M. 
Newham, Samuel K. 


Yancey, Richard 
Rhodes, John H. 

Branner, Casper 
Sites, D. B. 
Bowman, S. S. 
Armentrout, B. F. 

Andes, John W. 
Argenbright. John 
Armentrout, Harrison 
Armentrout, B. John 
Baker, Joseph 
Baugher, P. H. 
Bazzle, A. W. 
Bear, Benjamin 
Billhimer, John H. 
Blakemore, Henry 
Bowman, Michael 
Bowman, Joseph 
Bradford, James 
Branner, James 
Brock, Chas. J. 
Brock, Michael 
Breen, James 
Carrier, Moses 
Carrier, Shelton H. 
Calhoun. Preston 
Cavanaugh, James 
Chapman, James 
Crawford, A. G. 
Cummings, Thos. 
Davis, Marion 
Dillard, Frank 
Drewry, William 
Barman, John W. 
Earman, David 
Flook, Harvey 
Pultz, John 
Fultz, J. K. 
Foley, Michael 

Frank, Wm. H. 
Frank, Isaac 
Faucett, George 
Garber. Jacob 
Graham, Thomas 
Grandle, Christley 
Grable, G. W. 
Handley, Perry 
Harrison, Robert 
Harrison, J. Polk 
Harrison, Tiff 
Hawkins, Wm. 
Henkle, L. P. 
Henkle, L. M. 
Henkle, J. C. 
Hinegardner, Jacob 
Higgs, Isaac 
Higgs, Jackson 
Henton, John M. 
Holsinger, D. C. 
Holsinger, Perry 
Homan. Herod 
Homan, S. J. C. 
Huffman, Madison 
Jennings, G. W. 
Johnson, E. A. 
Johnson, Montgomery 
Johnson, Wellington 
Koontz, R. F. 
Knupp, William 
Knupp, John A. 
Lambert, E. L. 
Lincoln, B. F. 
Long, Erasmus 
Loker, Thomas 
Loker, David 
Loker, Rash 
Lowman, James 
Martz, Michael 
Martz, H. C. 
Martz, D. G. 
Martz, Isaac C. 
Minnick, Edward 
Minnick, David 
Minni :k, Samuel 
M;r.ii:i k, Harvey 
Misener, Robert 
Moyers, Ambrose 
Mooney, Asbury 
Mooney, Robert 
Moore, David H. 

— From Col. 

Moore, R. W. 
Nelf, Chas. A- 
Neft", Michael 
O Conner, James 
O'Rr' ak, Branson 
O'Roark, Branson 
Pickering, D. H. 
'Pickering, Abraham 
Pickering, Daniel 
Rt^cdy, David 
llhiiU'-.s. Wilson A. 
Rhodes, J. N. 
Rhodes, J. M. 
Rhodes, Preston 
Roller, John 
Rosenberger, John W. 
Rosenberger, G. W. 
Ruffner, Robert 
Ruffner, Mark 
Reed, Abraham 
Sellers, Jacob S. 
Shank, George 
Shirkev, Samuel 
Shirkey, G. B. 
Silvius, Jo-seph 
Simmers, Jacob 
Sites, Wm. H. 
Sites, J. W. 
Simpson, James 
Stearn, J. 
Strickler, S. G. 
Strickler, John 
Stinebuck. Fred 
Stephens, Wm. Q. 
Summers, Jacob 
Summers, Michael 
Summers, John 
Thomas. Mark 
Thomas, John R. 
Tutwiler, Addison 
Varner, Jacob 
Voorhees, John S. 
Whissen. J. H. 
WTiite, Christley 
Wood, John D. 
Wood, Calvin 
Wetsel, Jack 
Whitmire, Louis 


Yates, Jackson 

D. H. Lee Martz' s rolls. 




Sipe, E., capt. 


Randolph. E. C. 
Simpson, A. 
Kratzer, Jos. W. 
Keller, John 
Horn, O. P. 


Huffman, J. W. 
Arehart, W. S. 
Garber, Daniel 
Arey, J. W. 
Holslnger, Martin 
Perry, Thos J. 
Altaffer, J. W. 


Baker, Jacob 
Brunk, A. D. 
Bowman, Solon M. 
Crawn, S. M. 

Altaffer, William 
Altaffer, Martin 
Alford, Robert 
Arehart, Nason 
Adams, Geo. W. 
Archer, C. R. 
Arehart, W. H. 
Arehart, Casper H. 
Baker, Isaac 
Baker, Samuel 
Brooks, John 
Brooks, Hez. 
Bateman, Elijah 
Bowman, David H. 
Bowman, J. M. 
Bowman, Socrates 
Bowman, John S. 
Bowman, Ephriam 
Bowman. Benj. T. 
Bowman, F. M. 

Bowman, Alpheus M. 
Bare, Daniel 
Bowman, Paul C. 
Bowman, Samuel 
Bright, John 
Cool, Littington 
Carpenter, W. H. 
Crawn, John S. 
Dundore, David 
Dinkle, Calvin 
Davis, David 
Dovel, Lucius 
Life, Jerry 
Fitch, Buck 
Frankum, Walker 
Fadely, Silvanus 
Fiankum, John 
Gowl, David 
Gowl, Peter 
GrandstafC, Branson 
Glovier, Madison 
Gilmer, J. H. 
Grove, W. H. 
Holsinger, John D. 
Holsinger, Samuel 
Holsinger, Noah 
Holsinger, Peter P. 
Holsinger, Abraham 
Holsinger, Silas J. 
Huffman, Jos. H. 
Hile, Samuel 
Hinegardner, Jacob 
Hawkins. W. H. 
Hawkins, Jacob 
Hidecker, William 
Jones, Adam 
Jamison, John W. 
Jennings, Dallas 
Keller, PhiUp 
Kelley, John 
Lackey, Robert 
Loker, Thomas 
Lairey, John 
Long, Conrad 
Ix)ng, Isaac 

— From Col. 

Dundore, Samuel 
Myers, E. P. 
Moore, John H. 
Moyerhoeffer, James 
Masters, John 
May, Josiah P. 
Miller, Jacob 
Norris, Patt 
Neff, Washington 
Orebaugh, W. A. 
Oakis, Dick 
Painter, Allen 
Painter, Romanus 
Painter, Uriah 
Phillips, Nathaniel 
Phillips, John 
Plecker, W. H. 
Ryman, Samuel A. 
Roller, Henry 
Roller, Emanuel 
Roller, Peter 
Rinker, Erasmus 
Ritchie, Polk 
Ritchie, George 
Ritchie. Joseph 
Rice, Bram 
Rogers, Joseph 
Strickler, B. F. 
Slusser, Samuel L. 
Slusser, William 
Saufley, William 
Sherman, D. W. 
Saufley, Joseph 
Showalter, Samuel 
Stone, James 
Silvius, Moses 
Spader, John 
Smith, Allen 
Trobaugh, Harrison 
Treaby, J. C. 
White, Milton 
Whitesell, Jacob 
Wine, J. M. 
Wine, William 

D. H. Lee Martz's rolls. 


(Chrisman's Boy Company.) 
(Mustered into service April 3, 1864.) 
George Chrisman, capt.; Wm. A. McCue, 1st It.; Harden A. Van Lear, 
2d It.; J. W. Showalter, 3d It.; Wm. Ed Kite, 1st ser.; Jas. Royer, 2d eer.; 
Can Ralston, 3d sen; Jac. Rush, 4th ser.; Daniel S. Harrison, 5th ser.; 
Joe A. Earman, 1st cor.; John G. Moore, 2d cor.; J. W. Neff, 3d cor.; W. 
Harvey Arehart, 4th cor. 

Altaffer, Jos. Bent, Geo. W. Flick, Silas 

Argabright, John M. Baker, Wm. Fridley, John 

Argabright, J. C. Carrier, R. M. Gowl, Adam G. 

Argabright, J. H. Cook, John R. Gentry, Benj. W. 

Arey, Sam Chandler, St. Clar. High, Grafton 

Blosser, J. H. Coffman. Isaac Hoover. Jno. 

Bowman, F. M. Cline, Daniel Hartman, Dav. 

Bowman, S. Q. Clatterbuck, Jos. Huffman, J. S. 

Bowman, B. F. Crider, Wm. Hilliard, Jas. C. 

Bontz, Geo. W. DilJard, Jas. D. Harner, J. N. 

Baker, Dan Dovel, Jno. Hinkle, Jacob 



Hoiland, Bliae 
Hahn, Geo. 
Hammer, Wm. H. 
Hook, Jno. C. 
Higgs, Jno. W. 
Hedrick, H. C. 
Hlnton, Jno. 
Koontz, Morgan 
Kyger, Jac. A. S. 
Liineweaver, Chas. 
Lineweaver, Wm. T. 
lieinon, Eli 
Wily, John H. 

Leap, J. Sam. 
Miller, J. F. 
May. Lewis 
Morris, C. S. 
Michael, R. D. 
Monger, Geo. W. 
Naylor, Geo. 
Rosenberger, H. J. 
Roller, W. H. 
Silvius, Uriah 
Sibert, J. M. 
Sellers, Jac. B. 
.Summers, J. W. 
Scott. Geo. 

— From Col. 

Meyerhoeffer, J. W. 
Showalter, W. P. 
Sowers, Jos. 
Spitzer, Cyrus 
Shifflet. W. H. 
Showalter, P. H. 
Shickle, J. C. 
Trobaugh, J. H. 
Wood, Wm. 
Wright, Wm. 
Weaver, Thos. 
Wise, J. H. 
Whitmore, J. B. 
Wine. J. H. 
D. H. Lee Martz's rolls, i 


(See also Pages 183-5 and 193-207, Above). 

(Note abbreviations, as key to addresses in subsequent lists.) 

Beldor (Bdr.)— J. L. Marshall 
Bridgewater (Bwr.) — J. A. Riddel 
Broadway (Bdy.) — Jas. Williams 
Concrete (Con.) — Mrs. Hattie Raines 
Cootes Store (CSt.) — Mrs. Ida Cootes 
Criders (Crd.)— Jos. Stultz 
Dale Enterprise (DEn.) — J. W. Minnich 
Daphna (Dph. ) — F. M. Stinespring 
Dayton (Dtn.) — J. W. Thompson 
Dovesville (Dvl.) — C. L. Souder 
Edom (Edm.) — C. H. Masters 
Elkton (Ekn.)— H. B. C. Gentry 
Fulks Run (FR.)— J. D. Custer 
Furnace (Fur.) — Ida B. Smith 
Genoa (Gen.) — A. D. Breneman 
Goods Mill (GdM.)— Not a P. O. 
Greenmount (Gmt.) — Not a P. O. 
Grottoes (Grt.) — Bessie R. Fulton 
Harrisonburg (Hbg.) — W. L. Dechert 
Hinton (Htn.) — L. O. Moubray 
Island Ford (IF.)— C. J. Kite 
Keezletown (Kzn.) — Cora White 
Lacey Spring (LSp..) — L. C. Neff 
Linville Depot (LD.) — Levi Rhodes 
Lynnwood (Lwd. ) — John F. Lewis (?) 
McGaheysville (MGl.)— W. R. Bader 
Mt. Clinton (MCI.)— W. F. Mvers 
Mt. Crawford (MCr.)— E. H. Sherman 
North River (NR.)— E. F. Rhodes 
Palos (Pal.)— S. E. Hoover 
Penn Laird (PLd.) — C. S. Earman 
Port Republic (PRp.)— C. H. Palmer 
Rawley Springs (RS.)— 
Rockingham (Rkm.) — T. J. Johnson 
Singers Glen (SGI.)— J. R. Baer 
Spring Creek (SpC.)— N. A. Spitler 
Swift Run (SwR.)— J. E. F. Hughes 
Tlmberville (Tvl.) — Virginia Driver 
Yancey (Yan.) — Ashby Wyant 

3. For copying rolls and for giving assistance in various capacities In 
the collection of materials for this book, acknowledgment is gratefully 
made to Mies Ella C. Heatwole, of Mt. Clinton. 





Cook, Geo. F., Hbg. 
Davis, E. C, SGI. 

Hubbard, W. J., Bdy. 
Taylor. C. E.. Bdy. 

Garber, W. A., Dtn. 


Andes, A. W., Hbg. 
Dofflemyre, J. W., Ekn. 
Lassiter, L. L., Bdy. 

Moore, H. C, Hbg. 
Truitt, H. E., Ekn. 
Williamson, R. L., Hbg. 


Bixler, E. C, Bwr. 
Bowman, J. H., Hbg. 
Bowman, S. I., Hbg. 
Bowman, S. L., Bwr. 
Brady, Geo. W., FR. 
Cline, M. J., Dtn. 
Coffman, J. B., Dtn. 
CofEman, J. M., Bwr. 
Conner, W. K., Hbg. 
Dove, Addison, Dvl. 
Dove, Geo. L., Dvl. 
Driver, J. F., Tvl. 
Flory, John S., Bwr. 
Fulk, G. H., Genoa 
Garber, Jacob A., Hbg. 
Garber, P. I., Hbg. 
Glick, Jacob D., Dtn. 
Hays, Daniel, Bdy. 
Hoover, W. C, Tvl. 
Kagey, Jos. M., Dtn. 
Kline, J. H., Bdy. 
Landes, B. S., Hbg. 
Lantz, J. W., Criders. 
Long, C. E., PLd. 
Long, Emanuel, Bwr. 

Ellis, J. R., Yancey. 

Conder, I., MGl. 
Folk, E. L., Hbg. 

McCann, S. N., Bwr. 
Miller, Benj., Hbg. 
Miller, B. B., Gmt. 
Miller, H. G., Bwr. 
Miller, Wm. I., SGI. 
Miller, J. C, Tvl. 
Miller, L. S., Hbg. 
Miller, M. B., SpC. 
Miller, O. S., Bwr. 
Movers, Henry, Dvl. 
Myers, I. C, Gmt. 
Nair, C. E., Bdy. 
Pence, Joseph, PRp. 
Pence, Samuel, NR. 
Petry, Samuel, PRp. 
Roller, J. S., Tvl. 
Ronk, Chas., Bwr. 
Thomas, A. S., Bwr. 
Thomas, P. S., Hbg. 
Turner, D., Genoa. 
Wampler, Jos. W., Hbg. 
Zigler, D. H.. Bdy. 
Zigler, I. N., Bdy. 
Zlgler, S. D., Hbg. 


Minor, G. C, Hbg. 


Jack.son, .J. L., Hbg. 


Schvanenfeld, J., Hbg. 


Hausenfluck, J. W., NR. 
Shuey, Geo. E., Dtn. 


Burkholder, A. B., Hbg. 
Coffman, J. W., Dtn. 
Geil, J. W., Bdy. 
Good, Christian. Hbg. 
Heatwole. Amos, Dtn. 
Heatwole, L. J. (Bp.), DEn. 
Heatwole, M. J., Dtn. 
Heatwole, P. S., DEn. 
Heishman, A. S., Bdy. 


Heatwole, Emanuel, Dtn. 
Heatwole, G. D., Dtn. 

Martin, J. S., Dtn. 
Rhodes, S. H., Hbg. 
Shank, Joseph, Bdy. 
Shank, Lewis (Bp.),Bdy. 
Shank, P. E., Bdy. 
Showalter, George, Bdy. 
Suter, J. E., Hbg. 
Weaver, S. S., MCI. 

Heatwole, Simeon (Bp.), Dtn. 
Wenger. J. D. (Bp.), Dtn. 




Burch, Thos. A., PRp. 
Potter, C. L., MCr. 
Richardson, G. W., Kzn. 

Borthwick, H. R., Bwr. 
Williams, L. McC, Bdy. 

Garrison, J. S., Hbg. 
Lerch, C. D., MCr. 

Sherman, H. H., Hbg. 
Tabler, M. T., Ekn. 
Thrasher, J. C, Bwr. 


Wilson, B. F., Hbg. 
Young, H. A., MCI. 


Stonesifer, J. B., MCr. 


Brunk, J. H., Hbg. 
Dyche, C. P., Rkm. 
Funkhouser, A. P., Hbg. 
Hammack, A. S., Dtn. 
Hoenshel, E. U., Dtn. 
Hott, Geo. P., Dtn. 


McMullen, E. W., Dtn. 
Rau, W. S., Ekn. 
Sampsell, W. H., LSp. 
Secrist, A. J., Dtn. 
Skelton, S. D., Htn. 

Alfred, R. H., Dtn. 
Armstrong, Howard, Edm. 
Biedler, J. M., Hbg. 
Beydler, B. H., Bwr. 
Brewer, S. W., SGI. 
Byers, A. C, Hbg. 
Conger, C. E., Rkm. 
Conrad, Charles, Hbg. 
Davis, E. D., Hbg. 
Dunsford, J. C, Bdy. 
Deyerle, J. H., Hbg. 
Fahrney, W. E., Tvl. 
Firebaugh, T. C, Hbg. 
Fultz, G. S., Bdy. 
Geil, D. P., Bdv. 
Gilmer, H. D., Ekn. 
Gordon, W. A., Ekn. 
Graves, A. W., LSp. 
Hall, E. G., est. 
Hammer, L. A., MGl. 

Holler, G. F., Dtn. 
Jones, T. O., Hbg. 
Kemper, A. S., PRp. 
Klinger, J. M., Hbg. 
Koontz, W. W. SpC. 
Lewis, Lunsford, Ekn. 
Lincoln, J. E., LSp. 
Marshall, J. L., Htn. 
Miller, E. R., Hbg. 
Miller, F. J., GdM. 
Miller, J. D., Bwr. 
Painter, R., Dtn. 
Ralston, C. H., MCI. 
Smith, Edward, MCr. 
Turner, Ashby, Hbg. 
Vaughan, W. A., Tvl. 
Weaver, Z. L., Ekn. 
Wissler, W. F., Grt. 
Wright, J. F., Kzn. 
Yancey, L. B., MGl. 

Baugher, W. L., Hbg. 
Bucher, J. D., Bwr. 
Dodd, R. A., Bdy. 
Fahrney, W. B., Tvl. 
Gamblll, J. R., Hbg. 
Garrison, E. C, Dtn. 
Kale, Z. T., Ekn. 

Bell, F. G., Bwr. 
Bowers, B. B., Tvl. 
Myers, John A., Hbg. 


Lineweaver, W. T., Hbg. 
Nicholas, C. E., Hbg. 
Pennington, R. B., Ekn. 
Sprinkel, C. C, Hbg. 
Strickler, R. E. L., Bwr. 
Switzer, M. D., Hbg. 
Switzer, R. S., Hbg. 


Will, E. J., Hbg. 
Williams, G. E., Hbg. 
Wittig, H. J., Dvl. 


Bertram, H. W., Hbg. 
Blackburn, J. F., Hbg. 
Conrad, Ed. S., Hbg. 
Conrad, Geo. N., Hbg. 
Conrad, Laird L., Hbg. 
Crawford, E. B., Hbg. 
Dechert, D. O., Hbg. 
Downing, John H., Hbg. 
Barman, D. W., Hbg. 

Grattan, Geo. G., Sr. 
Grattan, Geo. G., Jr., 
Haas, T. N. (Judge), 
Hammer, Chas. A., 
Harnsberger, Geo. S., 
Harris, John T., Hbg, 
Harrison, Chas. D., 
Keezell, Walter G., 
Martz, Ed. C, Hbg. 

, Hbg. 






Ott B. D., Hb&. Stephenson, Jas. B., Hbg. 

Paul. John, Hbg. Strickler, H. M., Hbg. 

Roller, John E.. Hbg. Swank, Ward, Hbg. 

Sipe, Geo. E., Hbg. Switzer, J. Robert, Hbg. 

Winfield, Chas. R., Bdy. 
Special Note: — With much labor and no little expense, the author k&8 
collected data for extending this dlrectoiT much further, but the size of *e 
book has already exceeded, by a number of pages, the limits assigned. 


A List of Books, Magazines, and Newspapers Containing Informatio« 
Concerning Rockingham County and Rockingham People. 

Armstrong, J. E. : Old Baltimore Conference; 12mo, 543 pp.; Baiti- 
more, 1907. 

Asbury, Francis: Journal; 3 Svo vols.; N. Bangs and T. Mason, New 
York, 1821. 

Acts of Assembly of Virginia; contain much valuable material relat- 
ing to Rockingham County. 

Boogher, W. F.: Gleanings of Virginia History; Svo, 450 pp.; Wash- 
ington, 1903. 

Braun, Johannes: Circular Schreiben; 16mo, 419 pp.; Harrisonburg, 

Broadway: Prospectus of Improvement Company; Svo, 18 pp.; pub- 
lished about 1890. 

Burkholder, Peter: Treatise on Baptism, etc.; 16mo. 60 pp.; written 
1815, tianslated 1881; printed by Abraham Blosser, Dale Enterprise. Con- 
tains sketch of Burkholder family. 

Burnaby, Andrew: Travels through North America; Svo, 265 pp.; A. 
Wessels Co., N. T., 1904. 

Cartmell, T. K. : Shenandoah Valley Pioneers; 4to, 594 pp.; Winches- 
ter, 1909. 

Census: Heads of Families, 1790; 4to, 189 pp.; Govt. Printing Offlce, 
Washington, 1908. 

Custer, Milo: Alexander Miller and Descendants; Svo, 36 pp.; Blooia- 
ington. 111., 1910. 

Daily News: Rockingham County, Its Past and Present; 4to. 52 pp.; 
Harrisonburg, 1909. 

Denton, Benjamin: The Separate Arminian Union Church; 32mo, 5S 
pp.; printed by Jos. Funk & Sons, 1849. 

Dingledine, W. J.: Harrisonburg and Rockingham County; 24 pp.: 
Harrisonburg, 1911. 

Eckenrode, H. J.: Revolutionary Soldiers of Virginia; Svo, 488 pp.; 
Richmond, 1912. 

Evening News: Harrisonburg and Rockingham County; 16mo, 24 pp.; 
Harrisonburg, 1900. 

Foote, W. H.: Sketches of Virginia; Svo, 610 pp.; J. B. Lippineott, 
Philadelphia, 1856. 

Fretz, A. J.: Funk Family History; 12mo, 874 pp.; Mennonite Pub. Co., 
Elkhart, Ind., 1899. 

Funk, Benjamin: Life of John Kline; Svo, 480 pp.; Brethren Pub. House, 
Elgin, 111., 1900. 

Funkhouser, Jacob: Funkhouser Family History; Svo, 100 pp.; Har- 
risonburg, 1902. 

Gilmer, Geo. Rockingham: Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of 
Upper Georgia; Svo, 587 pp.; D. Appleton & Co., N. Y., 1855. Tells of Gll- 
mers, Grattans, Lewises, and other Rockingham families. 

Hale, J. P.: Trans- Allegheny Pioneers; 12mo, 330 pp.; Charleston, W. 
Va., 1886. 

Hardesty, H. H. : Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia; Rocking- 
ham edition; 4to, 430 pp.; Richmond, etc., 1884. 

Harris, John T. : John Paul, 1839-1901; Svo, 10 pp.; Harrisonburg, abont 

Hartzler and Kauffman: Mennonite Church History; Svo, 428 pp.; 
Scottdale. Pa., 1905. 



Hays and Sanger: The Olive Branch: 12nio. 243 pp.; Brethren Pub. 

^*'"Hayf^H4ber"M^^^" German Dialect in the Valley of Virginia; 8vo. 16 
pp.; from Dialect Notes, Middletown, Conn 1908. 

Heatwole, Cornelius J.: Heatwole Family History; 8vo, 274 pp., Har- 

*" ^°Heat^'0le. ' David A.: Heatwole Family History; 16mo, 24 pp.; Dale 
Enterprise, 1882. ^ , * ^r. ■ i o 

Heatwole, Brunk and Good: Mennonite Conference of Virginia; 8vo, 
117 pp.; Mennonite Piib. House, Scottdale. Pa., 1910. 

Hening, W. W. : Statutes at Large, of Virginia; 16 8vo vols.; Rich- 
mond. Rich sources for county history. o ^ o o^= 

Henkel, Socrates: History of Lutheran Tennessee Synod; 8vo, 275 
pp.; New Market, Va., 1890. 

Hoenshel, G. W.: X-Talks and Other Addresses; 16mo, 149 pp.; New 
Market Va., 1900. Contains matter of local and personal interest. 

Holsinger, H. R. : History of Tunkers and Brethren; 8vo, 826 pp.; Lath- 

'^°^' Hopkins and Harrison: A Chapter of Hopkins Genealogy, 1735-1905; 

8vo, 396 pp.; Lakeside Press, Chicago, 1905. 

Howe, Henry: Historical Collections of Virginia; 8vo, 544 pp.; Char- 
Huddle W. P.: Hebron Lutheran Church; Svo, 126 pp.; Henkel & Co., 

New Market, Va., 1908. ^ . ^ .,„ ^rc m^oi^ 

Hull Susan R.: Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy; 12mo, 256 pp., Neale 

Pub. Co.. N. Y., about 1910. Contains sketches of some Valley of Virginia 

^ Johnston, F.: Virginia Clerks; 12mo, 425 pp.; J. P. Bell Co., Lynch- 
burg, 1888. Pages 344-354 relate to Rockingham. 

Jones, Calvin: W^ier's Cave, with map; 7 pp.; published in Johnson & 
Warner's Va. Almanac for 1816. . 

Keagy, Franklin: Kagey Family History; 8vo, 6.5 pp.; Harnsburg. 
Pa 1899 ' 

"Kemper and Wright: Kemper Family History; Svo, 267 pp.; G. K. 
Hazlitt & Co., Chicago, 1899. ^^„ ^^ ^ 

Kercheval, Samuel: History of Valley of Virginia; Svo, 403 pp.; 3d ed. ; 
J. H. Grabill, Woodstock, Va., 1902. 

Koiner: Koiner Family History; Svo. 171 pp.; Staunton, Va.. 1893. 

Lake, D. J.: Rockingham County Atlas; folio, 72 pp.; Philadelphia, 1885. 
Copy loaned by Mrs. David Driver, Timberville. „ ^ 

Lederer, John: Journal and Map; Svo, 30 pp.; G. P. Humphrey. 
Rochester, N. Y.. 1902. „ „^^ ^t , t^ .. 

Long, Chas. M.: Virginia County Names; 12mo, 208 pp.; Neale Pub. 
Co., N. Y.. 1908. . ,„„„ 

McDonald. W. N. : The Laurel Brigade; Svo, 499 pp.; Baltimore, 1907. 

Martin, Joseph: Gazetteer of Virginia. 1835; Svo. 636 pp.; Charlottes- 
ville, Va. Pages 432-434 relate to Rockingham. 

Maury, Ann: Memoirs of a Huguenot Family; 12mo, 512 pp.; G. P. 
Putnam & Sons, N. Y.. 1872. Pages 245-310 contain Fontaine's journal 
covering Spotswood expedition. ^ .,. « loa . tt^- 

Mauzy, Richard: Mauzy and Kishng Famihes; Svo. 127 pp., Har- 
risonburg, 1911. , „ ... „ - , 

Meade, William: Old Churches, Ministers, and Families; 2 Svo vols.; 
Philadelphia, 1872. _ „, „ „ 

Morton, O. F. : History of Pendleton County. W. Va.; Svo. 500 pp.; 
printed by Ruebush-Elkins Co., Dayton, 1910. 

Morton, O. F. : History of Highland County. Va. ; Svo. 419 pp.; Monterey, 
Va 1911 

"NelT, 'John H.: Typhoid Fever as Met With In Harrisonburg and Vici- 
nity; in Transactions of Med. Soc. of Va.. 1893. „ _ .^ 
Newcomer, Christian: Life and Journal; 16mo, 330 pp.; F. G. W. 
Kopp, Hagerstown, 1834. 

O'Ferrall, C. T.: Forty Years of Active Service; Svo, 367 pp.; Neale 
Pub. Co., N. Y., 1904. 

Painter, F. V. N.: Poets of Virginia; l2mo. 336 pp.; B. F. Johnson 
Pub. Co., Richmond, 1907. 

Paul, John: Address at Cornerstone-Laying, Rockingham Courthouse, 
1896; Svo, 19 pp.; Harrisonburg. 

Peyton, J. L. : History of Augusta County; Svo, 402 pp.; S. M. Yost 
A Son, Staunton, 1882. 

Roller, John E. : Michael Schlatter Memorial Address; Svo, 24 pp.; 



Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa., 1900. 

Ruffner, W. H. : The Waterman Lands; 16mo, 35 pp.; Harrisonburg, 

Scott, W. W. : History of Orange County; 8vo, 292 pp.; Richmond, 1907, 

Semple, R. B. : History of Baptists in Virginia; 8vo, 454 pp.; Richmond, 

Shuey. D. B. : Shuey Family History; 12mo, 279 pp.; Lancaster, Pa.. 

Smith, C. H. : Mennonites of America; 8vo, 484 pp.; Scottdale, Pa., 1909. 

Spencer, A. C. : Geology of the Massanutten Mountain; 8vo, 54 pp.; 
Washington, 1897. 

Thwaites and Kellogg: Dunmore's War; 12mo, 500 pp.; Madison. Wis.. 

Travis, Joseph: Autobiography; 12mo, 238 pp.; Nashville, 1856. Tells 
of great revival in Harrisonburg, 1802. 

Turner, F. M.: Life of John Sevier; 12mo, 226 pp.; Neale Pub. Co.. 
N. Y., 1910. 

Waddell, J. A.: Annals of Augusta; 4to, 545 pp.; Staunton, Va., 1902. 

Waddell, J. A.: Scotch-Irish of the Valley of Virginia; pp. 79-99, Pro- 
ceedings of 7th Congress of Scotch-Irish Society. 

Wayland, J. W.: German Element of the Valley of Virginia; 8vo, 272 
pp.; 1907. 

Wayland, J. W. : Sidney Lanier at Rockingham Springs; 8vo, 54 pp.; 
Ruebush-Blkins Co., Dayton, 1912. 

Wayland, J. W. : Joseph Funk, Father of Song in Northern Virginia; 
4to, 12 pp.; Ruebush-Elkins Co., Dayton, 1912. 

Wayland and Garber: Bridge water College, Past and Present; 8vo, 
298 pp.; 1905. 

Webster, Richard: Presbyterian Church in America; 8vo, 720 pp.; 
Philadelphia, 1857. 

Weekley and Fout: Our Heroes, Vol. II; Otterbein Press, Dayton, Ohio, 

Wenger. Jonas: Wenger Family History; 12mo, 259 pp. ;Elkhart, Ind.. 

Wenger, J. H. : Descendants of Abraham Beery; 12mo, 328 pp.; South 
English, Iowa, 1905. 

Wenger, J. H. : Descendants of Nicholas Beery; 12mo, 496 pp.; South 
English, Iowa, 1911. 

Wilson, B. F. : Historical Year Book, 1911-12, Harrisonburg Presbyter- 
Ian Church; 34 pp. 

Wilton, Dwyer, and Conrad: History of Rockingham Union Lodge, 
A. F. & A. M. ; 8vo, 46 pp.; Harrisonburg, 1889. 

Woods, Edgar: History of Albermarle County; 8vo, 412 pp.; Char- 
lottesville, Va., 1901. 

Zigler, D. H. : Brethren in Virginia; 12mo, 278 pp.; Brethren Pub. 
House, Elgin, 111., 1908. 

B. Articles in Newspapers and Magazines. 

American Motorist, March, 1912: The Grottoes of the Shenandoah, by 
J. S. Grasty. 

Baltimore Sun, Feb. 13, 1909: The Lincolns of Virginia. 
Blue and Gray, May, 1894: The First Provost-Marshal of Harrisonburg, 
by C. W. Boyce. 

Bridgewater Herald, Nov. 29, 1895: Some Valley History. 

Sept. 27. 1901: Col. E. Sipe obituary. 
Century Magazine, June, 1885: Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah, 
by J. D. Imboden. 

March, 1887: Lincoln's Ancestors in Virginia, by J. T. Harris. 
Gospel Messenger (Elgin, 111.), Nov. 30, 1907: Ministers of Long Ago, 
by Daniel Hays. 

Mar. 14, 1908: Sketch of the Klein Family, by Daniel Hays. 
Dec. 25, 1909: W. C. Thurman in the Shenandoah Valley, by J. H. 
Harrisonburg Dally News, June 20, 1903: J. W. Howe obituary. 
July 10, 1903: First County Court. 
July 13, 1903: First Murder Case. 
April 6, 11, 22, 24, 1907: Valley Soldiers in French and Indian War, 

by J. W. Wayland. 
April 23. 1908: Famous Old Music Book, by D. Hays. 



April 16, 1909: Normal School Cornerstone Laying. 

May 8, 1909: Sketches of Rockingham, Harrisonburg, Normal 
School, etc. 

May 22, 1909: History of Timberville. 

Dec. 1 (?), 1909: Elkton Methodist Church. 

Jan. 8, 1910: J. S. Messerley obituary. 

Jan. 12, 1910: Harrisonburg Church Statistics. 

March 23, 1910: The Miller Family, by Milo Custer. 

April 2, 4, 5, 6, 1910: The Old Church on the Hill, by James Kenney. 

Aug. 21. 1911: Meyerhoeffer Family Reunion. 

Oct. 3, 1911: Harrisonburg Methodist Church, by H. H. Sherman. 

Mar. 7, 1912: Roller Military Records. 

Oct. 29, 1912: Kiracofe Family Reunion. 
^ Harrisonburg Daily Times, Aug. 6, 1907: The Germans in the Valley, 
by D. S. Lewis. 

Jan. 12, 1910: Harrisonburg Church Statistics. 

Sept. 29, 1911: J. H. Ralston obituary. 

June 3, 1912: New Church at New Erection. 
Harrisonburg Free Press, Feb. 14, 1900: The Germans in Rockingham 
and the Valley, by C. E. Kemper. 

May 23 to July 27, 1900: History of Rockingham County, by J. H. 

May 28, 1904: Day-Break on the Massanutten. by J. A. M., in 
the Richmond News-Leader. 

June 4, July 2, 1904: Harrisonburg War History, by Mrs. Emma 
Lyon Bryan. 

wioJ!^"^'^^' u''\°x9-^,*^r, (Singer's Glen), August, Sept., Oct., Nov., 1868: 
vvishtaneta, by Will S. Rohr. 

Musical Million (Dayton, Va.), August, 1908: Aldine S. Kieffer and 
His Work, by W. T. Myers. 

/^■w August, 1911: The Ruebush-Kieffer Co., by O. F. Morton. 
Old Commonwealth (Harrisonburg), Feb. 13, 1867: Battle of Port-Re- 
public, by John Esten Cooke, from Old Guard. 

Dec. 23, 1868: Completion of the M. G. Railroad. 

Jan. 12, 1870: East Rockingham. 

April 13, 1870: Fine Rockingham Stock. 

Oct. 5, 12, 1870: The Great Flood. 

Dec. 28, 1870: Big Christmas Fire. 

May 2 1872: Re-Division of County into Townships. 

^^y 29, 1873: The Great Valley of Virginia, reprinted from 

btaunton Spectator. 
April 22, 1875: Dora Coal Fields. 
Aug. 23, 1877: Yellow Massanutten Springs. 
Nov. 29, 1877: The Flood of 1877. 
rtij rv®®^^' 2^' '^^^^'- Union Veterans in Harrisonburg. 
Cree°k','b?°L '"j'°Heatwole'''^'''^"' ^^•^' N^^'^"^*'^''' 1^06: Legend of Cook's 

ChuPch: by^'f D. WomSgen'^""^^' ^^''' '''''■ ^''"'''' °' ^'"^^'^ "^'^^^^^^ 

T,.ti?"'* Church Paper (New Market, Va.), August 27, 1902: 82d Annual 

Lutheran Tennessee Synod at Rader's Church ^unudi 

Outing Magazine, April, 1908: Nolichucky Jack, by L. T. Sprague 

Page News (Lu ray, Va.), Dec. 13, 1907: Milnes and the Flood of 1870 

'^"^i-2^,•n.^*^?^ h ?' 1^' 22. 1911: Diary of John W. Mauck, Co. 
K, 10th Va. Inf. 

c„„''*k""?®J"'"?!1'^, ^^*"^^' ^a>' October, 1911: Joseph Funk, Father of 
bong, by John W. Wavland. 

lr,H,^J'Ji^'^^^J'^^[^r^^'^u'^'"'^^ Museum, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1808: The Rockingham 
Influenza of 1807, by Peachey Harrison. 

Philomathean Monthly (Bridge water), Jan.. 1912: Origin of the Mas- 
sanutten Mountain, by H. N. Click. 

Presbyterian Journal (Philadelphia), June, Sept., Dec, 1903: First Ger- 
man Reformed Colony in Virginia, by W. J. Hinke 

%, ^^^^J'^'^^^o ^i^'"!,'i' (Richmond), August 15, 1912: Baptists of Rocking- 
nam, oy c o. jjodu. 

Richmond Dispatch, July 22. 1900: The Barn-Burners, by N. M. Burk- 
pj^^R'chmond Times- Dispatch, July 2, 1911: A Home Institution, by J. S.